All Hot News Popular Media
Worlds Revealed: Geography & Maps at the Library of Congress Blog, Library «Loc.gov» USA

Wed, 09 May 2018 20:29:32 +0000
Maps of Seoul, South Korea Under Japanese Occupation
The following post is by Ryan Moore, a cartographic specialist in the Geography and Map Division. Cartographic depictions of Seoul, the present-day capital of South Korea, during the time of the Japanese occupation of Korea are not often seen and the surviving artifacts a bit rare. The period of Japanese influence and control over Korea […]

This is part of a series of posts from Ed Redmond, Cartographic Specialist in the Library of Congress, Geography and Map Division, documenting the cartographic history of maps related to the American Civil War, 1861-1865. The posts will appear on a regular basis.

One of the grand Union strategies of the Civil War came to be known as the “Peninsula Campaign,” an ultimately failed attempt to capture Richmond, Virginia, the Confederate capital, by landing troops at Fortress Monroe in March 1862 and attacking northwest up the peninsula formed by the James and York Rivers.

Under the command of Major General George B. McClellan, the Union’s Army of the Potomac made slow progress up the peninsula, in large part due to McClellan’s extreme cautiousness in engaging his troops in battle against Confederate forces led by General Joseph E. Johnston. For most of April 1862, Union troops laid siege to Yorktown, as depicted in the C.H. Worret panoramic map shown below. The view presents the embattled city of Yorktown with more than 23 Union troop and artillery positions firing on the walled fortress.

Panoramic view of siege of riverside fort.

“The siege of Yorktown, April 1862,” C.H. Worrett, c1862. Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress.

Confederate forces finally evacuated Yorktown and the siege concluded on May 5, 1862, when McClellan’s and Johnston’s forces entered into pitched battle at Williamsburg. Miles D. McAlester, chief engineer of the Army of the Potomac’s III Corps, drew the below sketch of Union and Confederate positions at Williamsburg. The map shown here was published in 1872 by the office of the Chief of Engineers of the U.S. Army as part of post-war reports documenting the conflict. As for the battle itself, the Union army incurred more casualties than the Confederates (2,283 soldiers killed to the Confederates’ 1,682), but Johnston’s forces were again forced to retreat further west.

Map of Union and Confederate positions at Battle of Williamsburg, including forest and roads.

“Sketch of the battlefield and Confederate works in front of Williamsburg, Va., May 5th 1862” by Lt. Miles D. McAlester, Chief Engineer 3rd Corps, Army of the Potomac, 1862. Published 1872, U.S. Army. Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress.

Despite McClellan claiming victory at Williamsburg, the battle’s ultimate impact was in delaying the Union march and allowing Confederate forces to firm up defenses of Richmond. In early May, the Battle of Eltham’s Landing proved inconclusive and the Union Navy was outright repelled at Drewry’s Bluff, where a naval assault on Fort Darling along the James River was attempted. The stereograph, below, of a Columbiad gun in Fort Darling was taken at some point during the war and published in the 1880s as part of The War for the Union, Photographic War History, 1861-1865, a photography collection. Titled “One Reason why we did not go to Richmond,” the stereograph offers a telling account of the difficult fighting of the Peninsula Campaign from the Union perspective. On the back of the stereograph is the following description, which includes references to Confederate generals:

There were many reasons why we did not go to Richmond as soon as we expected to. This is one of the reasons; there were lots of just reasons as this all along up the James River. This is one of the many guns which the Rebels had in Fort Darling, which commanded the river approaches for a long distance. The Rebels used to shout across to our pickets, that before we could get to Richmond we had a LONGSTREET to travel, a big HILL to climb, and a STONEWALL to get over; but we “got there just the same.”

Stereograph of cannon facing James River

“One reason why we did not go to Richmond,” published by the War Photograph & Exhibition Co. in The war for the union, 1861-1865 photographic history c1880s. Prints and Photographs Division, Library of Congress.

By late May, Union forces were gradually approaching Richmond on the peninsula, but in failing to take full advantage of Confederate retreats, the campaign would soon turn in the Rebels’ favor. The events of the second half of the Peninsula Campaign, covered in our next post in this series, would have significant impacts on the course and duration of the war.


Wed, 02 May 2018 17:05:34 +0000
Places in Civil War History: Maps of the Peninsula Campaign, Part 1
This is part of a series of posts from Ed Redmond, Cartographic Specialist in the Library of Congress, Geography and Map Division, documenting the cartographic history of maps related to the American Civil War, 1861-1865. The posts will appear on a regular basis. One of the grand Union strategies of the Civil War came to […]

The Library of Congress staff is excited to launch Story Maps, interactive and immersive web applications that tell the incredible stories of the Library’s collections!

Story Maps, created within a Geographic Information Systems (GIS)-based software platform created by Esri, combine text, images, multimedia, and interactive maps to create engaging online narrative experiences. Under a program spearheaded by the Geography and Map Division, collection specialists from across the Library have produced Story Maps with content from the hidden and not-so-hidden collections of the library. We are pleased to showcase the first three published Story Maps from this program, with many more to come!

You can find all Library of Congress Story Maps at loc.gov/storymaps.

Surveying the South
Kristi Finefield, Prints & Photographs Division

Frances Benjamin Johnston (1864-1952) is often considered the first American woman to achieve national prominence in diverse areas of photography, from portraiture and photojournalism to documentary work. Beginning in the late 1920s, Johnston embarked upon what would later be known as the Carnegie Survey of the Architecture of the South, an ambitious photography tour of the American South, taking more than 7,000 photographs of buildings and gardens in both urban and rural settings.

Quote from Frances Benjamin Johnston over photo of crumbling building.

Screenshot of excerpt from “Surveying the South” Story Map by Kristi Finefield, Prints and Photographs Division, 2018. Photo is “Belle Grove, rear, White Castle vic., Iberville Parish, Louisiana” by Frances Benjamin Johnston, 1938. Prints and Photographs Division, Library of Congress.

Kristi Finefield, reference librarian in the Prints & Photographs Division, tells Johnston’s story, beginning with the roots of the Carnegie Survey in Johnston’s photographs of the majestic Chatham estate outside of Fredericksburg, Virginia (along with the hand-painted glass lantern slides of her photos there). Johnston’s vibrant photos take center stage, with dozens of examples of her work on display, documenting different building types, from farmhouses to churches, as well as specific interior and exterior features such as balconies, brickwork, and fireplaces, with an interactive map showing the locations of the more than 7,000 photographs in the Carnegie Survey of the Architecture of the South, allowing users to explore this incredible collection geographically.

Screenshot of web map of photo locations in Mid-Atlantic with Richmond selected and pop-up window visible.

Screenshot of interactive map from “Surveying the South” Story Map by Kristi Finefield, Prints and Photographs Division, 2018.

INCUNABULA
Stephanie Stillo, Rare Books & Special Collections Division

It is difficult to overstate the impact of Johannes Gutenberg’s world-changing 1455 invention: the printing press. This new technology of “artificial writing” spread across Europe and generated a massive boom in printing productivity, with 10 million books produced in the second half of the 15th century. Calling attention to this early moment in the history of the printed codex, historians refer to books printed between 1455 and 1501 as “incunabula,” Latin for “in the cradle.” From biblical texts and fables to natural histories and illustrated epics, the publications of this time period, besides being visually stunning, reached a wide audience, covering topics of religion, science, culture, commerce, and more.

Quote on block book market over image from The Apocalypse of St. John

Excerpt from “Incunabula” Story Map by Stephanie Stillo, Rare Books and Special Collections Division, 2018. Image of “Apocalypsis Sancti Johannis,” c.1470, pg. 16. Rare Books and Special Collections Division, Library of Congress.

Stephanie Stillo, Curator of the Lessing J. Rosenwald Collection in the Rare Books & Special Collections Division, explores the Library of Congress’ collection of incunabula in her Story Map, beginning with an interactive map of major incunabula publishing cities across Europe. In covering early printing methods in China and Europe, as well as pre-1450 European manuscripts, Stillo sets the stage for the publishing boom kicked off by Gutenberg and his printed Bible. Stillo dives into xylographic printing, coloring and binding, with a particular focus on Apocalypsis Sancti Johannis, one of the most popular block books of the era. The Story Map also showcases beautiful incunabula published in, what is today, Germany, Italy, France, Netherlands, Belgium, Spain, and England.

Map of incunabula publishing sites in Europe denoted by red circles proportionally sized by number of incunabula published.

Screenshot of interactive map from “Incunabula” Story Map by Stephanie Stillo, Rare Books and Special Collections Division, 2018.

Behind Barbed Wire
Heather Thomas and Chris Ehrman, Serial & Government Publications Division

After the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor in 1941 and until the end of World War II, nearly 120,000 Japanese Americans were uprooted from their homes and forcibly relocated to assembly centers and internment camps, mostly across the American West. Triggered by Executive Order 9066, which claimed this forced relocation was in the interest of national security during wartime, this massive relocation brought Japanese American families to desolate camp sites, from Manzanar at the base of the Sierra Nevada Mountains to Granada on the eastern Colorado plains and Rowher in rural Arkansas. Living under harsh conditions and largely isolated from the outside world, interned Japanese Americans documented their experiences of life in the internment camps through newspapers. The Library of Congress’ collection of internment camp newspapers includes 4,600 English and Japanese language issues published in 13 camps.

Quote about sports in Japanese-American interment camps with photograph of baseball game.

Excerpt from “Behind Barbed Wire” Story Map by Heather Thomas and Chris Ehrman, Serials and Government Publications Division. Photo is “Baseball game, Manzanar Relocation Center, Calif” by Ansel Adams, 1943. Prints and Photographs Division, Library of Congress.

Heather Thomas and Chris Ehrman, reference librarian and digital conversion specialist, respectively, in the Serial & Government Publications Division, explore these Japanese-American camp newspapers that serve to “chronicle the stories and experiences of their community in a time of crisis.” Four interactive maps convey the vast scale of the Japanese American internment and provide a point of entry for exploring the newspaper collection. As described in the Story Map, the newspapers covered camp sporting events, advertised religious and school events, recorded vital statistics (like births and deaths in the camps), and even featured comic strips and editorial cartoons. High-resolution scans of the newspapers themselves are accompanied by dozens of photographs by renowned American photographer Ansel Adams, who documented scenes of daily life inside the Manzanar War Relocation Center in 1943. Altogether, the newspapers showcase the resiliency of the interned Japanese American community during World War II, trying to carry on some semblance of “normal” life in the midst of difficult, unjust circumstances.

Screenshot of web map showing newspaper publication sites with pop-up window open for Manzanar Free Press.

Screenshot of interactive map from “Behind Barbed Wire” Story Map by Heather Thomas and Chris Ehrman, Prints and Photographs Division, 2018.

Stay tuned for more Library of Congress Story Maps to come!


Wed, 25 Apr 2018 17:55:17 +0000
Introducing Library of Congress Story Maps!
The Library of Congress staff is excited to launch Story Maps, interactive and immersive web applications that tell the incredible stories of the Library’s collections! Story Maps, created within a Geographic Information Systems (GIS)-based software platform created by Esri, combine text, images, multimedia, and interactive maps to create engaging online narrative experiences. Under a program […]

The following post is by Mike Klein, a reference specialist in the Geography and Map Division.

Called the “father of temperature mapping,” the renowned German naturalist and climatologist, Alexander von Humboldt (1769-1859) devised the concept of the isotherm, which he described in 1816 as a “curve drawn through points on a globe which receive an equal quantity of heat.” Humboldt’s initial diagram map of average temperatures appeared in 1817 in an abstract of a much longer paper on isothermal lines published earlier that year. He was the first to recognize that isothermal lines cut through latitudes at different angles, thus disputing the prevailing scientific notion that climate depended solely on latitude.

Baron Alexander von Humboldt, the great naturalist. Engraving by D.J. Pound from a painting by C. Begas, ca. 1850-1900. Prints and Photographs Division, Library of Congress.

Baron Alexander von Humboldt, the great naturalist. Engraving by D.J. Pound from a painting by C. Begas, ca. 1850-1900. Prints and Photographs Division, Library of Congress.

Humboldt withheld publishing his idea in the form of a generalized world map while he waited for data from weather stations around the world. Thus, the isotherm concept remained virtually unknown outside of the broader scientific community until 1838, when it was given wider recognition on the map below. Titled Alexander von Humboldt’s System Der Isotherm-Kurven in Merkator’s Projection, it was published in Germany by Heinrich Berghaus in his Physikalischer Atlas, the first comprehensive physical world atlas.

System Der Isotherm-Kurven in Physikalischer Atlas. Heinrich Berghaus, 1845. Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress.

System Der Isotherm-Kurven in Physikalischer Atlas. Heinrich Berghaus, 1845. Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress.

Berghaus, a pioneer in scientific thematic cartography, authored numerous titles on humanistic and physical geography, as well as cartography. The 1845 edition of his Physikalischer Atlas included hundreds of beautifully engraved maps and illustrations pertaining to the earth and natural sciences, such as the one below, Die Isothermkurven Der Nordlichen Halbkugel, which illustrates climate over the northern hemisphere, and includes diagrams in the bottom corners depicting temperature and snow fall lines in relation to cross sections of mountain ranges in the Americas and Eurasia.

Die Isoterhmkurven Der Nordlichen Halbkugel in Physikalischer Atlas. Heinrich Berghaus, 1845. Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress.

Die Isoterhmkurven Der Nordlichen Halbkugel in Physikalischer Atlas. Heinrich Berghaus, 1845. Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress.

In spite of Berghaus’ achievement at disseminating one of Humboldt’s major theories, he was not the first to publish it on a world map. That role was assumed by a relatively unknown schoolteacher and geographic educator from Hartford, Connecticut, named William Channing Woodbridge (1794-1854), who in 1823 produced the item below, essentially the first world isothermal chart. The son of a minister and educator, Woodbridge was imbued with his father’s spirituality and passion for promoting the education of young women. Throughout his life he advocated for American educational reform, especially in the area of geography, co-authoring geography texts with fellow educational reformer, Emma Willard. His work with the deaf and disabled led him discover maps as an ideal vehicle for delivering information visually. Harboring an abiding interest in geography and natural history, Woodbridge was keen to introduce the latest geographical information into his maps.

Woodbridge also traveled to Europe to teach, as well as gather geographical ideas for his textbooks and atlases. While in Paris he met Humboldt, who introduced him to his concept of isotherms and demonstrated the ability to illustrate them diagrammatically. In somewhat of an innovation, Woodbridge expanded on Humboldt’s findings to publish his own world isothermal chart, in which he depicted the relationship between mean annual temperature and place, and illustrated climactic regions in color to indicate their suitability for agricultural commodities, while further indicating their potential ranges between latitudes. The chart, titled Isothermal Chart, or View of Climates & Production, Drawn from the Accounts of Humboldt & Others, was entered for copyright on January 15, 1823, in the state of Connecticut, probably with the local district court. The edition displayed here was included in Woodbridge’s School Atlas to Accompany Woodbridge’s Rudiments of Geography: Atlas on a New Plan . . ., published in 1830 in Hartford, Connecticut, to be used as an instructional device for school children.

Isothermal Chart, or View of Climates & Production in Woodbridge’s School Atlas to Accompany Woodbridge’s Rudiments of Geography: Atlas on a New Plan . . . William C. Woodbridge, January 13, 1823. Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress.

Isothermal Chart, or View of Climates & Production in Woodbridge’s School Atlas to Accompany Woodbridge’s Rudiments of Geography: Atlas on a New Plan . . . William C. Woodbridge, 1830. Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress.

Woodbridge’s chart, while intended only for use by a small audience, was something of a progenitor of the more complex and elaborate climate charts we see today. It may not be likely that Heinrich Berghaus was familiar with this initial attempt by a modest educator from Connecticut to depict global climate on a map, but it is obvious that after 1838, other publishers began taking advantage of Humboldt’s innovative theory and Woodbridge’s accessible chart to issue regional, national, and global climate charts on a more-or-less regular basis.


Thu, 19 Apr 2018 19:40:35 +0000
The First Isothermic World Maps
The following post is by Mike Klein, a reference specialist in the Geography and Map Division. Called the “father of temperature mapping,” the renowned German naturalist and climatologist, Alexander von Humboldt (1769-1859) devised the concept of the isotherm, which he described in 1816 as a “curve drawn through points on a globe which receive an […]

The following post is by Ryan Moore, a cartographic specialist in the Geography and Map Division.

The former capital of Pakistan, Karachi is the most populous city in the country and the third most populous in the world. Before it was Karachi, the place was called Kolachi, a small village on the Arabian Sea. Kolachi was the surname of the founding fisher-woman, Lady Kolachi, according to local lore. The transformation from a small village into one of the world’s major commercial hubs is an amazing story. This blog post explores some of the maps that illustrate Karachi’s titanic growth.

Kolachi was established in 1729 by the Talpur, a Sindh-speaking tribe. In 1800, the village caught the attention of the British East India Company. The British received permission from local authorities to build a factory there. They valued the presence of a natural harbor and commercial development soon followed. In 1838, the British East India Company captured the city, which was then annexed to British India several years later. Under British colonization, Karachi was divided into “white” living areas for Europeans and “black” for native inhabitants. Karachi’s harbor and humble beginnings can be seen in this portion of an 1854 British survey map titled Karachi Harbour.

Karachi Harbor, 1854. Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress.

Karachi Harbor. Lt. A.M. Grieve I.N. (Surveyor), 1854. Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress.

Transportation networks were necessary to help develop the city. The East India Tramways Co. Ltd. formed in 1902 and steadily replaced horse-driven trams with gas-powered engines. By 1912, horse-driven trams were a thing of the past and the new trams had the capacity to carry some 46 passengers at a speed of 18 mph. In the undated map below, Karachi Tramways (Kurrachee) Province of Scinde, India, tramways are shown running from “Empress Market” to the wharves and cotton presses. An additional route passed by the law courts and reached “McLeod Station,” the terminus of the “Scinde, Punjaub, and Delhi Railway.” An extension line was plotted to pass through “Native Town”and to end at “Government Garden.”

Karachi Tramways (Kurrachee) Province of Scinde, India, no date. Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress.

Karachi Tramways (Kurrachee) Province of Scinde, India, no date. Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress.

Karachi’s role as a seaport was vital to its economy and its wharves and related support yards were frequently expanded and updated. In 1920, the Karachi Port Trust published a General Plan of Jetties and Yards. It illustrated plans for expanding the “West Wharf” by means of land reclamation. From 1916 to 1920, some 144 acres were reclaimed from the sea in three stages, which are represented in the map by pink with black backslashes (1916), white with black forward slashes (1919), and white with short, black forward slashes (1920).

General Plan of Jetties & Yards. Karachi Port Trust, 1920. Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress.

General Plan of Jetties & Yards. Karachi Port Trust, 1920. Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress.

The Survey of India prepared a tourist map of Karachi, seen below, for the Daily Gazette Press Ltd., a newspaper that operated from 1915 to 1938. The map appears to have been published in 1928, according to stamped information by the State Department. The map is scaled at 3 inches to a mile and offers great detail about the locations of government buildings, commercial centers, houses of worship, transportation networks, among others. On the map’s left margin is a list of ninety-eight landmark locations that includes the Carlton Hotel, Y.M.C.A., Burma Oil Co, Islamia Gymkhana, Sadar Bazar, and Sind College. Throughout the map, the presence of many shipping companies serves as a testament to Karachi’s thriving seaport. The insert in the lower right depicts British military facilities, including a Royal Air Force landing ground and base, barracks, ordnance quarters, and an arsenal. The information reminds the viewer of the then colonial status of the city.

Map of Karachi. Survey of India, . Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress.

Map of Karachi. Survey of India, 1928. Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress.

In 1947, British colonial rule ended in India and the region was partitioned into the sovereign states of India and Pakistan. The Embassy of Pakistan donated the political map, shown below, to the Library of Congress. The map is colored in green and white, the colors of Pakistan’s flag, and the legend provides information about the total area of land, population, and principal ports.

Pakistan, ca. 1960. Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress.

Pakistan, ca. 1960. Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress.

Karachi served as the capital of Pakistan until 1960, when it was replaced by Islamabad. The Pakistani government believed the relocation of the capital would help spur development in the northern parts of the country. The map detail below, from a 1959 Army Map Service depiction, scaled at 1:250,000, shows the Karachi region in its final year as the national capital. Since this time, Karachi’s population has boomed from about 2 million people in 1961 (in Karachi proper) to almost 15 million people today.

Detail of Karachi and surrounding areas.

Detail of Karachi, Pakistan. Army Map Service, 1959. Library of Congress, Geography and Map Division.

 


Thu, 12 Apr 2018 19:37:28 +0000
From Minor Village to World Metropolis: Karachi in Maps
The following post is by Ryan Moore, a cartographic specialist in the Geography and Map Division. The former capital of Pakistan, Karachi is the most populous city in the country and the third most populous in the world. Before it was Karachi, the place was called Kolachi, a small village on the Arabian Sea. Kolachi […]

While many of the over six million maps in the Geography and Map Division are of a serious nature, there are also those meant to amuse the viewer. There is one such atlas in the collection titled Geographical fun : being humourous outlines of various countries, with an introduction and descriptive lines. Published in 1868, its purpose was to instruct children on the shape of various countries in a memorable way, such as the map of England below.

England from Geographical fun : being humourous outlines of various countries, with an introduction and descriptive lines. Hodder and Stoughton, [1868]. Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress.

England from Geographical fun : being humourous outlines of various countries, with an introduction and descriptive lines. Hodder and Stoughton, [1868]. Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress.

The twelve maps contained in the atlas were based on pictures drawn by Lilian Lancaster, a fifteen year old young woman, created to amuse and entertain her sick brother. Lilian went on to have a very successful stage career, but eventually returned to illustration under her married name, L. Tennant. The author of the atlas, Dr. William Harvey, a journalist and antiquary, added a humorous rhyme to accompany each of Lancaster’s illustrations, like the one of Germany below.

Lo! studious Germany, in her delight
At coming glories, shewn by second sight,
And on her visioned future proudly glancing,
Her joy expresses by a lady dancing.

Germany from Geographical fun : being humourous outlines of various countries, with an introduction and descriptive lines. Hodder and Stoughton, [1868]. Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress.

Germany from Geographical fun : being humourous outlines of various countries, with an introduction and descriptive lines. Hodder and Stoughton, [1868]. Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress.

Dr. Harvey, writing under the pseudonym “Aleph,” described his intention in creating the atlas in his introduction:

It is believed that these illustrations of Geography may be rendered educational, and prove of service to young scholars, who commonly think Globes and Maps but wearisome aids to knowledge. If these geographical puzzles excite the mirth of children, the amusement of the moment may lead to the profitable curiosity of youthful students and embue the mind with a healthful taste for foreign lands.

Though drawn 150 years ago, the now digitized atlas still fulfills its intended role by providing young scholars of today with a love for maps and geography while promoting creative learning. The entire Geographical Fun atlas can be viewed on the Library’s website here.

Italy from Geographical fun : being humourous outlines of various countries, with an introduction and descriptive lines. Hodder and Stoughton, [1868]. Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress.

Italy from Geographical fun : being humourous outlines of various countries, with an introduction and descriptive lines. Hodder and Stoughton, [1868]. Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress.


Wed, 28 Mar 2018 18:20:34 +0000
An Atlas of Geographical Fun
While many of the over six million maps in the Geography and Map Division are of a serious nature, there are also those meant to amuse the viewer. There is one such atlas in the collection titled Geographical fun : being humourous outlines of various countries, with an introduction and descriptive lines. Published in 1868, […]

The following post is by Cynthia Smith, a reference specialist in the Geography and Map Division.

The Library of Congress is commemorating the 100th anniversary of the United States participation in World War I with an exhibit titled “Echoes of the Great War: American Experiences of World War I.” The exhibit examines the upheaval of World War I as Americans confronted it. Maps from the Geography and Map Division are included, as well as prints, photographs, manuscripts, and other rotating materials from the collections of the Library of Congress.

While searching through our collections for maps to use for display in the exhibit, I found one among our uncatalogued holdings that caught my attention. As the title states, it is a map presenting the role of North American Indians in the World War. The map was published by the Office of the Adjutant General of the Army in 1925. The text also indicates that the map was compiled and drawn by Vladimir Sournin, the “author of engineering map of the Panama Canal.”

The North American Indian in the World War. United States, Adjutant-General's Office, 1926. Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress.

The North American Indian in the World War. United States, Adjutant-General’s Office, 1925. Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress.

The map was displayed in the first rotation of the exhibit in April 2017. In great detail, the map shows Native American participation, graves, notable battles, and military decorations awarded in France and Belgium. It also includes an inset, seen below, titled Special sketch of noted battlefields, comprising Verdun & Meuse, Argonne & St. Mihiel operations, where the Indians occupied so many sectors and won such fine distinction.

Detail of The North American Indian in the World War. United States, Adjutant-General's Office, 1926. Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress.

Detail of The North American Indian in the World War. United States, Adjutant-General’s Office, 1926. Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress.

The information for the map was taken from the work of Dr. Joseph Kossuth Dixon, a former Baptist preacher who became a photographer, author, and Native American rights advocate. Prior to the war, Dixon led three expeditions throughout the United States, known as the Wanamaker Indian expeditions, to document Native American life and culture through photography, film, and sound recordings. Some of Dixon’s photographs can be found at the Library, including the one below.

Chief Umapine, Cayuse. Joseph Kossuth Dixon, 1913. Prints and Photographs Division, Library of Congress.

Chief Umapine, Cayuse. Joseph Kossuth Dixon, 1913. Prints and Photographs Division, Library of Congress.

After World War I, Dixon traveled through Europe to document the Native American experience during the war with the hope that documenting Native American service in the military would aid the struggle to obtain general U.S. citizenship. Forty percent of Native Americans were not citizens until 1924, though more than 12,000 served in the U.S. Army during World War I. As part of their service, many Native Americans of the 142nd Infantry, 36th Division became the nation’s first “Code Talkers.” Code Talkers sent messages encrypted in their native languages over radio, telephone, and telegraph lines which were never broken by Germany. On June 2, 1924, almost six years after the end of the war, Congress passed the Indian Citizenship Act granting citizenship to all Native Americans born in the United States.

The map is now cataloged and digitized where it can be viewed and downloaded in the online catalog here. It was imperative that an image of this rare map was made widely available, as it documents the places where Native Americans fought with distinction during the First World War. Furthermore, it represents part of the broader social and political fight for Native American citizenship.

This wounded American soldier is a full blooded Choctan Indian from Oklahoma who has been in France for three months and says "sure he likes the war"... Lewis W. Hine, September 1918. Prints and Photographs Division, Library of Congress.

This wounded American soldier is a full blooded Choctan Indian from Oklahoma who has been in France for three months and says “sure he likes the war”… Lewis W. Hine, September 1918. Prints and Photographs Division, Library of Congress.


Fri, 23 Mar 2018 14:34:59 +0000
Native Americans in the First World War and the Fight for Citizenship
The following post is by Cynthia Smith, a reference specialist in the Geography and Map Division. The Library of Congress is commemorating the 100th anniversary of the United States participation in World War I with an exhibit titled “Echoes of the Great War: American Experiences of World War I.” The exhibit examines the upheaval of […]

The following post is by Ryan Moore, a cartographic specialist in the Geography and Map Division.

Hue is a city in central Vietnam, which most Americans may know from the 1968 Battle of Hue, one of the longest and bloodiest battles in the Vietnam War. However, less is known about America’s involvement with the city during World War II. This blog post will present an American military intelligence map from each era.

During World War II, the United States, the free-French government, and local fighters, such as the communist revolutionary leader Ho Chi Minh, coordinated to undermine the control of the Nazi collaborationist Vichy French authority and the occupying Japanese Imperial forces. The American, French, and Vietnamese alliance was often tense, as each of the parties had a very different vision for a postwar Vietnam.

Inset map depicting the French Indochina administrative zones including Hue. OSS. Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress.

Detail of Indochina: Town Plan of Hue, showing inset map depicting Hue’s location in Indochina. OSS, 1945. Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress.

The Office of Strategic Services (OSS), a U.S. wartime intelligence agency, mapped Hue’s culturally important citadel and the surrounding area. American intelligence relied on a 1920 French atlas and aerial photography to create the 1945 depiction, shown above and below. The map identifies locations of concern to military and political affairs, such as barracks, rail lines and stations, industry, power plants, and other key sites. A list of nine locations identifies government buildings, public institutions, and hotels. The accuracy of the plotted data is assigned a reliability code in the lower left corner. The map, though stamped “restricted,” is no longer classified.

Indochina: Town Plan of Hue. OSS, 1945. Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress.

Indochina: Town Plan of Hue. OSS, 1945. Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress.

America’s connection to Vietnam in World War II led to its eventual direct military role during the Vietnam War. Hue served as an important base for South Vietnamese forces and housed American diplomats and advisors. During the Tet Offensive of 1968, intense fighting broke out in the city that resulted in damage to the historic citadel and many other buildings.

Ban-Do Do-Thi Hue Va Phu-Can.

Ban-Do Do-Thi Hue Va Phu-Can. 1:10,000 Map of Hue, ca. 1960-1968. Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress.

In contrast to the 1945 OSS map, less is known about the purpose of this 1:10,000 scale map created during the Vietnam War, shown above, that depicts the city in great detail. Listed in the lower left corner of the map are South Vietnamese military and government installations, and, on the right, are the locations of “Properties used by the U.S. Government Hue, Vietnam.” The list of American properties is faded, as seen below. It notes the residences of American diplomats, civil administrators, and military advisors. The presence of so many different American specialists reflected the all-encompassing role the U.S. played in the civil and military affairs of South Vietnam.

Detail of Ban-Do Do-Thi Hue Va Phu-Can. Properties Held by the U.S. Government Hue, Vietnam. Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress.

Detail of Ban-Do Do-Thi Hue Va Phu-Can; Properties Used by the U.S. Government Hue, Vietnam. Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress.

Following the Tet Offensive, President Richard Nixon sought to reduce America’s involvement in the war, particularly through a steady withdrawal of U.S. ground troops. The hope was to hand over control of the war to the South Vietnamese government, who would, in turn, check the communist insurgency. However, the effort failed and the South Vietnamese nation was toppled in 1975, and Vietnam was reunified under a communist government.


Wed, 14 Mar 2018 18:43:24 +0000
U.S. Military Maps of Hue, Vietnam
The following post is by Ryan Moore, a cartographic specialist in the Geography and Map Division. Hue is a city in central Vietnam, which most Americans may know from the 1968 Battle of Hue, one of the longest and bloodiest battles in the Vietnam War. However, less is known about America’s involvement with the city […]

This is part of a series of posts from Ed Redmond, Cartographic Specialist in the Library of Congress, Geography and Map Division, documenting the cartographic history of maps related to the American Civil War, 1861-1865. The posts will appear on a regular basis.

One of the most iconic naval battles of the Civil War was the four-hour duel between the ironclad vessels USS Monitor and the CSS Merrimac, which took place off of Hampton Roads, Virginia on March 8th and 9th, 1862. While the battle ended in a virtual draw, historians have pointed to it as the end of the wooden warship era and the beginning of heavily armored ships.

The map shown below, entitled “Scene of the late Naval Engagement…,” does not directly depict the battle, but both vessels are shown and it was likely prepared for newspaper publication to accompany articles on the naval engagement. The first image includes the woodblock, while the second takes us closer into the map itself.

Pictoral map of Hampton Roads, Virginia with battleships; map alongside woodblock used for map's printing.

“[Scene of the late naval fight and the environs of Fortress Monroe, and Norfolk and Suffolk, now threatened by General Burnside].” 1862. Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress.

Detail of map showing Hampton Roads with battleships in harbor.

Map detail of “[Scene of the late naval fight and the environs of Fortress Monroe, and Norfolk and Suffolk, now threatened by General Burnside].” 1862. Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress.

Most newspaper and journal illustrations at the time were printed from woodcuts. This form of reproduction, albeit crude, was inexpensive, reasonably quick to execute, and the woodblocks could be inserted into pages of text and printed on newspaper presses without difficulty. A close-grained hardwood, usually boxwood, cut against the grain, was employed to make the wood engraving. Usually the blocks consisted of several parts tightly bolted together from the rear. After the image was drawn on the block, the parts were separated and distributed among several wood engravers to be worked on simultaneously. Once the carving was completed, place names cast in type metal from a mold (stereotype) were cemented into place, the parts bolted together again, and the whole retouched to insure uniformity. At this point, the illustration was ready for printing. The entire process required approximately two weeks to complete from the time the sketch was received by the publisher.

Across the state, in the spring of 1862, Confederate General Stonewall Jackson began his “Valley Campaign,” an attempt to drive Union forces occupying parts of Virginia’s Shenandoah Valley and push them out of Virginia. The opening salvo of the successful Valley Campaign was the March 23, 1862 Battle of Kernstown, Virginia, located in northern Shenandoah Valley, a few miles south of Winchester, VA.

The two maps shown below represent a preliminary manuscript map and a finished manuscript map of the battlefield extending from Winchester south along the Valley Turnpike, through Kernstown. Both maps were prepared and signed by noted Confederate cartographer “Jedidiah Hotchkiss, Topographic Engr. Valley D[ivision].” The preliminary draft provides a listing of Confederate infantry, cavalry, and artillery units, including abbreviations and strikeouts, while the finished manuscript map has a more complete table, decorative border, and ornate title block. Both maps use hachures to signify relief.

Map of Battle of Kernstown, showing routes and fields.

“Sketch of the Battle of Kernstown, Sunday, March 23d 1862.” Jedidiah Hotchkiss, 1862. Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress.

Three days after the Battle of Kernstown, on March 26th 1862, Jackson ordered Hotchkiss to prepare “a map of the Valley from Harpers Ferry to Lexington, showing all the points of offence and defence in those places.” Hotchkiss began working on his best known map almost immediately and continued to work and refine it over the course of the Civil War. Hotchkiss’ masterpiece is prepared with a 3/4-inch grid that allows one to “scale” the map and produce larger scale maps as needed. The Jedediah Hotchkiss Papers are housed in the Library’s Manuscript Division.

Map of Shenandoah Valley detailed with roadways, waterways, topography, and both Union and Confederate army positions.

“[Map of the Shenandoah Valley].” Jedediah Hotchkiss, 1862. Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress.


Thu, 08 Mar 2018 16:58:54 +0000
Places in Civil War History: Pivotal Virginia Battles, By Land and Sea
This is part of a series of posts from Ed Redmond, Cartographic Specialist in the Library of Congress, Geography and Map Division, documenting the cartographic history of maps related to the American Civil War, 1861-1865. The posts will appear on a regular basis. One of the most iconic naval battles of the Civil War was […]

In the previous post of this blog series, Extremities of the Earth, we explored the depths of the lowest natural point on earth. We will now travel in the opposite direction, to the heights of Mount Everest, the highest point on earth from sea level at 29,029 feet (8,848 m) above sea level. The peak is known in Nepali as Sagarmatha (meaning “Sky Head”) and in Tibetan as Qomolangma (meaning “Holy Mother”). As can be seen in the 1968 map below, Mount Everest straddles Nepal and China, with the border running across its summit.

China-Nepal Boundary. Central Intelligence Agency, 1965. Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress.

China-Nepal Boundary. Central Intelligence Agency, 1965. Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress.

The first known map that names the mountain was made in 1721, where it was labeled as “Qomolangma” in the Atlas of the Whole Imperial Territory, a cartographic survey of China, Korea, and Tibet compiled mainly by European missionaries and Chinese officials of the Qing Dynasty from 1708 to 1717. The atlas is also known as the Jesuit Atlas of China or Huang yu quan lan tu. Though the mountain was known to be high, it was not considered the tallest mountain through the first half the nineteenth century. Labeled “#129” in the illustration below as “15th Peak Himalaya,” from the 1849 New Universal Atlas, it can be seen that there were several mountains in the world thought to be taller. However, in 1852, Indian mathematician and surveyor Radhanath Sikdhar calculated that the mountain was actually the world’s highest peak. The announcement was delayed for several years as the measurements were verified. In 1856, what was then called “Peak XV” was declared to be the world’s tallest mountain at 29,002 feet (8,840 m).

A new universal atlas containing maps of the various empires, kingdoms, states and republics of the world. Augustus S. Mitchell, 1849. Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress.

Principal Rivers of the World from A new universal atlas containing maps of the various empires, kingdoms, states and republics of the world. Augustus S. Mitchell, 1849. Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress.

Andrew Waugh, the British Surveyor General of India, believing there was not one definitive local name for the mountain, decided to name the peak after his predecessor, Sir George Everest in the 1850s. The name was officially adopted by Britain’s Royal Geographical Society in 1865. In the 1920s, the Royal Geographical Society and the Alpine Club planned three expeditions to explore the region and to reach the top of Mount Everest. The 1921 expedition was used to survey possible routes and to create maps for the next year. Because Nepal was closed off to foreigners, the group of 13 people, including mountaineer George Mallory, surveyed the route from the Tibetan side of the border.

In 1922, the first attempt to summit the mountain was made, though ultimately this group, and those that tried again in 1924, failed to reach the top. Though they did not reach the summit, they did reach an altitude of 27,300 ft (8,320 m) which was the first recorded time a human had climbed higher than 8,000 meters. Published by the Royal Geographical Society in 1922, the map below shows the route of the 1922 Mount Everest Expedition, starting in India and ending at Mount Everest.

The Route of the Mount Everest Expedition, Chumni to Mt Everest. Royal Geographical Society, 1922. Library of Congress, Geography and Map Division.

The Route of the Mount Everest Expedition, Chumbi to Mt Everest. Royal Geographical Society, 1922. Library of Congress, Geography and Map Division.

In June 1924, George Mallory and Andrew Irvine made a last attempt at the summit and never returned. It has remained a mystery whether the two men ever reached the top of the mountain. The first recorded successful ascent was made in 1953 from the Nepal side of the mountain by Edmund Hillary of New Zealand and Tenzing Norgay, a Nepali sherpa.

Regional weather patterns make springtime, and especially May, the most optimal time to attempt an ascent, but even in spring, the brutal conditions on Mount Everest– lack of air pressure, high wind speed, and temperatures averaging -13° to -17°F (-25° to -27°C)– make the trek up the mountain extremely treacherous. But despite these dangers, since that first summit by Norgay and Hillary, over 4,000 people have attempted the climb, lured by the dream of being one of the few to stand at the top of the world.



Extremities of the Earth: The Highest Point From Sea Level
In the previous post of this blog series, Extremities of the Earth, we explored the depths of the lowest natural point on earth. We will now travel in the opposite direction, to the heights of Mount Everest, the highest point on earth from sea level at 29,029 feet (8,848 m) above sea level. The peak […]
view page: 222

Shop Sale

Start: 05 Sep 2017 | End: 27 Apr 2018

Up to ?150 Off Which? Best Buy mattresses

Start: 11 Apr 2017 | End: 01 Apr 2018

Save 15% off .CO.UK domains

Code: COAFF123

Start: 02 Oct 2017 | End: 30 Apr 2018

Search All Amazon* UK* DE* FR* JP* CA* CN* IT* ES* IN* BR* MX
Booking.com B.V. is based in Amsterdam in the Netherlands. Ready for some statistics? Our 1,534,024 properties, including 860,482 holiday rentals, are located in 123,105 destinations in 229 countries and territories, and are supported internationally by 198 offices in 70 countries.
2013 Copyright © Techhap.com Mobile version 2015 | PeterLife & company
Skimlinks helps publishers monetize editorial content through automated affiliate links for products.
Terms of use Link at is mandatory if site materials are using fully or particulary.
Were treated to the site administrator, a cup of coffee *https://paypal.me/peterlife
Yandex.ru