Journal Sciences News
The Journal of Socio-Economics
February 2018
Effects of salinity, growing media, and photoperiod on bioelectricity production in plant microbial fuel cells with weeping alkaligrass
Publication date: February 2018
Source:Biomass and Bioenergy, Volume 109 Author(s): J. Md Khudzari, J. Kurian, Y. Gari
February 2018
CO2 emissions and energy consumption of loaders in woodchip loading operation
Publication date: February 2018
Source:Biomass and Bioenergy, Volume 109 Author(s): Marco Manzone Woodchip is the most widespread form of wood biomass used in power stations because it guarantees homogeneous sizes and high load densities. From an environmental point of view, woodchip production has been studied from many aspects (comminution wood, transportation.), but no experimentations have focused on loading operations. The goal of this work was to evaluate the energy consumption and CO2 emissions of four types of loader used in woodchip loading. A knuckle-boom loader and three front loaders were tested. In the trials, a different woodchip pile position (near a wall and in an open square) was considered. Higher values on energy consumption were obtained by a mechanical shovel equipped with a standard bucket (5.59 and 5.01
February 2018
Field evaluation of transgenic poplars expressing the constitutively active small G protein for improved biomass traits
Publication date: February 2018
Source:Biomass and Bioenergy, Volume 109 Author(s): Na Young Kim, Hwi Seong Jeon, Myoung-Hoon Lee, Ahra Cha, Dong Sook Lee, Hye-Jung Lee, Hye Gi Kim, Hyoshin Lee, Young-Im Choi, Ohkmae K. Park An Arabidopsis small G protein, RabG3b, has been previously characterized as a positive regulator of xylem development in Arabidopsis. Transgenic poplars overexpressing a constitutively active form of RabG3b (RabG3bCA) were developed, and their performance as potential biomass crops was evaluated in the field in Suwon, Korea (3726
February 2018
Delignification from Geodae-Uksae1 using soda-pulping followed by evaluation on recycling of liquid-liquid extraction solvent
Publication date: February 2018
Source:Biomass and Bioenergy, Volume 109 Author(s): Se Jin Kim, Byung Hwan Um In this study, lignin, monomeric sugars, and organic acids are separated effectively from Geodae-Uksae1 (GU1, Miscanthus spp) using various processes such as soda-pulping, liquid-liquid extraction (LLE), and distillation. Soda-pulping is performed using a 1
February 2018
Seasonal variation of elements composition and biomethane in brown macroalgae
Publication date: February 2018
Source:Biomass and Bioenergy, Volume 109 Author(s): Francesco Ometto, Kristine B. Steinhovden, Hana Kuci, Johan Lunnb
February 2018
Differences in consumption rates and patterns between firewood and charcoal: A case study in a rural area of Yedashe Township, Myanmar
Publication date: February 2018
Source:Biomass and Bioenergy, Volume 109 Author(s): Zar Chi Win, Nobuya Mizoue, Tetsuji Ota, Tsuyoshi Kajisa, Shigejiro Yoshida, Thaung Naing Oo, Hwan-ok Ma Firewood and charcoal are the main energy sources in developing countries, but much fewer quantitative data have been collected for charcoal consumption. This study compared firewood and charcoal consumption rates and patterns in a rural area of Yedashe Township, Myanmar. Household interviews were conducted for randomly selected households, resulting in 147 firewood users and 34 charcoal users. Forest inventory data was used to estimate forest area needed to meet woodfuel demand. Average per capita consumption rates were 780 and 280
February 2018
Effects of nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations on the growth of microalgae Scenedesmus. LX1 in suspended-solid phase photobioreactors (ssPBR)
Publication date: February 2018
Source:Biomass and Bioenergy, Volume 109 Author(s): Lin-Lan Zhuang, Yaldah Azimi, Dawei Yu, Yin-Hu Wu, Hong-Ying Hu Attached microalgae cultivation is an effective way to decrease the high harvesting cost in microalgae biomass production. Nitrogen and phosphorus, as the two main nutrients, are hypothesized to influence the attachment efficiency and growth of microalgae. The attached growth of Scenedesmus. LX1 in the suspended-solid phase photobioreactor (ssPBR)1 with feed composed of different total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) concentrations was studied in this paper. The productivity of attached microalgae on Day 3 (3
February 2018
Studies on combustion behaviours of single biomass particles using a visualization method
Publication date: February 2018
Source:Biomass and Bioenergy, Volume 109 Author(s): Liang Shan, Ming Kong, Tom D. Bennet, Archi C. Sarroza, Carol Eastwick, Duo Sun, Gang Lu, Yong Yan, Hao Liu Combustion behaviours of single particles (125150
February 2018
Investigation of hydrogen sulphide removal from simulated producer gas of biomass gasification by titanomagnetite
Publication date: February 2018
Source:Biomass and Bioenergy, Volume 109 Author(s): Yanjie Wang, Shusheng Pang This work investigated removal of H2S from simulated producer gas by using iron-based sand, named titanomagnetite (Fe2.9Ti0.1O4), in a fluidised bed quartz reactor. The aims of this study were to determine the effectiveness of titanomagnetite and the most effective operation temperatures, and to examine the effect of steam and CO in the producer gas. In the experiments, H2S concentration in the gases was controlled at 240
February 2018
Analysis of selected economic and environmental impacts of long distance manure transports to biogas plants
Publication date: February 2018
Source:Biomass and Bioenergy, Volume 109 Author(s): Matthias Garbs, Jutta Geldermann In regions with high livestock density, manure supply often exceeds demand and complete local deployment would lead to severe environmental damage due to over-nutrification. One solution is to use the surplus in other regions, which have lower nutrient-levels. To decrease costs associated with transport the manure can first be used in biogas plants of those regions. To date, however, the economic and ecological consequences of this solution are unclear. Here, we develop a model of the consequences from the perspective of a biogas plant owner and apply it to a case study in Lower-Saxony, Germany. The model determines the maximal profitable manure transport distance from a financial point of view. Furthermore, it examines selected environmental impacts for various scenarios with an assumed transport range of 150
February 2018
Combined gas conditioning and cleaning for reduction of tars in biomass gasification
Publication date: February 2018
Source:Biomass and Bioenergy, Volume 109 Author(s): V. Pallozzi, A. Di Carlo, E. Bocci, M. Carlini Tar production in a biomass gasification process is one of the biggest issues for this technology and, thus, gas conditioning represents a key role in its development. The aim of this work is to evaluate the removal efficiency, besides the stability during the time, of a gas conditioning and cleaning section in a combined configuration. In particular, the primary treatment step consists in a secondary bed reactor of dolomite, before of an exhausted vegetable oil scrubber. They were analysed for several hours of operation (12
February 2018
Column leaching from a Danish forest soil amended with wood ashes: fate of major and trace elements
Publication date: February 2018
Source:Biomass and Bioenergy, Volume 109 Author(s): A. Maresca, M. Hansen, M. Ingerslev, T.F. Astrup Application of wood ashes onto two Danish forest soil horizons (A- and O-horizons) was investigated through a series of column experiments for ash dosages of 3, 9 and 30
February 2018
Hydrothermolysis of pine wood
Publication date: February 2018
Source:Biomass and Bioenergy, Volume 109 Author(s): Marina St
February 2018
Extent of pollen-mediated gene flow and seed longevity in switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.): Implications for biosafety procedures
Publication date: February 2018
Source:Biomass and Bioenergy, Volume 109 Author(s): Hsiaochi Chang, Allison A. Snow, Evans Mutegi, Emily M. Lewis, Emily A. Heaton, Maria N. Miriti New switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) bioenergy cultivars are being bred through genetic engineering; however, baseline information is urgently needed to establish guidelines for small-scale field trials prior to commercialization. In this study, we documented the pattern of pollen-mediated gene flow and the extent of seed longevity in field experiments. To mimic crop-to-wild, pollen-mediated gene flow, we planted wild recipient switchgrass ramets at various distances away from cultivar donor ramets at two sites in Ohio. Percent hybridization at each distance was estimated from seed set on recipient ramets, which were self-incompatible clones. The pattern of gene flow was best described by negative exponential models, and the minimum isolation distance for a 0.01% gene flow threshold was predicted to be 69
February 2018
Chemical and structural factors influencing enzymatic saccharification of wood from aspen, birch and spruce
Publication date: February 2018
Source:Biomass and Bioenergy, Volume 109 Author(s): Zhao Wang, Sandra Winestrand, Thomas Gillgren, Leif J. J
February 2018
Activated carbon from Bulgarian peach stones as a support of catalysts for methanol decomposition
Publication date: February 2018
Source:Biomass and Bioenergy, Volume 109 Author(s): Tanya Tsoncheva, Alexandra Mileva, Boyko Tsyntsarski, Daniela Paneva, Ivanka Spassova, Daniela Kovacheva, Nikolay Velinov, Daniela Karashanova, Biliana Georgieva, Nartzislav Petrov This study is aimed at the development of intelligent integrated scheme for full utilization of biomass for clean energy production. The proposed approach includes production of activated carbon based catalysts for methanol decomposition as a source of hydrogen, where both activated carbon and methanol, could be produced from biomass. In order to elucidate the impact of different activated carbon characteristics on the formation of the catalytic active phase, carbons with different texture and surface functionality are purposely obtained by changes in the activation temperature during the carbon preparation and its post-synthetic treatment with nitric acid. Peach stones, widely available in Bulgaria and Balkans region, are chosen as activated carbons precursor. Iron, zinc and ferrite modifications of thus obtained carbons are prepared by incipient wetness impregnation technique and nitrogen physisorption, XRD, HRTEM, UV-Vis, FTIR, Moessbauer spectroscopy, TPR with hydrogen and Boehm method are used for samples characterization. It is established that the state and catalytic activity of the supported metal oxide particles could be easily controlled by the procedure of the activated carbon preparation and this effect strongly depends on the nature of the loaded metal oxide. In case of iron modifications, the increase of the activation temperature during the carbon preparation promotes the formation of more finely dispersed, accessible for the reactants and active in methanol decomposition magnetite particles. The dispersion and the accessibility of the zinc oxide species in zinc modifications are improved by the formation of additional amount of surface acidic groups during the carbon pre-treatment with nitric acid. The combination of lower temperature of carbon activation with nitric acid pre-treatment promotes the formation of highly active ferrite nanoparticles in the binary modifications.

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February 2018
Quantifying the economic and greenhouse gas balance advantages of establishing miscanthus from stem cuttings
Publication date: February 2018
Source:Biomass and Bioenergy, Volume 109 Author(s): John O'Loughlin, Kevin McDonnell, John Finnan The establishment of miscanthus conventionally propagated from rhizome pieces is an expensive and carbon intensive process. A method to establish miscanthus crops through harvesting stem segments in autumn and sowing directly into a field can provide a low cost alternative to rhizome propagation. This study aims to assign both economic and GHG intensity values to the system in comparison to rhizome propagation. This study employed sensitivity analyses to investigate the effect of nitrogen rate and three different stem segment sowing densities. The cost of harvesting plant material and sowing 1
February 2018
Biomass valorization in the management of woody plant invaders: The case of Pittosporum undulatum in the Azores
Publication date: February 2018
Source:Biomass and Bioenergy, Volume 109 Author(s): L. Borges Silva, P. Louren
February 2018
Effects of three cutting blade designs on energy consumption during mowing-conditioning of Miscanthus Giganteus
Publication date: February 2018
Source:Biomass and Bioenergy, Volume 109 Author(s): Hao Gan, Sunil Mathanker, Md Abdul Momin, Brendan Kuhns, Neal Stoffel, Alan Hansen, Tony Grift This study compared energy consumption during harvest of Miscanthus Giganteus with a New Holland H8080 mower-conditioner among three cutting blade designs being 1) straight, 2) straight, angled at 30 and 3) serrated. Square bales were produced by a New Holland BB9080 large square baler. To calculate energy consumption per unit crop mass in MJ Mg
February 2018
An integrated kinetic model for downdraft gasifier based on a novel approach that optimises the reduction zone of gasifier
Publication date: February 2018
Source:Biomass and Bioenergy, Volume 109 Author(s): Ahmed M. Salem, Manosh C. Paul A kinetic model was built to estimate the optimum working parameters of a downdraft gasifier, in which a set of chemical kinetics at each zone of the gasifier was described. The model deals with a wide range of biomass types with elemental composition ranges of (38
February 2018
Sensitivity of short rotation poplar coppice biomass productivity to the throughfall reduction Estimating future drought impacts
Publication date: February 2018
Source:Biomass and Bioenergy, Volume 109 Author(s): Mat
February 2018
Antagonistic effects on biogas and methane output when co-digesting cattle and pig slurries with grass silage in in vitro batch anaerobic digestion
Publication date: February 2018
Source:Biomass and Bioenergy, Volume 109 Author(s): H. Himanshu, J.D. Murphy, J. Grant, P. O'Kiely Anaerobic co-digestion of contrasting substrates can result in synergistic or antagonistic effects on methanogenesis. Biogas and methane yields of the mixtures of cattle slurry (CS1 and CS2) or pig slurry with grass silages (GS1 and GS2) were measured using in vitro anaerobic batch digesters, and synergistic and antagonistic effects were investigated. Slurries and silages were incubated as individual substrates or as part of binary mixtures (slurry:silage mass ratios of volatile solids (VS) of 1:0, 0.75:0.25, 0.5:0.5, 0.75:0.25 and 0:1). The biogas yields of CS1, CS2, pig slurry, GS1 and GS2 were 405.9, 380.4, 550.8, 673.7 and 610.6
February 2018
Anaerobic mono-digestion of lucerne, grass and forbs Influence of species and cutting frequency
Publication date: February 2018
Source:Biomass and Bioenergy, Volume 109 Author(s): Radziah Wahid, Lu Feng, Wen-Feng Cong, Alastair James Ward, Henrik Bjarne M
February 2018
Ensuring continuous feedstock supply in agricultural residue value chains: A complex interplay of five influencing factors
Publication date: February 2018
Source:Biomass and Bioenergy, Volume 109 Author(s): Anouk Mertens, Jef Van Meensel, Lander Willem, Ludwig Lauwers, Jeroen Buysse While second-generation biomass resources, such as agricultural residues, are crucial for the development of the bioeconomy, value chains and markets of locally available agricultural residues remain uncommon. Current research predominantly provides useful insights into technological or techno-economic aspects of agricultural residue harvesting and processing, but, for investors in bio-refineries, one of the main challenges remains ensuring a continuous feedstock supply to the plant. In this article, we present the results of a mixed-method approach, combining insights from semi-structured interviews with simulation results of an agent-based model. This model simulates the decisions of individual economic actors in the value chain including farmers, custom harvesters and one processor under four coordination scenarios (direct sale, a custom harvester, mediated contract and two cooperative structures). Our results provide useful insights in the way different factors influence the ability to ensure a continuous feedstock supply. We find that besides actors' willingness, actors' coordination and supply reliability, also actors' actual participation and economic context play a crucial role. Furthermore, we are able to demonstrate the complex interplay between these factors. Our findings are relevant to guide successful future development of agricultural residue value chains for the bioeconomy.
February 2018
Interactive effect of enzymes and surfactant on the cellulose digestibility of un-washed and washed dilute ammonia pretreated energy cane bagasse
Publication date: February 2018
Source:Biomass and Bioenergy, Volume 109 Author(s): Saeed Oladi, Giovanna M. Aita The interaction effect of cellulase (Cellic CTec2), xylanase (Cellic HTec2) and laccase along with a non-ionic surfactant (Tween 80) on cellulose digestibility of unwashed and washed liquid ammonia pretreated energy cane bagasse was investigated. A polynomial quadratic model was fitted and solved for the optimum value of each variable for the desired response using response surface methodology (RSM). Statistical analysis of the results showed that the interactive effect of all variables with cellulose were significant (p
February 2018
Design of a separation section in an ethanol-to-butanol process
Publication date: February 2018
Source:Biomass and Bioenergy, Volume 109 Author(s): Wesley Michaels, Hanyu Zhang, William L. Luyben, Jonas Baltrusaitis A complete separation scheme has been designed for the effluent of a high-pressure ethanol-to-butanol catalytic reactor, producing 250,000 tonnes of n-butanol per year. The effluent contains water, hydrogen and a diverse range of C2-C4 oxygenates: unconverted ethanol, n-butanol, acetaldehyde, ethyl acetate, and acetal. Fundamental phase equilibrium relationships suggested use of conventional, extractive, and heterogeneous azeotropic distillation units to perform the separations. All reactor effluent species exit the separation process at mole purities of at least 99%. Separation costs are estimated to range from 9.0 to 10.6
Available online 17 January 2018
Kinetics of softwood kraft lignin inert and oxidative thermolysis
Publication date: February 2018
Source:Biomass and Bioenergy, Volume 109 Author(s): Samira Lotfi, Roozbeh Mollaabbasi, Gregory S. Patience Oxidative and inert lignin thermolysis generate methane, CO, CO2, and char but also intermediate valuable compounds. These thermos-sensitive compounds may either repolymerize or react further to light gases and char. Here, we characterized the lignin degradation kinetics versus temperature in a micro-fluidized bed reactor operating up to 870 K in nitrogen and air and measured product selectivity. The liquid yield during pyrolysis and oxidative thermolysis reached
Available online 12 January 2018
Evaluating social sustainability of bioeconomy value chains through integrated use of local and global methods
Publication date: Available online 17 January 2018
Source:Biomass and Bioenergy Author(s): Tuomas J. Mattila, J
January 2018
Cynara cardunculus L. as a biomass and multi-purpose crop: A review of 30 years of research
Publication date: Available online 12 January 2018
Source:Biomass and Bioenergy Author(s): Jorge Gominho, Maria Dolores Curt, Ana Louren
January 2018
Editorial Board
Publication date: January 2018
Source:Biomass and Bioenergy, Volume 108

January 2018
Evaluation of sampling techniques for gas-phase siloxanes in biogas
Publication date: January 2018
Source:Biomass and Bioenergy, Volume 108 Author(s): Clara M.A. Eichler, Yaoxing Wu, Steven S. Cox, Stephanie Klaus, Gregory D. Boardman Biogas from landfills and wastewater treatment facilities typically contain siloxane contaminants that can cause severe operational problems in engines and boilers when biogas is used as fuel. Likely due to their relatively low volatility, reliable siloxane sampling and analysis has proven challenging, and no standard sampling technique for gas-phase siloxanes exists, leading to high variability in analytical results. This study evaluates four techniques commonly used for sampling gas-phase siloxanes. Samples of a reference gas containing decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D5) were taken using these techniques and measured D5 concentrations were compared to the reference gas D5 concentration. Methanol impingers and thermal desorption tubes proved to be most accurate and reliable, whereas Tedlar bags and SUMMA canisters yielded lower D5 recovery rates due to adsorption to container surfaces. Based on these results, the methanol impinger and thermal desorption tube sampling methods appear to be more suitable for the quantitative analysis of gas-phase siloxanes in biogas.
January 2018
Alkaline oxidative cracking for effective depolymerization of biorefining lignin to mono-aromatic compounds and organic acids with molecular oxygen
Publication date: January 2018
Source:Biomass and Bioenergy, Volume 108 Author(s): Gaojin Lyu, Chang Geun Yoo, Xuejun Pan Alkaline oxidative cracking with molecular oxygen was demonstrated as an effective method to depolymerize lignin under moderate conditions. Ammonia-extracted lignin from corn stover was depolymerized to aromatics and organic acids by the alkaline oxidation. The identified products by GC-MS, NMR, and HPLC included mono-aromatic compounds (such as vanillin, p-coumaric acid, vanillic acid, acetovanillone etc.) and organic acids (such as oxalic, acetic, formic acids, etc.). The overall mass yield of quantified aromatics and organic acids varied from 24% to 58% under the investigated conditions. It was found that the yields and compositions of the products were determined by the reaction conditions (temperature, reaction time, and oxygen pressure). More vanillin and organic acids were produced with oxygen under high temperature and long time, while p-coumaric acid was the primary product under oxygen deficient condition.

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January 2018
Impact of ignition technique on total emissions of a firewood stove
Publication date: January 2018
Source:Biomass and Bioenergy, Volume 108 Author(s): Beno
January 2018
Forest biomass power plant installation scenarios
Publication date: January 2018
Source:Biomass and Bioenergy, Volume 108 Author(s): Thaisa Ribeiro Teixeira, Carlos Antonio Alvares Soares Ribeiro, Alexandre Rosa dos Santos, Gustavo Eduardo Marcatti, Alexandre Sim
January 2018
Microwave pretreatment effects on switchgrass and miscanthus solubilization in subcritical water and hydrolysate utilization for hydrogen production
Publication date: January 2018
Source:Biomass and Bioenergy, Volume 108 Author(s): Sibel Irmak, Bahar Meryemoglu, Anjali Sandip, Jeyamkondan Subbiah, Robert B. Mitchell, Gautam Sarath Microwave pretreatment is an energy-efficient and environmentally benign technology that can be used to reduce the recalcitrance of complex biomass structure. Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) and miscanthus (Miscanthus x giganteus) are perennial C4 grasses that are being developed as bioenergy crops because they have high yield potential and desirable agronomic traits. These materials are promising candidates for biofuels, bioproducts and green chemicals production from biomass. In the present study, miscanthus and switchgrass biomass were solubilized in subcritical water after pretreatment by microwave at different processing temperatures. The hydrolysates obtained were evaluated for hydrogen-rich gas production by aqueous-phase reforming (APR). Higher temperature microwave processing reduced the biomass recalcitrance resulting in microwave treated materials having 710% higher solubility in subcritical water than untreated materials. However, gasification of pretreated biomass hydrolysates produced less gaseous products compared to untreated biomass for both switchgrass and miscanthus. Miscanthus biomass was more vulnerable to destruction by microwave treatment and recalcitrance of this biomass was achieved at lower temperature compared to switchgrass. Miscanthus biomass that was not microwave treated produced the highest gas yield. Microwave pretreatment caused significant increases in the formation of ungasified solid carbon residue in the APR process.
January 2018
Torrefaction of woody biomasses from poplar SRC and Portuguese roundwood: Properties of torrefied products
Publication date: January 2018
Source:Biomass and Bioenergy, Volume 108 Author(s): A. Rodrigues, L. Loureiro, L.J.R. Nunes Torrefaction is an option for improving biomass properties for fuel application. Biomass undergoes chemical changes reflected on the upgrading of its properties as a biofuel, such as higher calorific power, lower O/C and H/C ratios, lower higroscopicity or better grindability. Objectives of this experimental study were to analyze the effects of torrefaction, under standart conditions of 265C, and residence time of 15min in a nitrogen atmosphere and during a total 1h45m heating period, on a set of sixteen woody biomasses provenient from poplar short rotation coppice (SRC) and other Portuguese roundwoods. Average mass loss was higher than 40%. The set of poplar clones and common broom provided torrefied products with higher quality than the set of roundwood forest species. The results on other parameters for proximate and ultimate analysis corroborate this global picture. Correlation analysis showed a higher degree of interconnectedness between LHV and proximate analysis results, for poplar clones and common broom, comparatively with roundwood biomasses.
January 2018
Effects of cutting traits and competition on performance and size hierarchy development over two cutting cycles in willow
Publication date: January 2018
Source:Biomass and Bioenergy, Volume 108 Author(s): Stina Edelfeldt, Anneli Lundkvist, Johannes Forkman, Theo Verwijst To assess if cutting traits (clone, fresh weight) in combination with strong competition from adjacent willows (planted in monoclonal stands and clonal mixtures) affected performance and size hierarchy development in willow during consecutive harvests, a field experiment was performed in central Sweden during 20082015. Cuttings from five Salix clones were planted in 1.8m
January 2018
Predicted harvest time effects on switchgrass moisture content, nutrient concentration, yield, and profitability
Publication date: January 2018
Source:Biomass and Bioenergy, Volume 108 Author(s): Karen R. Lindsay, Michael P. Popp, Charles P. West, Amanda J. Ashworth, Alexandre Caldeira Rocateli, Rodney Farris, V. Gopal Kakani, Felix B. Fritschi, V. Steven Green, M.W. Alison, Michael J. Maw, Luc
January 2018
Modelling sustainability of primary forest residues-based bioenergy system
Publication date: January 2018
Source:Biomass and Bioenergy, Volume 108 Author(s): Maxon L. Chitawo, Annie F.A. Chimphango, Steve Peterson Lack of access to modern energy, such as electricity, liquid fuels and gas, limits socio-economic development in developing countries, particularly in rural communities. Primary forest residues are potential bioresources for producing modern forms of energy beyond traditional biomass, which can be supplied to economic activities in the rural communities. However, variations in production of primary forest residues over time exacerbate sustainability challenges for developing sustainable bioenergy systems based on the residues supply chains integrated with timber production. A model is presented showing dynamics of primary forest residues, as bioenergy feedstocks, stemming from forest plantations management, harvesting systems, and stakeholder influence and interest along the bioenergy production value chain. Using a case study of the Viphya forest plantations established for timber production in Malawi, management and harvesting systems, sawmilling technologies, residues production and post harvesting management were assessed and key sustainability challenges along the residues supply chain have been identified. The decreasing stocks of mature stand over time results from over-exploitation for timber production, delayed replanting, high death rate of replanted trees and underinvestment in plantations management. An integrated framework for forest management and bioenergy production can promote sustainable harvesting of mature stand for timber and primary forest residues production through synchronization of harvesting and replanting of timber and establishment of thresholds for harvesting timber to generate residues at a rate that can match with the scale and rate of the bioenergy conversion. The framework can promote stability, availability and reliability of timber and primary forest residues supply for bioenergy production.
January 2018
Carbon dioxide not suitable for extinguishment of smouldering silo fires: Static electricity may cause silo explosion
Publication date: January 2018
Source:Biomass and Bioenergy, Volume 108 Author(s): Frank Huess Hedlund Smouldering fires in wood pellet silos are not uncommon. The fires are often difficult to deal with and extinguishment is a lengthy process. Injection of inert gases to prevent oxygen from reaching the smouldering fire zone and suppress combustion is a new firefighting strategy. This article argues that injection of inert carbon dioxide (CO2) into the silo headspace is unsafe. Carbon dioxide is generally available as a liquid under high pressure. When discharged, small particles of dry ice are formed. The rapid flow of particles can generate considerable amounts of static electricity, which can act as a source of ignition if ignitable pyrolysis gases are present. This article discusses a serious wood pellet smouldering fire and silo explosion in Norway in 2010, which took place when firefighters discharged portable CO2 fire extinguishers into the headspace. The attempt to suppress the fire may have ignited pyrolysis gases. The article examines selected guidelines, standards, wood pellet handbooks and other literature and argues that the electrostatic hazard is widely under-appreciated. In the past, major explosions have been attributed to electrostatic ignition of flammable vapours during the release of CO2 for fire prevention purposes. There is evidence to suggest that those early lessons learned have at least partly passed out of sight.
January 2018
Enhanced dry anaerobic digestion of swine excreta after organic nitrogen being recovered as soluble proteins and amino acids using hydrothermal technology
Publication date: January 2018
Source:Biomass and Bioenergy, Volume 108 Author(s): Weiwei Huang, Ziwen Zhao, Tian Yuan, Yang Yu, Wenli Huang, Zhongfang Lei, Zhenya Zhang This study investigated the feasibility of N recovery from swine excreta (SE) as value-added soluble proteins and amino acids using hydrothermal (HT) technology for improving dry anaerobic digestion (AD) performance. The effect of temperature on characteristics and transformation behaviors of N species in SE subjected to HT pretreatment at different temperatures (110210C for holding 30min) was investigated. After HT pretreatment at 150C, 58% of the total nitrogen (TN) content in SE became soluble, with 19.03%, 1.55% and 0.56% of TN being converted into soluble proteins, amino acids and urea, respectively. Temperatures higher than 170C favored the breakdown of these proteinaceous compounds, leading to accelerated formation of ammonia. After soluble proteins and amino acids being separated by water extraction, CH4 yield (322.13cm3g
January 2018
A systems approach to risk and resilience analysis in the woody-biomass sector: A case study of the failure of the South African wood pellet industry
Publication date: January 2018
Source:Biomass and Bioenergy, Volume 108 Author(s): Rebecca Bowd, Nevil W. Quinn, Donovan C. Kotze, Michael J. Guilfoyle Currently more than 600 million of the 800 million people in SSA are without electricity, and it is estimated that an additional 2500GW of power is required by 2030. Although the woody-biomass market in the developed world is relatively mature, only four woody-biomass plants in SSA have been established, all of which were closed by 2013. With its affordable labour, favourable climate and well-established forestry and agricultural sectors, South Africa appears to have the potential for a successful woody-biomass industry. This paper documents a first attempt at analysing why these plants failed. It aims to contextualise the potential role of a sustainable woody-biomass sector in South Africa, through firstly developing a SES-based analytical framework and secondly, using this to undertake a retrospective resilience-based risk assessment of the four former woody-biomass pellet plants in order to identify strategies for increasing the resilience of the industry. The SES-based framework advances previous theory, which usually focuses on natural resources and their supply, by introducing a production process (with inputs and outputs), internal business dynamics and ecological variable interactions. The risk assessment can be used at a broad level to highlight important aspects which should be considered during feasibility assessments for new plants. Further work is proposed to focus on splitting the social-ecological system at different scales for further analysis, and to investigate the long-term ecological impacts of woody-biomass utilisation.
January 2018
In-depot upgrading the quality of fuel chips for a commercial gasification plant
Publication date: January 2018
Source:Biomass and Bioenergy, Volume 108 Author(s): Ehsan Oveisi, Shahab Sokhansanj, Anthony Lau, C. Jim Lim, Xiaotao Bi, Mahmood Ebadian, Fernando Preto, Cliff Mui, Robby Gill Uncertainties in quality and timely availability of feedstock are among major issues in planning an economically viable bioenergy enterprise. Reported studies in open literature on feedstock supply logistics are either the results of modeling or from laboratory scale investigation with limited usefulness to commercial operations. The objective of this research is to quantify the sensitivity of steam production rate in a commercial updraft gasifier to several critical feedstock quality attributes like moisture, ash, and particles size. The specific case study is a 7MW thermal gasifier at the University of British Columbia that supplies process steam to campus facilities. The wood fuel is collected from a large number of urban waste wood sources, sorted, and blended in a recycling yard (depot) prior to delivery to the gasification plant. Several improvements in particle size uniformity, reduction in wood contamination with dirt, and dryness of the feedstock were made within a two-year period of recorded data (20132014). As a result, the overall percent of operating hours of the gasification plant increased from 75% to 94% while the average steam production increased by 30%. Most of the earlier variability in fuel properties was traced to the blending of dry fuel chips at a moisture content of 17% wet basis with a high moisture green wood at a moisture content of 40% wet basis.
January 2018
Chemical looping gasification of biomass: Part I. screening Cu-Fe metal oxides as oxygen carrier and optimizing experimental conditions
Publication date: January 2018
Source:Biomass and Bioenergy, Volume 108 Author(s): Pengjie Niu, Yuexin Ma, Xin Tian, Jinchen Ma, Haibo Zhao Fe2O3 and CuO are commonly used as oxygen carrier (OC) for chemical looping gasification (CLG) of biomass. However, Fe2O3 shows relatively low reactivity even though it is cheap, whilst CuO presents too high reactivity to react with the produced syngas and suffers from sintering problem at high temperatures. This paper is the first part of a two-part series work, where synthetic OCs of bimetallic Cu-Fe oxides prepared by the sol-gel combustion synthesis (SGCS) method were proposed for the biomass-derived CLG process. The reforming reactivity of Cu-Fe OCs with sawdust was first investigated in a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA). The result indicated that Cu-Fe OCs with higher Cu loading ratio demonstrated better reactivity towards sawdust. Subsequently, the performances of five kinds of Cu-Fe OCs in biomass-derived CLG process were evaluated in a batch fluidized-bed reactor. By comparing the product gas components, gas yield, tar yield and carbon conversion, Cu5Fe5 OC (50mol.% CuO+50mol.% Fe2O3) was found to demonstrate the best comprehensive CLG performance. The effects of steam to biomass ratio (S/B), temperature and oxygen carrier to biomass ratio (O/B) on the performance of Cu5Fe5 were further investigated. The optimum operation state can be attained when the S/B was 0.75, the temperature was 800C and the O/B was 0.2. The results of XRD and ESEM characterization showed that the addition of Fe2O3 into CuO-based OC significantly improved the sintering resistance, and the existence of CuO component in Fe2O3 was conductive to improving the porous structure of OC.
January 2018
Improved n-butanol production from lignocellulosic hydrolysate by Clostridium strain screening and culture-medium optimization
Publication date: January 2018
Source:Biomass and Bioenergy, Volume 108 Author(s): Beatriz L. Magalh
January 2018
How harmful is burning logging residues? Adding economics to the emission factors for Nordic tree species
Publication date: January 2018
Source:Biomass and Bioenergy, Volume 108 Author(s): Aapo Rautiainen, Jussi Lintunen, Jussi Uusivuori Replacing fossil fuels by logging-residue-based bioenergy has been proposed as a way to mitigate climate change. If residues are combusted for energy, their carbon content is released immediately. Residues, that are not combusted, decompose and emit carbon gradually. The relative harmfulness of bioenergy emissions therefore depends on how strongly we prefer the slow release of carbon to an immediate one. Two factors affect this judgment: (1) our time preference and (2) our expectations regarding the relative harmfulness of future carbon emissions. Neither aspect is included in established biomass emission factors. The Effective Emission Factor (EEF), outlined in this study, includes both aspects in a transparent and tractable way. We demonstrate the concept by deriving the EEFs for the logging residues of three Nordic tree species: Norway spruce (Picea abies), Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) and silver birch (Betula pendula). We also examine the sensitivity of the results to variation in time preference and damage expectations. The derived factors can be used to compare the harmfulness of carbon emissions from residue-based bioenergy and fossil fuel combustion and to organize bioenergy carbon taxation consistently with the taxation of fossil fuels.
January 2018
Chemical-looping gasification of biomass: Part II. Tar yields and distributions
Publication date: January 2018
Source:Biomass and Bioenergy, Volume 108 Author(s): Xin Tian, Pengjie Niu, Yuexin Ma, Haibo Zhao Tar, as a kind of by-product in biomass gasification processes, can adversely affect the efficiency of biomass utilization. Chemical-looping technology has been proposed as a novel way to reduce the tar yield in biomass treatment. As the second part of a two-part series work, the tar evolution characteristic during the biomass-derived chemical-looping gasification (CLG) process using bimetallic Cu-Fe oxides as oxygen carrier (OC) was investigated. The tar collected from batch fluidized bed experiment with Cu5Fe5 (50mol.% CuO+50mol.% Fe2O3) as OC was first analyzed by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometer (GC-MS) to qualitatively determine the organic compounds contained. It was found that the relative molecular weight of the compounds was mostly concentrated at about 200. Subsequently, the effects of steam to biomass ratio (S/B, in weight), temperature, and oxygen carrier to biomass ratio (O/B, in weight) on tar reforming were investigated. The results indicated that the increase of temperature, S/B and O/B were all favorable for the decomposition and conversion of large molecular compounds in tar into small ones. In addition, quantitative analyses of the tar collected under the optimal conditions with different Cu-Fe mixed metal oxides as OCs were also conducted. It was found that the Cu composition in OC could promote the decomposition of small molecular compounds in tar, while the Fe composition was beneficial to decrease the yield of large molecular compounds in tar. Furthermore, synergistic reactivity of the bimetallic Cu-Fe OC was achieved for tar decomposition during the biomass-derived CLG process.
January 2018
Anaerobic digestion of the above ground biomass of Jerusalem Artichoke in a pilot plant: Impact of the preservation method on the biogas yield and microbial community
Publication date: January 2018
Source:Biomass and Bioenergy, Volume 108 Author(s): Roberto Ciccoli, Maria Sperandei, Francesco Petrazzuolo, Marinella Broglia, Luigi Chiarini, Angelo Correnti, Anna Farneti, Vito Pignatelli, Silvia Tabacchioni The biogas production and the composition of the microbial community in a pilot biogas plant fed exclusively with the above ground biomass (AGB) of Jerusalem Artichoke (JA) were assessed. Biochemical methane potential (BMP) tests, carried out with fresh, air-dried and ensiled above ground biomass of JA, showed that air-dried biomass of JA yielded the highest biogas production whereas the ensiled biomass showed the lowest one. Similar results were obtained from the pilot plant as best results in terms of biogas production and methane volume fraction were associated with air-dried JA. The structure and dynamics of the microbial community involved in biogas production were studied using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) method. The genus Methanoculleus predominated among methanogenic Archaea, indicating that biomethane was mainly produced through the hydrogenotrophic pathway. In general, there are no significant differences in microbial community structure when the reactor is fed either with air-dried or ensiled JA.
January 2018
Determining aromatic and aliphatic carboxylic acids in biomass-derived oil samples using 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine and liquid chromatography-electrospray injection-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry
Publication date: January 2018
Source:Biomass and Bioenergy, Volume 108 Author(s): Samuel A. Lewis, Raynella M. Connatser, Mariefel V. Olarte, James R. Keiser Converting biomass to a useful fuel commonly incorporates the pyrolysis of the biomass feed stock. The base liquid fraction usually contains high concentrations of ketones, aldehydes and carboxylic acids, of which each can cause detrimental issues related to the storage and upgrading process. Knowing the carbonyl species and the concentration of each will provide value information to the pyrolysis researchers, specifically as that community branches into more targeted end-products such as jet fuel or biogenic-derived oxygenate-containing fuel products. The analysis of aldehydes, ketones and small alkyl carboxylic acids using 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) derivation method has been well documented and the method is commonly used the analytical community. By using liquid chromatograph coupled to tandem mass spectrometry, biomass sample analysis can be complete with identification of most carbonyl species. The issue of identifying isobaric ketone and aldehyde compounds can be resolved by utilizing differences in retention time or characteristic fragment ions of ketones and aldehydes. One issue which could not resolved using published methods was identifying aromatic or large non-aromatic carboxylic acids from their corresponding hydroxyl aldehyde or ketone analogs. By modifying the current method for determining carbonyls in biomass samples, carboxylic and hydroxyl-carbonyl can be determined. A careful adjustment of the pH during the extraction procedure and extended heating time of the DNPH solution allowed for the successful derivation of aromatic carboxylic acids. Like other dinitrophenylhydrazones, carboxylic acid derivatives also produce a unique secondary ion pattern, which was useful to distinguish these species from the non-acid analogs.

Woods-to-Wake Life Cycle Assessment of residual woody biomass based jet-fuel using mild bisulfite pretreatment
Publication date: January 2018
Source:Biomass and Bioenergy, Volume 108 Author(s): Indroneil Ganguly, Francesca Pierobon, Tait Charles Bowers, Michael Huisenga, Glenn Johnston, Ivan L. Eastin The residual woody biomass (a.k.a. harvest slash) produced during forest harvest operations in the Pacific Northwest is generally collected into piles and burned and/or left on the forest floor to decompose. Producing drop-in biofuels from this residual cellulosic feedstock can provide an alternative use for this unused resource while simultaneously displacing petroleum based fuels. Utilizing a Woods-to-Wake (WoTW) Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) approach, which is comparable to a Well-to-Wake (WTW) LCA for petroleum based aviation fuel, this paper assesses the environmental implications of feedstock recovery, production, and utilization of residual woody biomass based biojet fuel. This paper also presents a comparative assessment of the environmental implications of substituting petroleum based jet fuel with that of residual woody biomass based biojet fuel. The bioconversion process presented in this paper uses a mild bisulfite pre-treatment of the feedstock to liberate the C5 and C6 sugars which then go through enzymatic hydrolysis and saccharification to produce fermentable sugars. The sugars are then converted to bio-jet fuel (iso-paraffinic kerosene, IPK) using a proprietary biocatalytic fermentation and oligomerization process. The WoTW environmental implications of producing woody biomass based jet-fuel are then compared to the WTW environmental impacts of producing petroleum based jet-fuel. The results reveal that the WoTW global warming impact of residual wood based bio-jet fuel represents a 78% improvement over the WTW global warming impact of petroleum-based jet fuel.

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