Journal Sciences News
The Journal of Socio-Economics
September 2018
Application of an exergy-based thermo characterization approach to diagnose the operation of a biomass-fueled gasifier
Publication date: September 2018
Source:Biomass and Bioenergy, Volume 116 Author(s): A. Zaleta-Aguilar, D.A. Rodriguez-Alejandro, V.H. Rangel-Hern
September 2018
Site-effects on biomass allometric models for early growth plantations of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.)
Publication date: September 2018
Source:Biomass and Bioenergy, Volume 116 Author(s): Ioan Dutc
September 2018
Impact of management regime and frequency on the survival and productivity of four native tree species used for fuelwood and charcoal in the caatinga of northeast Brazil
Publication date: September 2018
Source:Biomass and Bioenergy, Volume 116 Author(s): William Milliken, Peter Gasson, Frans Pareyn, Everardo V.S.B. Sampaio, Mark Lee, Amelia Baracat, Elcida de Lima Ara
September 2018
Study on the ecological potential of Chinese straw resources available for bioenergy producing based on soil protection functions
Publication date: September 2018
Source:Biomass and Bioenergy, Volume 116 Author(s): Kaiwei Zhu, Zhen Liu, Xianchun Tan, Jinchai Lin, Dehui Xu Straw return has positive effect on improving soil ecological environment, and now there are serious ecological problems of arable land in China. Therefore, the concept of basic straw returning amount (BSRA) was put forward based on soil protection functions, and literature review and scenario analysis method were adapted to design BSRA. Based on this, a bottom up dynamic accounting model was built, which considering the changes of sown area, unit crop yield, planting structure and crop straw utilization. Then, the model was applied to assess the potentials of straw resources for bioenergy production. Usable straw resources in low, middle and high BSRA scenario (Table 1) are 265.70, 180.25 and 117.51
September 2018
Pyrolysis of switchgrass in an auger reactor for biochar production: A greenhouse gas and energy impacts assessment
Publication date: September 2018
Source:Biomass and Bioenergy, Volume 116 Author(s): Patrick Brassard, St
September 2018
Modeling of effective moisture diffusivity and activation energy of distillers' spent grain pellets with solubles during superheated steam drying
Publication date: September 2018
Source:Biomass and Bioenergy, Volume 116 Author(s): Rani Puthukulangara Ramachandran, Jitendra Paliwal, Stefan Cenkowski Drying is an essential unit operation needed for safe storage and handling of the wet Distillers' spent grain (DSG), a major by-product of the ethanol industry. For the simulation and modeling of the drying process, a detailed study on different pre-requisite parameters such as the thermo-physical properties and effective moisture diffusivity of the material to be dried is required. The present study reports the effective moisture diffusivity and activation energy of the DSG pellets during superheated steam (SS) drying. Cylindrical DSG pellets at two moisture mass fractions (25 and 35%) and three mass fractions of distillers' solubles (0, 10, and 30%) were dried at three SS temperatures (120, 135, 150, 165, and 180
September 2018
Extraction of palm kernel shell derived pyrolysis oil by supercritical carbon dioxide: Evaluation and modeling of phenol solubility
Publication date: September 2018
Source:Biomass and Bioenergy, Volume 116 Author(s): Yi Herng Chan, Suzana Yusup, Armando T. Quitain, Yee Ho Chai, Yoshimitsu Uemura, Soh Kheang Loh The extraction and recovery of value-added chemical compounds, such as phenolic compounds present in bio-oil has been a vital subject of study recently. In this work, the extraction of bio-oil using supercritical carbon dioxide (sc-CO2) with particular interest in apparent solubility of phenol (a major chemical compound in pyrolysis oil) was evaluated at various temperatures (50, 60 and 70
September 2018
Theoretical model and preliminary design of an innovative wet scrubber for the separation of fine particulate matter produced by biomass combustion in small size boilers
Publication date: September 2018
Source:Biomass and Bioenergy, Volume 116 Author(s): Augusto Bianchini, Marco Pellegrini, Jessica Rossi, Cesare Saccani Fine particulate matter (PM) emission from biomass boilers for non-industrial heating represents one of the most important causes (together with the transport sector) of air pollution, in particular during winter. Separation technologies for fine PM are already well-known and adopted on an industrial scale, as a consequence of strict limits set by national and international regulations. On domestic boilers, the same technologies utilized on an industrial scale are not feasible due to high investment costs. Moreover, the emission limits for small size biomass boilers are higher than for industrial boilers, so high efficiency separation technologies are not needed, and are sometimes not present at all. The main goal of the paper is the development and testing of a mathematical model that is able to foresee the PM removal efficiency of a wet scrubber device. After an experimental validation based on several tests, it was possible to approach the preliminary design of an innovative wet scrubber, which is described in the paper. The main characteristics are (i) removal efficiency over 99.9%, (ii) specific energy consumption under 36
September 2018
Experimental evaluation of a polystyrene sulphonic acid resin catalyst in the hydrolysis of low-grade lipids from the meat processing industry
Publication date: September 2018
Source:Biomass and Bioenergy, Volume 116 Author(s): Oseweuba Valentine Okoro, Zhifa Sun, John Birch In this study, a polystyrene sulphonic acid resin catalysed hydrolysis of low grade lipids from meat processing waste, via an in-situ hydrolysis pathway was evaluated for enhanced fatty acid yield. Process evaluation was achieved using a response surface methodology based on a central composite design for four process variables (temperature, catalyst load, moisture mass fraction of the meat processing waste, and reaction time). This study enabled the development of a model that was sufficient to predict fatty acid yield as a function of the four process variables investigated. The optimum values of the temperature, catalyst loading, moisture mass fraction, and reaction time for enhanced fatty acid yield were determined to be 92.5
September 2018
Optimal management of perennial energy crops by farming systems in France: A supply-side economic analysis
Publication date: September 2018
Source:Biomass and Bioenergy, Volume 116 Author(s): Nosra Ben Fradj, Pierre-Alain Jayet This paper aims at analysing the sensitivity of supply of a perennial energy crop, i.e. Miscanthus x Giganteus, in France, to yield and economic parameters. We use a decision-making method over natural resources, commonly applied in sustainable forest management, to evaluate the economic potential of the crop at plot level. The method allows us to determine the optimal rotation period (ORP) and the net present value (NPV) of Miscanthus in different farming system types when growth function is accounted for in a non-stochastic way as well as when it is governed by a random process. The short-term agricultural supply model, AROPAj, is used to highlight the competitiveness of Miscanthus regarding other crops within the 157 French farm groups portrayed in the model. We also detail the impact assessment regarding NPV and ORP, land use, Nitrogen (N) fertiliser demand and losses. We find that yields, price, renewal cycle costs and the discount rate may interact with yield randomization and significantly affect the future profitability of Miscanthus. As a result of our economic optimization, and in contrast to the common view of Miscanthus grown on marginal land, this crop could be profitable on the most productive land, generally devoted to food crops. For a price contracted at 70 tons of dry matter and fixed rotation cost given at 3000 per hectare, farming systems are predicted to grow Miscanthus on more favourable areas when its yield potential is high, thus leading to a substantial decrease in N input levels and losses.
September 2018
Improving the financial performance of solid forest fuel supply using a simple moisture and dry matter loss simulation and optimization
Publication date: September 2018
Source:Biomass and Bioenergy, Volume 116 Author(s): Ari Laur
September 2018
Numerical simulation of a pilot-scale reactor under different operating modes: Combustion, gasification and pyrolysis
Publication date: September 2018
Source:Biomass and Bioenergy, Volume 116 Author(s): D.A. Rodriguez-Alejandro, A. Zaleta-Aguilar, V.H. Rangel-Hern
September 2018
RSM based optimization of PEG assisted ionic liquid pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse for enhanced bioethanol production: Effect of process parameters
Publication date: September 2018
Source:Biomass and Bioenergy, Volume 116 Author(s): Niloofar Nasirpour, Seyyed Mohammad Mousavi Production of bioethanol from lignocelluloses is highly dependent on pretreatment process. Therefore, a better understanding of this process is an essential prerequisite to consider the whole bioethanol production from lignocelluloses in a cost and energy efficient way. The first step in performing the pretreatment is to discover the effects of different process parameters on various chemical features of the lignocelluloses. In order to achieve this aim, response surface methodology (RSM) was chosen to assess the exact impact of variables including temperature, polyethylene glycol (PEG) concentration and time on glucan, xylan and acid insoluble lignin contents as responses, also to optimize the pretreatment process to finally achieve higher bioethanol production yields. 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (BMIMCl) and PEG in the concentration range of 15 (%w/w) were used as pretreatment agents. Temperature and time levels of 100160
September 2018
Bioethanol production potential of a novel thermophilic isolate Thermoanaerobacter sp. DBT-IOC-X2 isolated from Chumathang hot spring
Publication date: September 2018
Source:Biomass and Bioenergy, Volume 116 Author(s): Nisha Singh, Munish Puri, Deepak K. Tuli, Ravi P. Gupta, Colin J. Barrow, Anshu S. Mathur Dilute acid pretreatment of biomass generates enormous amount of hydrolysate (rich in inhibitors and pentose sugars), that remains unutilized for bioethanol production due to inadequacy of efficient C5-fermenting organisms. In this study, a predominantly pentose fermenting extremely thermophilic bacterium strain DBT-IOC-X2, pertaining to the genus Thermoanaerobacter was isolated from Himalayan hot spring. Batch experiments indicated substantial inhibitor resistance (2
September 2018
Enzymatic hydrolysis and detoxification of lignocellulosic biomass are not always necessary for ABE fermentation: The case of Panicum virgatum
Publication date: September 2018
Source:Biomass and Bioenergy, Volume 116 Author(s): Ana I. Paniagua-Garc
September 2018
Influence of the chip format on the development of mass loss, moisture content and chemical composition of poplar chips during storage and drying in open-air piles
Publication date: September 2018
Source:Biomass and Bioenergy, Volume 116 Author(s): Ralf Pecenka, Hannes Lenz, Christine Idler In order to use wood chips from short-rotation coppices cost-efficiently, it is necessary to optimise the storage process depending on the planned use of the chips. The goal of all storage is to ensure low dry matter losses. Wood chips intended for energy-related use should have low moisture and ash contents, as well as a low fines fraction. If wood chips are to be put to material use, e.g. as peat substitute, a reduction of the C:N ratio during storage is necessary. The objective of this study was to identify favourable storage conditions to ensure low dry matter losses and high quality of wood chips for energy-related use. Furthermore, the study aimed to examine, whether disintegration processes during storage change the C:N ratio to such an extent that wood chips can be used as raw material for plant substrates. Three wood chip piles with different chip formats (small, medium, large - produced with a forage harvester and a mower chipper) were stored for seven months and compared regarding storage properties and physicochemical parameters. After seven months, medium wood chips displayed with a moisture content of 26w-%, dry matter losses of only 17% and a fines fraction of <5w-% the best results for energy-related use. Small chips with dry matter losses of 19%, moisture contents of 34w-% and a fines fraction of 12.6w-% displayed very unfavourable conditions for energy-related use. However, small chips showed the highest reduction of the C:N ratio (from 145:1 to 57:1) due to the storage process.
September 2018
Water availability influences accumulation and allocation of nutrients and metals in short-rotation poplar plantation
Publication date: September 2018
Source:Biomass and Bioenergy, Volume 116 Author(s): Abhishek Mani Tripathi, Karel Klem, Milan Fischer, Matej Ors
August 2018
Biomass yield, nutrient concentration and nutrient uptake by SRC willow cultivars grown on different sites in Denmark
Publication date: September 2018
Source:Biomass and Bioenergy, Volume 116 Author(s): S
August 2018
Editorial Board
Publication date: August 2018
Source:Biomass and Bioenergy, Volume 115

August 2018
IEA bioenergy update
Publication date: August 2018
Source:Biomass and Bioenergy, Volume 115

August 2018
Dynamics of soil organic carbon mineralization and C fractions in paddy soil on application of rice husk biochar
Publication date: August 2018
Source:Biomass and Bioenergy, Volume 115 Author(s): Sushmita Munda, Debarati Bhaduri, Sangita Mohanty, Dibyendu Chatterjee, Rahul Tripathi, M. Shahid, Upendra Kumar, P. Bhattacharyya, Anjani Kumar, Totan Adak, Hemant K. Jangde, A.K. Nayak Biochar plays a pivotal role in carbon storage-fractionation-mineralization process in soil. However, uncertainty still remains about the influence of biochar on these inter-related processes that links to C cycling in soil. A three years field experiment was initiated in 2013
August 2018
Dynamic quantitative trait loci (QTL) for plant height predict biomass yield in hybrid rye (Secale cereale L.)
Publication date: August 2018
Source:Biomass and Bioenergy, Volume 115 Author(s): Thomas Miedaner, Stefan Haffke, D
August 2018
Planning the next-generation biofuel crops based on soil-water constraints
Publication date: August 2018
Source:Biomass and Bioenergy, Volume 115 Author(s): Ruopu Li, Junyao Chen Widely blended in the transportation fuels, biofuels have been generally regarded as indispensable components in the U.S. national energy portfolio. Although the current production of cellulosic biofuels has been staggering at pilot scales, it is expected that large-scale cultivation of cellulosic biofuel crops may occur when techniques for cost-effective bioconversion of lignocellulosic biomass to ethanol are available. However, it is still unclear if enough land is in existence to accommodate potential large-scale lignocellulosic crops development without negative effects on the environment and food market. The appropriate land use for the next-generation biofuel crops should be planned and allocated in a manner that the competitive use of land dedicated to food and energy production and other side effects could be minimized. This research proposes an approach of identifying the potential available land for planting switchgrass in the U.S. Midwest using a GIS-based multi-criteria analysis that combines soil and water constraint factors. The results showed that land areas of approximately 13.6 million ha are unsuitable for profitable food crops but available for switchgrass cultivation in 7 U.S. Great Plains states. The findings can assist decision-makers in formulating land use policies and related environmental management strategies.
August 2018
Dealing with small sets of laboratory test replicates for Improved Cooking Stoves (ICSs): Insights for a robust statistical analysis of results
Publication date: August 2018
Source:Biomass and Bioenergy, Volume 115 Author(s): Francesco Lombardi, Fabio Riva, Emanuela Colombo Improved Cooking Stoves (ICSs) represent the most commonly promoted solution to alleviate the burden associated with the use of traditional biomass in a short-term perspective. However, criticism is raising about the methodologies used for assessing their performance, with a particular focus on laboratory-based testing protocols. One of the key weaknesses of current protocols consists in the inaccurate and biased approach adopted for reporting and statistically analysing test results, which can lead to misleading conclusions about the actual improvements ensured by ICSs. This study proposes a robust procedure to deal with the statistical analysis of small sample sizes, and subsequently verify it through its application to an experimental comparison based on the Water Boiling Test between three models of stove. The results show that the current practice based on 3 or 5 replicates often produces biases in the analyses, as at least 13 replicates might be needed to achieve reliable results. Moreover, the study shows how the t-test is in most cases improperly applied, while the proposed procedure allows to deal both with normally and of non-normally distributed data sets in a robust way. In one case, the apparent improvement of an ICS model as compared to the three-stone fire, is refuted by the application of our procedure.
August 2018
Experimental parametric study on product gas and tar composition in dual fluid bed gasification of woody biomass
Publication date: August 2018
Source:Biomass and Bioenergy, Volume 115 Author(s): Matthias Kuba, Hermann Hofbauer Tar measurements at two industrial-scale DFB gasification plants showed clear trends regarding the influence of the above mentioned parameters on the product gas and tar composition. Since data was gathered during tar measurement campaigns over the course of four years the density of information in industrial-scale was increased significantly. As different operation points, e.g. different capacities of the power plant, are included in the consideration, the verisimilitude is comparably high. It was shown, that reducing the operation temperature leads to an increase of the total tar amounts. However, while the concentration of the tar compounds benzofuran, styrene, and 1H-indene was increased when lowering the temperature, the concentration of naphthalene was decreased. These results were in good correlation with previous work from lab-scale investigations. The temperature did not have a measureable influence on the concentration of the tar compounds anthracene and ace-naphthalene, which was against former experience from lab-scale. The concentration of those larger PAHs anthracene and ace-naphthalene was more dominantly influenced by the bed height in the gasification reactor. Increasing the bed height led to a decrease of the concentration of larger PAHs while it did not have a distinctive influence on benzofuran, styrene, and 1H-indene. The reactor design was identified as an influencing effect, due to the presence of a moving bed section above the inclined wall, where no fluidization is ensured. Thus, additional fluidization nozzles were installed to reduce the effect of the inclined wall. Finally, two operation points for optimized long-term operation were derived from the results.
August 2018
Effect of ash circulation on the performance of a dual fluidized bed gasification system
Publication date: August 2018
Source:Biomass and Bioenergy, Volume 115 Author(s): S
August 2018
Economics of biofuels: Market potential of furfural and its derivatives
Publication date: August 2018
Source:Biomass and Bioenergy, Volume 115 Author(s): Kaveh Dalvand, Jonathan Rubin, Sampath Gunukula, M. Clayton Wheeler, Gary Hunt Production of biofuels from cellulosic materials continues to face major challenges in terms of economic profitability. Our research focuses on evaluating the economic potential of several major biochemical co-products derived from renewable fuel production that may help to overcome these challenges. In our thermal deoxygenation (TDO) process of renewable fuel production, furfural (a platform chemical) is produced in significant volumes. The quantity of furfural produced at commercial scale, however, will likely impact the national and world price of this industrial chemical. This will reduce its ability to play an important role in the total economic viability of the renewable fuel process. Thus, it is better to convert furfural to other products to have a smaller impact on market prices and, consequently, a higher profit margin for the renewable fuel process as a whole. In this paper we identify the furfural derivatives that have a considerable market size and can be derived from furfural in one or two steps of conversion. We then look at maximizing the profits of a multiproduct biofuel producer facing world demand curves that consider the effect of the producer's output on market prices. We solve the parameterized model using nonlinear optimization method under a variety of alternative assumptions and scenarios. Our results show that renewable fuel production can be made significantly more financially attractive through sales of furfural derivatives. A key issue to resolve is the elasticity and cross-elasticity of demand for our identified industrial chemical.
August 2018
Production and characterization of activated carbon from barley straw by physical activation with carbon dioxide and steam
Publication date: August 2018
Source:Biomass and Bioenergy, Volume 115 Author(s): Javier Pallar
August 2018
Using remote sensing to estimate forage biomass and nutrient contents at different growth stages
Publication date: August 2018
Source:Biomass and Bioenergy, Volume 115 Author(s): Lingjie Zeng, Chengci Chen Lignocellulosic biomass is an important feedstock for the second generation bioenergy production. A sustainable supply of biomass feedstock having consistent composition is critical for a biorefinery. This requires a timely monitoring and estimation of the biomass yield and composition in the field. It is not clear if one can use the near infrared (NIR) vegetation canopy reflectance measured in the field and build a calibrate model to estimate biomass yield and nutrient contents (compositions) for the vegetation from vegetative growth through dormancy stages. In this study, the NIR canopy reflectance of a grass/legume mixture was measured in a field with a spectroradiometer with wavelength ranging from 400-2500
August 2018
Fatty acid methyl ester production via ferric sulfate catalyzed interesterification
Publication date: August 2018
Source:Biomass and Bioenergy, Volume 115 Author(s): Yuan Tian, Junwei Xiang, Christopher C. Verni, Lindsay Soh While biodiesel production is on the rise, so too is the production of the low-value product, glycerol. Interesterification is an alternative reaction that produces fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) and avoids the production of glycerol. In this work, ferric sulfate is used as a potential heterogeneous catalyst for interesterification of model triglyceride, triolein, using methyl acetate. Reaction conditions were optimized by varying reaction temperature, methyl acetate to oil mole ratio (MAOMR), catalyst loading, as well as FAME as co-solvents. Additionally, this work also evaluated the effect of typical triglyceride feedstock contaminants, water and free fatty acids (FFA). The optimal reaction conditions were found to be 120
August 2018
Estimating biomass stocks and potential loss of biomass carbon through clear-felling of rubber plantations
Publication date: August 2018
Source:Biomass and Bioenergy, Volume 115 Author(s): Biplab Brahma, Arun Jyoti Nath, Gudeta W. Sileshi, Ashesh Kumar Das When latex production declines after 3540
August 2018
Hydrogen assisted catalytic biomass pyrolysis. Effect of temperature and pressure
Publication date: August 2018
Source:Biomass and Bioenergy, Volume 115 Author(s): M.Z. Stummann, M. H
August 2018
Water-energy-food nexus of sugarcane ethanol production in the state of Goi
August 2018
Performance enhancement by rumen cultures in anaerobic co-digestion of corn straw with pig manure
Publication date: August 2018
Source:Biomass and Bioenergy, Volume 115 Author(s): Wenyao Jin, Xiaochen Xu, Fenglin Yang, Conglin Li, Ming Zhou Anaerobic co-digestion of corn straw with pig manure by rumen cultures was investigated in this study. Both Box-Behnken design and response surface methodology (RSM) were conducted for parametric optimization in batch tests, and later evaluated the performance enhancement in biogas production for continuous anaerobic digestion test. The optimal pretreatment time and mixing ratio (C/N ratio) were obtained at 3 days and 1:1 (C/N ratio, 19.15:1), corresponding total VFA yield, acetate concentration and VSdegradation at 0.76
August 2018
Characterization of three tissue fractions in corn (Zea mays) cob
Publication date: August 2018
Source:Biomass and Bioenergy, Volume 115 Author(s): Masatsugu Takada, Rui Niu, Eiji Minami, Shiro Saka Corn (Zea mays) cob is composed of three tissue fractions, chaff, woody ring, and pith, with dry weight percentages of 21.1%, 77.5%, and 1.4%, respectively. In this study, the cell wall components in these tissue fractions were characterized to examine their tissue morphology. The chemical compositions in the three fractions were relatively similar, and hemicellulose was the main component. Through sugar composition analysis, hemicellulose was mainly composed of xylan in all fractions, whereas the proportion of arabinose and galactose was different in the woody ring. From the alkaline nitrobenzene oxidation analysis, lignin in all fractions was composed of guaiacyl, syringyl, and p-hydroxyphenyl lignins, whereas their ratios varied in the three fractions. Furthermore, the amounts of cinnamic acids such as ferulic and p-coumaric acids, which are associated with corn lignin, were also different among the three fractions. With respect to the tissue morphology, the component cells in the three fractions were totally different each other. Furthermore, from the ultraviolet microspectrophotometry of each morphological region in the three tissue fractions, lignin concentration and distribution of cinnamic acids were different from one morphological region to another. The differences in chemical composition and lignin structures influence the decomposition behaviors in various treatments; thus, this information provides a clue to promote efficient utilization of corn cob into value-added chemicals.
August 2018
Utilization of vineyard prunings: A new mechanization system from residues harvest to CHIPS production
Publication date: August 2018
Source:Biomass and Bioenergy, Volume 115 Author(s): Carlo Bisaglia, Elio Romano Italian wine-making covers 18.4% of global production and represents the world's largest production. Cultivation of the vineyards foresees the winter pruning necessary for preparation of the next year's production. The annual pruned biomass (13
August 2018
Lipid extraction from Yarrowia lipolytica biomass using high-pressure homogenization
Publication date: August 2018
Source:Biomass and Bioenergy, Volume 115 Author(s): Lucie Dr
August 2018
Aboveground biomass partitioning and additive models for Combretum glutinosum and Terminalia laxiflora in West Africa
Publication date: August 2018
Source:Biomass and Bioenergy, Volume 115 Author(s): Kangb
August 2018
Variety earliness effect on field drying of biomass sorghum
Publication date: August 2018
Source:Biomass and Bioenergy, Volume 115 Author(s): M. Colauzzi, P. Serra, S. Amaducci A major constraint to the use of biomass sorghum varieties (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) to generate electricity by direct combustion is the high biomass moisture content at harvest that, under unfavourable weather conditions during field drying limits the possibility to achieve a suitable moisture content for baling. In this work, the CropSyst model was calibrated and validated with data collected in experimental trials conducted in the Po Valley (northern Italy). It was then used to simulate biomass production of three sorghum varieties of contrasting earliness (early, medium-late, and late). In order to simulate the dynamics of biomass moisture content during field drying, a specific model, sorghum haying model, was developed and validated. The two models combined were used to simulate, for three sorghum varieties of contrasting earliness (early, medium-late and late), biomass production and the probability to achieve during field drying a biomass moisture content suitable for baling. In a long term simulation (140 years), the late sorghum variety achieved the highest dry biomass production (16.5
August 2018
Combustion of fast pyrolysis bio-oil and blends in a micro gas turbine
Publication date: August 2018
Source:Biomass and Bioenergy, Volume 115 Author(s): Marco Buffi, Alessandro Cappelletti, Andrea Maria Rizzo, Francesco Martelli, David Chiaramonti The use of Fast Pyrolysis Bio-Oil (FPBO) as fuel was studied in a small scale non-regenerated micro gas turbine, set up in a dedicated test rig. The system includes a dedicated injection line and a modified combustor to burn efficiently high volume fractions of FPBO-in-ethanol solution. The effect of the larger combustor volume improved the quality of the combustion of the reference diesel oil and pure ethanol as regards exhaust emissions, while maintaining unchanged fuel consumptions of the original configuration. Tests with 20/80 and 50/50% (volume fractions) of FPBO/ethanol blends showed successfully and stable engine operation. By increasing the FPBO volume fraction in the fuel blend, an increase in CO emissions was observed - probably due to the larger droplets derived from the more viscous fuel - as well as in NOX emissions - probably due to fuel-bound nitrogen. Considering the proposed modifications and FPBO/ethanol blend as fuel, the engine reached an overall electrical efficiency higher than that measured with benchmark diesel fuel. A final run with 100% FPBO feeding showed unstable combustion with the presence of carbon deposits in the hot parts of the system, showing that the present configuration requires further modifications to achieve this goal. Guidelines were provided for the implementation of further upgraded solutions for MGTs towards viscous, acidic and aqueous fuels feeding.
August 2018
Development of an innovative two-stage fermentation process for high-calorific biogas at elevated pressure
Publication date: August 2018
Source:Biomass and Bioenergy, Volume 115 Author(s): Katharina B
August 2018
Polyurethane foams produced from pyrolysis oil Production and possible application
Publication date: August 2018
Source:Biomass and Bioenergy, Volume 115 Author(s): Tim Schulzke, Anastasiia Iakovleva, Qiongmin Cao, Stefan Conrad, Sergey Zabelkin, Andrey Grachev Rigid polyurethane (PU) foams are widely used for instance in building insulation. Two component systems comprising of a polyol as component A and a diisocyanate as component B are generally applied. Both components are produced from fossil oil resources. The liquid products from fast pyrolysis of biomass contain a large variety of organic compounds with OH functional groups. This gives rise to the idea to substitute the polyol component in PU foams with such biomass based intermediates. Pyrolysis condensates derived from woody and herbaceous biomass were dried and samples of PU foams were produced with varying amounts of condensate substituting the polyol component. Especially the foams made from condensates produced from straw showed good insulation properties, which were expressed as low thermal conductivity. Here, with a substitution degree of 80% a thermal conductivity of 0.0283
August 2018
Effect of water regime change in a mature Arundo donax crop under a Xeric Mediterranean climate
Publication date: August 2018
Source:Biomass and Bioenergy, Volume 115 Author(s): Mar
August 2018
Elucidation of syngas composition from catalytic steam gasification of lignin, cellulose, actual and simulated biomasses
Publication date: August 2018
Source:Biomass and Bioenergy, Volume 115 Author(s): Ahsanullah Soomro, Shiyi Chen, Shiwei Ma, Changchun Xu, Zhao Sun, Wenguo Xiang This work presents research into the gasification of cellulose, lignin, simulated and two actual biomasses which are rich in cellulose and lignin contents, in order to evaluate and compare their gas products and also understand their gasification processes in presence of CaO by varying the CaO to biomass feed ratio from 0 to 1.5
August 2018
Labor-intensive techniques for recovering energy biomass from forest tending operations
Publication date: August 2018
Source:Biomass and Bioenergy, Volume 115 Author(s): Mehmet Eker, Raffaele Spinelli The study investigated the collection of renewable energy feedstock from the early thinning of red pine (Pinus brutia Ten.) forests, using labor-intensive semi-mechanized work techniques especially suitable for developing economies. The production of energy biomass may improve the financial sustainability of early thinning operations, promoting better forest management. The study was conducted on 165 trees, distributed among 6 stands in order to obtain general representation. Each tree record included tree weight by product type and the time to fell, extract and process the tree into commercial products. The experiment showed that early thinning may offer between 1.3 and 4.9
August 2018
Possibilities for CO2 emission reduction using biomass in European integrated steel plants
Publication date: August 2018
Source:Biomass and Bioenergy, Volume 115 Author(s): H. Mandova, S. Leduc, C. Wang, E. Wetterlund, P. Patrizio, W. Gale, F. Kraxner Iron and steel plants producing steel via the blast furnace-basic oxygen furnace (BF-BOF) route constitute among the largest single point CO2 emitters within the European Union (EU). As the iron ore reduction process in the blast furnace is fully dependent on carbon mainly supplied by coal and coke, bioenergy is the only renewable that presents a possibility for their partial substitution. Using the BeWhere model, this work optimised the mobilization and use of biomass resources within the EU in order to identify the opportunities that bioenergy can bring to the 30 operating BF-BOF plants. The results demonstrate competition for the available biomass resources within existing industries and economically unappealing prices of the bio-based fuels. A carbon dioxide price of 60 t
August 2018
New biomass products, small-scale plants and vertical integration as opportunities for rural development
Publication date: August 2018
Source:Biomass and Bioenergy, Volume 115 Author(s): Raffaele Spinelli, Luigi Pari, Natascia Magagnotti The study surveyed eight small-scale operations designed to produce wood pellets and microchips, the latter intended as a low-price pellet surrogate. Surveyed operations were equally spread between the two product types, and they all targeted residential users. They were all run by forest owners or forest contractors, driven to the new business by the need to increase the value of low quality wood and to fill the gap created by a dwindling firewood demand. Production cost averaged 228 t
August 2018
Pathway-specific genetic pretreatment strategy to improve bioenergy feedstock
Publication date: August 2018
Source:Biomass and Bioenergy, Volume 115 Author(s): Jae-Heung Ko, Won-Chan Kim, Jong Hee Im, Joo-Yeol Kim, Sara Patterson, Kyung-Hwan Han The plant secondary wall is composed of a complex mixture of cellulose, hemicellulose (e.g., xylan), and lignin. The transcription factor MYB46 (At5g12870) has been reported as a central regulator of the secondary wall formation. However, constitutive overexpression of MYB46 results in a severe growth penalty, possibly due to ectopic lignification in the parenchymatous and photosynthetic cells. To test this hypothesis, we constitutively overexpressed MYB46 in the genetic background of a T-DNA insertion mutant 4cl1-2 of 4-coumarate-CoA ligase 1 (4CL1), a key lignin biosynthesis gene. As expected, the transgenic Arabidopsis plants 35S::MYB46/4cl1-2 grow normally, similarly to the 4cl1-2 mutant, with elevated expressions of three secondary wall cellulose synthase genes and xylan biosynthesis genes. Consistent with the gene expression changes, the immunohistological staining of stem tissues showed the increased accumulation of both cellulose and xylan contents in the 35S::MYB46/4cl1-2 plants. Further biochemical analyses confirmed that 35S::MYB46/4cl1-2 plants have higher level accumulations of crystalline cellulose and xylan in both leaf and stem tissues than wild-type control plants as well as the 4cl1-2 mutant, up to 1.18- and 1.13-fold respectively, with considerably reduced lignin content (up to 0.40-fold). Subsequent analysis of enzymatic glucose release from cell wall materials revealed that 35S::MYB46/4cl1-2 plants have higher yields up to 1.27-fold increase in both leaf and stem tissues than that of control plants and 4cl1-2 mutant. Our results showed that overexpression of MYB46 with simultaneous reduction of lignin biosynthesis significantly increases both fermentable sugar contents and cell wall digestibility without growth penalty associated with MYB46 overexpression.
July 2018
Enhanced butanol production using Clostridium beijerinckii SE-2 from the waste of corn processing
Publication date: August 2018
Source:Biomass and Bioenergy, Volume 115 Author(s): Jie Zhang, Baolei Jia Acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation from food processing waste is one way to reduce cost. In this study, corncob hydrolysate and corn steep liquor (CSL), two waste materials from corn processing industries, were used as carbon and nitrogen sources to yield butanol by using Clostridium beijerinckii SE-2. Media compositions favoring butanol production were investigated using statistical experimental designs. Media components were first screened using a fractional factorial experimental design. CSL and CH3COONH4 were found to be the significant variables among six factors, including the contents of CSL, CH3COONH4, K2HPO4-KH2PO4, MnSO4 H2O, MgSO4 7H2O and FeSO4 7H2O. The two factors were further optimized by the steepest assent and central composite rotatable design. The validated experiments showed that the total ABE in the system was 19.22

Editorial Board
Publication date: July 2018
Source:Biomass and Bioenergy, Volume 114


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