Journal Sciences News
Spectrochimica Acta Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
Available online 21 May 2018
Predictors of falls and fractures leading to hospitalization in people with schizophrenia spectrum disorder: A large representative cohort study
Publication date: Available online 22 May 2018
Source:Schizophrenia Research Author(s): Brendon Stubbs, Christoph Mueller, Fiona Gaughran, John Lally, Davy Vancampfort, Sarah E. Lamb, Ai Koyanagi, Shalini Sharma, Robert Stewart, Gayan Perera Aim To investigate predictors of falls/fractures leading to hospitalisation in people with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders. Methods A historical cohort of people with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders (ICD F20-29) from 01/200612/2012 was assembled using data from the South London and Maudsley NHS Biomedical Research Centre Case Register. Falls/fractures were ascertained from a linkage to national hospitalisation data. Separate multivariate Cox regression analyses were employed to identify predictors of falls and fractures. Results Of 11,567 people with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders (mean age 42.6
Available online 21 May 2018
Increased plasticity of bodily self-experience in individuals who may carry latent liability for schizophrenia
Publication date: Available online 21 May 2018
Source:Schizophrenia Research Author(s): Taylor L. Benson, Sohee Park Self-disturbances such as altered perception of one's own body boundary are central to the lived-in experience of schizophrenia. Bodily self-disturbances are also prevalent in healthy individuals who may carry latent liability for schizophrenia. Much of the research on self-disturbances rely on clinical interviews but these experiences are often difficult to verbalize, conceptualize and quantify. Furthermore, experimental evidence for plasticity of bodily self-experience in the schizophrenia-spectrum is scarce. We sought to quantify body boundary experience in healthy young adults who might be at an increased risk for schizophrenia with a multisensory paradigm known as the Pinocchio Illusion (PI) task that engenders the feeling that one's nose is changing, and has previously been used to demonstrate increased plasticity of bodily self-boundary in schizophrenia. 62 college students participated in the PI task that assessed bodily self-disturbances, and a tactile discrimination task. We administered the Prodromal Questionnaire Brief (PQ-B) and the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ) to assess latent liability for schizophrenia. We found that PI was enhanced in individuals with elevated PQ-B scores but their tactile sensitivity was intact. PI was associated with the positive syndrome of schizotypy, but not with negative or disorganized factors. Increased PQ-B and SPQ scores were associated with loneliness. To conclude, these results highlight the importance of bodily self-disturbances in the broader context of the schizophrenia spectrum.
Available online 19 May 2018
Evidence that the association of childhood trauma with psychosis and related psychopathology is not explained by gene-environment correlation: A monozygotic twin differences approach
Publication date: Available online 21 May 2018
Source:Schizophrenia Research Author(s): Aleksandra Lecei, Jeroen Decoster, Marc De Hert, Catherine Derom, Nele Jacobs, Claudia Menne-Lothmann, Jim van Os, Evert Thiery, Bart P.F. Rutten, Marieke Wichers, Ruud van Winkel Background Converging evidence supports childhood trauma as possible causal risk for psychosis and related psychopathology. However, studies have shown that baseline psychotic symptoms may actually increase risk for subsequent victimization, suggesting that exposure to CT is not random but may result from pre-existing vulnerability. Therefore, studies testing whether the association between CT and psychopathology persists when accounting for gene-environment correlation are much needed. Methods A monozygotic (MZ) twin differences approach was used to examine whether differences in CT exposure among MZ twin pairs would be associated with MZ differences in symptoms. As MZ twins are genetically identical, within-pair correlations between CT exposure and psychopathology rule out the possibility that the association is solely attributable to gene-environment correlation. 266 monozygotic twins (133 pairs) from a larger general population study were available for analysis. Results CT was associated with symptoms of psychosis (B
Available online 18 May 2018
Systems-level analysis of risk genes reveals the modular nature of schizophrenia
Publication date: Available online 19 May 2018
Source:Schizophrenia Research Author(s): Jiewei Liu, Ming Li, Xiong-Jian Luo, Bing Su Schizophrenia (SCZ) is a complex mental disorder with high heritability. Genetic studies (especially recent genome-wide association studies) have identified many risk genes for schizophrenia. However, the physical interactions among the proteins encoded by schizophrenia risk genes remain elusive and it is not known whether the identified risk genes converge on common molecular networks or pathways. Here we systematically investigated the network characteristics of schizophrenia risk genes using the high-confidence protein-protein interactions (PPI) from the human interactome. We found that schizophrenia risk genes encode a densely interconnected PPI network (P
Available online 18 May 2018
Of minds and men: Suits, spirits, and psychosis
Publication date: Available online 18 May 2018
Source:Schizophrenia Research Author(s): Edward Christopher Dee
Available online 18 May 2018
Childhood trauma and clinical high risk for psychosis
Publication date: Available online 18 May 2018
Source:Schizophrenia Research Author(s): Rachel L. Loewy, Sarah Corey, Felix Amirfathi, Sawsan Dabit, Daniel Fulford, Rahel Pearson, Jessica P.Y. Hua, Danielle Schlosser, Barbara K. Stuart, Daniel H. Mathalon, Sophia Vinogradov As a risk factor for psychosis, childhood trauma rates are elevated in the clinical-high-risk (CHR) syndrome compared to the general population. However, it is unknown whether trauma is typically experienced in childhood or adolescence/young adulthood, whether it occurred prior to CHR syndrome onset, and how severe trauma relates to presenting symptoms. In this study, we examined the relationship of trauma history to symptoms and functioning in individuals diagnosed with the CHR syndrome on the Structured Interview for Psychosis-Risk Syndromes (N
Available online 16 May 2018
Cortical thickness correlates of minor neurological signs in patients with first episode psychosis
Publication date: Available online 18 May 2018
Source:Schizophrenia Research Author(s): Simone Ciufolini, Maria Francesca Ponteduro, Tiago Reis-Marques, Heather Taylor, Valeria Mondelli, Carmine M. Pariante, Stefania Bonaccorso, Raymond Chan, Andy Simmons, Anthony David, Marta Di Forti, Robin M. Murray, Paola Dazzan Neurological soft signs (NSS) are subtle abnormalities of motor and sensory function that are present in the absence of localized brain pathological lesions. In psychoses they have been consistently associated with a distinct pattern of cortical and subcortical brain structural alterations at the level of the heteromodal cortex and basal ganglia. However, a more specific and accurate evaluation of the cytoarchitecture of the cortical mantle could further advance our understanding of the neurobiological substrate of psychosis. We investigated the relationship between brain structure and NSS in a sample of 66 patients at their first episode of psychosis. We used the Neurological Evaluation Scale for neurological assessment and high-resolution MRI and Freesurfer to explore cortical thickness and surface area. Higher rates of NSS were associated with a reduction of cortical thickness in the precentral and postcentral gyri, inferior-parietal, superior temporal, and fusiform gyri. Higher rates of NSS were also associated with smaller surface areas of superior temporal gyrus and frontal regions (including middle frontal, superior and orbito-frontal gyri). Finally, more sensory integration signs were also associated with larger surface area of the latero-occipital region. We conclude that the presence of NSS in psychosis is associated with distinct but widespread changes in cortical thickness and surface area, in areas crucial for sensory-motor integration and for the fluid execution of movement. Studying these morphological correlates with advanced neuroimaging techniques can continue to improve our knowledge on the neurobiological substrate of these important functional correlates of psychosis.
Available online 11 May 2018
The association between psychotic experiences and health-related quality of life: a cross-national analysis based on World Mental Health Surveys
Publication date: Available online 16 May 2018
Source:Schizophrenia Research Author(s): Jordi Alonso, Sukanta Saha, Carmen C.W. Lim, Sergio Aguilar-Gaxiola, Ali Al-Hamzawi, Corina Benjet, Evelyn J. Bromet, Louisa Degenhardt, Giovanni de Girolamo, Oluyomi Esan, Silvia Florescu, Oye Gureje, Josep M. Haro, Chiyi Hu, Elie G. Karam, Georges Karam, Viviane Kovess-Masfety, Jean-Pierre Lepine, Sing Lee, Zeina Mneimneh, Fernando Navarro-Mateu, Jose Posada-Villa, Nancy A. Sampson, Kate M. Scott, Juan Carlos Stagnaro, Margreet ten Have, Maria Carmen Viana, Ronald C. Kessler, John J. McGrath Psychotic experiences (PEs) are associated with a range of mental and physical disorders, and disability, but little is known about the association between PEs and aspects of health-related quality of life (HRQoL). We aimed to investigate the association between PEs and five HRQoL indicators with various adjustments. Using data from the WHO World Mental Health surveys (n
Available online 10 May 2018
Dysbindin-1 contributes to prefrontal cortical dendritic arbor pathology in schizophrenia
Publication date: Available online 11 May 2018
Source:Schizophrenia Research Author(s): Glenn T. Konopaske, Darrick T. Balu, Kendall T. Presti, Grace Chan, Francine M. Benes, Joseph T. Coyle Deep layer III pyramidal cells in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) from subjects with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder previously were shown to exhibit dendritic arbor pathology. This study sought to determine whether MARCKS, its regulatory protein dysbindin-1, and two proteins, identified using microarray data, CDC42BPA and ARHGEF6, were associated with dendritic arbor pathology in the DLPFC from schizophrenia and bipolar disorder subjects. Using western blotting, relative protein expression was assessed in the DLPFC (BA 46) grey matter from subjects with schizophrenia (n
Available online 8 May 2018
Sexual abuse and psychosis: The security of research findings
Publication date: Available online 10 May 2018
Source:Schizophrenia Research Author(s): Paul E. Bebbington
Available online 7 May 2018
Age-related trajectories of social cognition in youth at clinical high risk for psychosis: An exploratory study
Publication date: Available online 8 May 2018
Source:Schizophrenia Research Author(s): Charlie A. Davidson, Danijela Piskulic, Jean Addington, Kristen S. Cadenhead, Tyrone D. Cannon, Barbara A. Cornblatt, Thomas H. McGlashan, Diana O. Perkins, Larry J. Seidman, Ming T. Tsuang, Elaine F. Walker, Carrie E. Bearden, Daniel H. Mathalon, Scott W. Woods, Jason K. Johannesen Background Clinical high risk (CHR) status is characterized by impairments in social cognition, but questions remain concerning their stability over development. In cross-sectional analysis of a large naturalistic sample, the current study examined whether those at CHR status show deviant trajectories for age-related change in social cognitive ability, and whether these trajectories are influenced by treatment history. Method Emotion perception (EP) and theory of mind (ToM) were assessed in 675 CHR and 263 healthy comparison (HC) participants aged 1235. Age effects in CHR were modeled against HC age-expected performance. Prior medication status was tested for interactions with age. Results CHR exhibited normal age trajectory for EP, but significantly lower slopes for ToM from age 17 onward. This effect was specific to stimuli exhibiting sarcasm and not to detection of lies. When treatment history was included in the model, age-trajectory appeared normal in CHR subjects previously prescribed both antipsychotics and antidepressant medication, although the blunted trajectory still characterized 80% of the sample. Discussion Cross-sectional analyses suggested that blunting of ToM in CHR develops in adolescence, while EP abilities were diminished evenly across the age range. Exploratory analyses of treatment history suggested that ToM was not affected, however, in CHRs with lifetime histories of both antipsychotic and antidepressant medications. Reduction in age-expected ToM ability may impair the ability of individuals at CHR to meet social developmental challenges in adolescence. Medication effects on social cognition deserve further study.
Available online 7 May 2018
Patterns in adolescent cannabis use predict the onset and symptom structure of schizophrenia-spectrum disorder
Publication date: Available online 7 May 2018
Source:Schizophrenia Research Author(s): C. Shahzade, J. Chun, L.E. DeLisi, T.C. Manschreck This study investigated adolescent cannabis use as a risk factor for schizophrenia spectrum disorder (SSD). Motives for early cannabis use and resulting usage patterns were examined alongside clinical measures of SSD onset and symptomatology. Participants (N
Available online 6 May 2018
Birth experiences, trauma responses and self-concept in postpartum psychotic-like experiences
Publication date: Available online 7 May 2018
Source:Schizophrenia Research Author(s): Lyndsey Holt, William Sellwood, Pauline Slade The frequency of psychotic-like experiences (PLEs) amongst new mothers is beginning to be explored but the mechanisms underlying such experiences are yet to be understood. First time mothers (N =10,000) receiving maternity care via the UK National Health Service were contacted postnatally via Emma's Diary, an online resource for mothers. Measures assessed birth experience, trauma appraisals, post-traumatic stress symptoms, adjustment to motherhood, self-concept clarity and PLEs (in the form of hallucinations and delusions). There was a 13.9% response rate (N =1393) and 1303 participants reported experiencing at least one PLE (93.5%). Three competing nested path models were analysed. A more negative birth experience directly predicted delusions, but not hallucinations. Trauma appraisals and poorer adjustment to motherhood indirectly predicted PLEs, via disturbed self-concept clarity. Post-traumatic stress symptoms directly predicted the occurrence of all PLEs. PLEs in first time mothers may be more common than previously thought. A key new understanding is that where new mothers have experienced birth as traumatic and are struggling with adjustment to their new role, this can link to disturbances in a coherent sense of self (self-concept clarity) and be an important predictor of PLEs. Understanding the development of PLEs in new mothers may be helpful in postnatal care, as would public health interventions aimed at reducing the sense of abnormality or stigma surrounding such experiences.
Available online 4 May 2018
The relationship between the level of exposure to stress factors and cannabis in recent onset psychosis
Publication date: Available online 6 May 2018
Source:Schizophrenia Research Author(s): Sara Arranz, Nuria Monferrer, M. Jose Algora, Angel Cabezas, Montse Sole, E. Vilella, J. Labad, Vanessa Sanchez-Gistau Background There is a lack of studies investigating the dose-response effect of childhood trauma, recent events and cannabis use on recent psychosis. This study aims to determine the relationship between the level of exposure to stress factors and cannabis use with psychosis and to determine the combination effect among these factors in predicting a psychotic disorder. Methods 146 recent onset psychotic (ROP) patients and 61 healthy controls were included. Childhood trauma was evaluated using the childhood trauma questionnaire (CTQ) and recent events using the Holmes-Rahe social readjustment scale. The pattern of cannabis use was assessed by a detailed interview. A hierarchical multiple regression was run in order to determine both the cumulative and independent contribution of each factor in predicting a psychotic disorder. Results The highest levels of exposure to childhood trauma and cannabis were associated with psychosis while neither low nor high recent event exposure was associated. The combined effect of risk factors yielded a significant association with psychosis (
Available online 4 May 2018
Enhancing stress reactivity and wellbeing in early schizophrenia: A pilot study of individual coping awareness therapy (I-CAT)
Publication date: Available online 4 May 2018
Source:Schizophrenia Research Author(s): Piper S. Meyer-Kalos, Kelsey A. Ludwig, Susan Gaylord, Diana O. Perkins, Karen Grewen, Olafur S. Palsson, Margaret Burchinal, David L. Penn
Available online 3 May 2018
Polygenic Risk Score and the (neuro)developmental ontogenesis of the schizophrenia spectrum vulnerability phenotypes
Publication date: Available online 4 May 2018
Source:Schizophrenia Research Author(s): Michele Poletti, Andrea Raballo
Available online 3 May 2018
Association between catechol-O-methyltransferase genetic variation and functional connectivity in patients with first-episode schizophrenia
Publication date: Available online 3 May 2018
Source:Schizophrenia Research Author(s): Hongyan Wang, Bin Zhang, Botao Zeng, Yingying Tang, Tianhong Zhang, Shanshan Zhao, Chunbo Li, Jijun Wang, Donald C. Goff Dopamine in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) plays an important role in cognitive performance and regulates by catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) expression. To clarify the effect of COMT genotype on cognitive function in patients with schizophrenia, we performed DNA genotyping, cognitive evaluations, and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in antipsychotic-na
Available online 2 May 2018
Improving cognitive training for schizophrenia using neuroplasticity enhancers: Lessons from decades of basic and clinical research
Publication date: Available online 3 May 2018
Source:Schizophrenia Research Author(s): G.D. Guercio, M.E. Thomas, J.M. Cisneros-Franco, P. Voss, R. Panizzutti, E. de Villers-Sidani Mounting evidence indicates that schizophrenia is a disorder that stems from maladaptive plasticity within neural circuits and produces broad cognitive deficits leading to loss of autonomy. A large number of studies have identified abnormalities spanning many neurotransmitter systems in schizophrenia, and as a result, a variety of drugs have been developed to attempt to treat these abnormalities and enhance cognition. Unfortunately, positive results have been limited so far. This may be in part because the scope of abnormalities in the schizophrenic brain requires a treatment capable of engaging many different neurotransmitter systems. One approach to achieving this kind of treatment has been to use neuroplasticity-based computerized cognitive training programs to stimulate the formation of more adaptive circuits. Although the number of studies implementing this approach has increased exponentially in recent years, effect sizes for cognitive gains have been modest and adherence to treatment remains an important challenge in many studies, as patients are often required to train for 40
Available online 2 May 2018
Identifying the genetic risk factors for treatment response to lurasidone by genome-wide association study: A meta-analysis of samples from three independent clinical trials
Publication date: Available online 2 May 2018
Source:Schizophrenia Research Author(s): Jiang Li, Antony Loebel, Herbert Y. Meltzer A genome-wide association study (GWAS) of response of schizophrenia patients to the atypical antipsychotic drug, lurasidone, based on two double-blind registration trials, identified SNPs from four classes of genes as predictors of efficacy, but none were genome wide significant (GWS). After inclusion of data from a third lurasidone trial, meta-analysis identified a GWS marker and other findings consistent with our first study. The primary end-point was change in Total Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) between baseline and last observation carried forward. rs4736253, a genetic locus near KCNK9, encoding the K2P9.1 potassium channel, with a role in cognition and neurodevelopment, was the top marker in patients of European ancestry (EUR) (n
May 2018
Premature mortality among people with severe mental illness New evidence from linked primary care data
Publication date: Available online 2 May 2018
Source:Schizophrenia Research Author(s): Ann John, Joanna McGregor, Ian Jones, Sze Chim Lee, James T.R. Walters, Michael J. Owen, Michael O'Donovan, Marcos DelPozo-Banos, Damon Berridge, Keith Lloyd Studies assessing premature mortality in people with severe mental illness (SMI) are usually based in one setting, hospital (secondary care inpatients and/or outpatients) or community (primary care). This may lead to ascertainment bias. This study aimed to estimate standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) for all-cause and cause-specific mortality in people with SMI drawn from linked primary and secondary care populations compared to the general population. SMRs were calculated using the indirect method for a United Kingdom population of almost four million between 2004 and 2013. The all-cause SMR was higher in the cohort identified from secondary care hospital admissions (SMR: 2.9; 95% CI: 2.83.0) than from primary care (SMR: 2.2; 95% CI: 2.12.3) when compared to the general population. The SMR for the combined cohort was 2.6 (95% CI: 2.52.6). Cause specific SMRs in the combined cohort were particularly elevated in those with SMI relative to the general population for ill-defined and unknown causes, suicide, substance abuse, Parkinson's disease, accidents, dementia, infections and respiratory disorders (particularly pneumonia), and Alzheimer's disease. Solely hospital admission based studies, which have dominated the literature hitherto, somewhat over-estimate premature mortality in those with SMI. People with SMI are more likely to die by ill-defined and unknown causes, suicide and other less common and often under-reported causes. Comprehensive characterisation of mortality is important to inform policy and practice and to discriminate settings to allow for proportionate interventions to address this health injustice.
May 2018
Editorial Board
Publication date: May 2018
Source:Schizophrenia Research, Volume 195

May 2018
Clinical Highlights in this issue
Publication date: May 2018
Source:Schizophrenia Research, Volume 195 Author(s): John Torous, Matcheri Keshavan
May 2018
Multiple retinal anomalies in schizophrenia
Publication date: May 2018
Source:Schizophrenia Research, Volume 195 Author(s): Selin A. Adams, Henry A. Nasrallah Introduction In addition to being a critical component of the visual system, the retina provides the opportunity for an accessible and noninvasive probe of brain pathology in neuropsychiatric disorders. Several studies have reported various retinal abnormalities in schizophrenia, some primary and others iatrogenic. There is now increasing evidence supporting the existence of retinal anomalies in schizophrenia across structural, neurochemical and physiological parameters. Here, we review the types of retinal pathology in schizophrenia and discuss how these findings may provide novel insights for future research into the neurodevelopmental neurobiology of this syndrome, and possibly as useful biomarkers. Methods Using the keywords schizophrenia, retina, pathology, electroretinogram (ERG), and/or optical coherence tomography (OCT) on PubMed, all studies using the English language within 30years were reviewed. Methods were examined, and common themes were identified, tabulated, and discussed. Results We classified the reports of retinal pathology into primary and secondary. The major secondary retinal pathology is related to the iatrogenic effects of a once widely prescribed first generation antipsychotic (thioridazine), which was found to be associated with retinal pigment deposits, decreased visual acuity, and suppression of dark adapted ERG responses. The primary retinal findings were obtained via different measures primarily using ERG, OCT, and microvascular imaging. The most consistent findings were 1) decreased ERG wave amplitudes, 2) reduced macular volume, 3) thinning of retinal nerve fiber layer, and 4) widened venule caliber. Conclusion The abnormal pathobiological findings of the retina in schizophrenia may represent an important avenue for elucidating some of the neurodevelopmental aberrations in schizophrenia. The well replicated retinal anomalies could serve as biomarkers for schizophrenia and perhaps an endophenotype that may help identify at-risk individuals and to facilitate early intervention.
May 2018
Do trauma-focussed psychological interventions have an effect on psychotic symptoms? A systematic review and meta-analysis
Publication date: May 2018
Source:Schizophrenia Research, Volume 195 Author(s): Rachel M. Brand, Carla McEnery, Susan Rossell, Sarah Bendall, Neil Thomas There is growing recognition of the relationship between trauma, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and psychosis. There may be overlaps in causal mechanisms involved in the development of PTSD and psychosis following traumatic or adverse events. Trauma-focussed treatments found to be effective in treating PTSD may therefore represent a new direction in the psychological treatment of psychosis. This systematic review examined the literature on trauma-focussed treatments conducted with people with schizophrenia spectrum or psychotic disorders to determine effects on psychotic symptoms. Secondary outcomes were symptoms of PTSD, depression and anxiety. Twenty-five studies were included in the review, with 12 being included in the meta-analysis. Trauma-focussed treatments had a small, significant effect (g=0.31, CI [0.55, 0.06]) on positive symptoms immediately post-treatment, but the significance and magnitude of this effect was not maintained at follow-up (g=0.18, CI [0.42,
May 2018
Schizophrenia and creativity: A meta-analytic review
Publication date: May 2018
Source:Schizophrenia Research, Volume 195 Author(s): Selcuk Acar, Xiao Chen, Nur Cayirdag The present study investigated the relationship between creativity and schizophrenia with a 3-level multilevel meta-analytic approach. Analyses with 200 effect sizes obtained from 42 studies found a mean effect size of r =
May 2018
A systematic review of metabolite biomarkers of schizophrenia
Publication date: May 2018
Source:Schizophrenia Research, Volume 195 Author(s): Jennifer Davison, Aoife O'Gorman, Lorraine Brennan, David R. Cotter Current diagnosis of schizophrenia relies exclusively on the potentially subjective interpretation of clinical symptoms and social functioning as more objective biological measurement and medical diagnostic tests are not presently available. The use of metabolomics in the discovery of disease biomarkers has grown in recent years. Metabolomic methods could aid in the discovery of diagnostic biomarkers of schizophrenia. This systematic review focuses on biofluid metabolites associated with schizophrenia. A systematic search of Web of Science and Ovid Medline databases was conducted and 63 studies investigating metabolite biomarkers of schizophrenia were included. A review of these studies revealed several potential metabolite signatures of schizophrenia including reduced levels of essential polyunsaturated fatty acids (EPUFAs), vitamin E and creatinine; and elevated levels of lipid peroxidation metabolites and glutamate. Further research is needed to validate these biomarkers and would benefit from large cohort studies and more homogeneous and well-defined subject groups.
May 2018
Genetic analysis of deep phenotyping projects in common disorders
Publication date: May 2018
Source:Schizophrenia Research, Volume 195 Author(s): Elliot S. Gershon, Godfrey Pearlson, Matcheri S. Keshavan, Carol Tamminga, Brett Clementz, Peter F. Buckley, Ney Alliey-Rodriguez, Chunyu Liu, John A. Sweeney, Sarah Keedy, Shashwath A. Meda, Neeraj Tandon, Rebecca Shafee, Jeffrey R. Bishop, Elena I. Ivleva Several studies of complex psychotic disorders with large numbers of neurobiological phenotypes are currently under way, in living patients and controls, and on assemblies of brain specimens. Genetic analyses of such data typically present challenges, because of the choice of underlying hypotheses on genetic architecture of the studied disorders and phenotypes, large numbers of phenotypes, the appropriate multiple testing corrections, limited numbers of subjects, imputations required on missing phenotypes and genotypes, and the cross-disciplinary nature of the phenotype measures. Advances in genotype and phenotype imputation, and in genome-wide association (GWAS) methods, are useful in dealing with these challenges. As compared with the more traditional single-trait analyses, deep phenotyping with simultaneous genome-wide analyses serves as a discovery tool for previously unsuspected relationships of phenotypic traits with each other, and with specific molecular involvements.
May 2018
Depression during first episode psychosis and subsequent suicide risk: A systematic review and meta-analysis of longitudinal studies
Publication date: May 2018
Source:Schizophrenia Research, Volume 195 Author(s): Jessica McGinty, M. Sayeed Haque, Rachel Upthegrove Background Evidence suggests first episode psychosis (FEP) is associated with suicide, and the influence of depression on suicidal behaviour in cross sectional studies is clear. However the influence of depression during FEP on longer-term mortality is not certain. Existing evidence was synthesised to understand the influence of depressive symptoms during FEP on subsequent suicidal behaviour. Methods Medline, Embase, PsycINFO, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, OpenGrey, and NICE Evidence were searched from inception to Jan 25, 2017. Longitudinal observational studies assessing the relationship between depressive symptoms during FEP with a measure of s at a specified follow-up time were included. Summary estimates were extracted. The Downs and Black Instrument was used to appraise study quality. Odds ratio (OR) of suicidal behaviour were calculated using random effects meta-analyses. The study protocol was registered with PROSPERO (CRD42017055881). Results Of 4210 articles found, 23 fulfilled eligibility criteria. 13 were included in meta-analysis (n =3002). 428 participants demonstrated suicidal behaviour in the study periods. Odds of suicidal behaviour during follow-up were significantly higher among patients with depressive symptoms during FEP compared to those without (OR=1.59, 95% CI 1.142.21; I2=50.0%, p =0.02). Meta-regression demonstrated no evidence of influence of length of follow-up on results. Conclusions Depressive symptoms during FEP are associated with increased longer-term risk of suicidal behaviour. This association should be acknowledged during early management planning. Large-scale clinical trials are needed to identify efficacious management of depression during FEP.
May 2018
Prevalence of underweight in patients with schizophrenia: A meta-analysis
Publication date: May 2018
Source:Schizophrenia Research, Volume 195 Author(s): Norio Sugawara, Kazushi Maruo, Takuro Sugai, Yutaro Suzuki, Yuji Ozeki, Kazutaka Shimoda, Toshiyuki Someya, Norio Yasui-Furukori Aims Although the relationship between body mass index and all-cause mortality is U-shaped, underweight has received comparatively less attention than obesity. There is only limited evidence to date regarding underweight among patients with schizophrenia. This is the first meta-analysis to address the prevalence of underweight in these patients. Methods We conducted database searches (PubMed, PsycINFO) to identify studies examining underweight in patients with schizophrenia. In total, 17 studies (18 groups) with 45,474 patients were included; data were extracted independently by two authors. A meta-analysis was performed to calculate the pooled prevalence of underweight in patients. Results The pooled prevalence of underweight was 6.2% (95% CI=4.58.6) for the 18 groups, which included 45,474 patients with schizophrenia. The heterogeneity was I2 =98.9% (95% Cl=98.799.1%). Four studies with 4 groups, consisting of 30,014 individuals, focused on Japanese inpatients with schizophrenia. The pooled prevalence of underweight among inpatients in these 4 groups was 17.6% (95% CI=15.520.0). Fourteen studies were conducted with non-Japanese inpatients and included 14 groups of 15,460 patients with schizophrenia. The pooled prevalence of underweight in non-Japanese inpatients was 4.6% (95% CI=3.95.4). The proportion of underweight in the 18 groups significantly varied between Japanese inpatients and other patients. Conclusions The results indicated that Japanese inpatients with schizophrenia have a high proportion of underweight. Future research should focus on evaluating interventions that target underweight.
May 2018
Cultural factors in first episode psychosis treatment engagement
Publication date: May 2018
Source:Schizophrenia Research, Volume 195 Author(s): Emily Kline, Latoya Thomas Specialized First Episode Psychosis (FEP) services have been conceptualized in part around the issue of engagement. Creating treatment that is easier to access, with more frequent contacts, assertive outreach to clients between appointments, and an explicit youth-oriented culture could make services more attractive to those most in need of care. However, engagement has remained a mostly fuzzy, peripheral construct rather than the object of study in itself. As we recognize the importance of treatment engagement, we must prepare to address it more rigorously within psychosis and schizophrenia research. At the same time, factors enhancing or obstructing treatment engagement are inevitably local, rather than universal. The availability of care, its associated costs and stigmas, individuals' motivations for seeking treatment, and their beliefs and expectations about providers' roles are determined by local and cultural features. There can be no singular best practice for engagement but curiosity about how culture and locale influence clients' willingness to participate in care, and creativity in how we account for and incorporate these variables into study designs, will help to shed light on the critical issue of engagement in FEP treatment.
May 2018
White matter microstructure and cognitive remediation outcomes in schizophrenia
Publication date: May 2018
Source:Schizophrenia Research, Volume 195 Author(s): Sinead M. Kelly, Shaun M. Eack
May 2018
Temporal stability of self-disorders and longitudinal unfolding of symptom dimensions: A complementary analysis
Publication date: May 2018
Source:Schizophrenia Research, Volume 195 Author(s): Andrea Raballo, Antonio Preti
May 2018
Autism and psychosis: Clinical implications for depression and suicide
Publication date: May 2018
Source:Schizophrenia Research, Volume 195 Author(s): Rachel Upthegrove, Ahmad Abu-Akel, Katharine Chisholm, Ashleigh Lin, Sofia Zahid, Mirabel Pelton, Ian Apperly, Peter C. Hansen, Stephen J. Wood There is increasing recognition of the co-occurrence of autism and schizophrenia spectrum disorders. However, the clinical significance of this on outcomes such as depression and suicidal thinking has not been explored. This study examines the association of autism spectrum traits, depressive symptoms and suicidal behaviour in individuals with psychotic experiences. In two cross sectional studies, individuals from a non-help seeking university student sample and patients with first episode psychosis (FEP) service completed standardized measures of autism spectrum traits, psychotic experiences, depressive symptoms and suicidal thinking. In healthy non-help seeking students, increased autism traits and increased subclinical psychotic experiences were significantly associated with depressive symptoms; a significant interaction effect suggests their combined presence has a greater impact on depression. In FEP, high autism traits and positive symptoms were associated with increased depression, hopelessness and suicidality, however there was no significant interaction effect. In FEP a multiple mediation model revealed that the relationship between autism traits and risk for suicidality was mediated through hopelessness. Young people with subclinical psychotic experiences and all patients with FEP should be screened for autism spectrum traits, which may have significant impact on clinical outcomes. Tailored interventions for patients with high levels of autistic spectrum co-morbidities in FEP should be a priority for future research.
May 2018
Personality traits in recent-onset-of-psychosis patients compared to a control sample by gender
Publication date: May 2018
Source:Schizophrenia Research, Volume 195 Author(s): Julia Sevilla-Llewellyn-Jones, Pablo Cano-Dom
May 2018
Childhood unusual experiences in community Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services in South East London: Prevalence and impact
Publication date: May 2018
Source:Schizophrenia Research, Volume 195 Author(s): Kimberley Gin, Partha Banerjea, Chris Abbott, Sophie Browning, Karen Bracegirdle, Richard Corrigall, Suzanne Jolley Background Distressing psychotic-like or unusual experiences (UEDs) signify increased mental health risk in the general population, including greater likelihood and severity of co-occurring non-psychotic mental health problems, and, from fourteen years of age, increased risk of a future psychotic illness. Healthcare guidelines for under eighteens recommend psychological intervention for UEDs, to reduce current distress and adverse functional impact, and, potentially, future mental health risk. Children tend not to report UEDs unless directly asked, indicating a need for routine screening. We report on the feasibility of a routine screening methodology, and screening outcomes, in Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services (CAMHS) in South East London, United Kingdom. Method Four general community CAMHS teams were invited to screen, by adding a nine-item self-report UED measure to their routine assessment battery. Screening data were collected over 18months from 02/2015 to 07/2016. Results All but one team agreed to screen. Each team saw around 300 accepted referrals during the audit period (total: 900); 768 of these (85%) were successfully screened; of those screened, 68% (n =524) self-reported UEs, 60% (n =461) with associated distress/adverse functional impact. Screening was acceptable to clinicians, children and families. Conclusions Assessing UEDs routinely in CAMHS is feasible, and suggests that around two thirds of assessed referrals could potentially benefit from interventions targeting UEDs. Additional training may be required for the CAMHS workforce to address this need.
May 2018
Patients with psychosis struggle with scalar implicatures
Publication date: May 2018
Source:Schizophrenia Research, Volume 195 Author(s): Martien Wampers, Sofie Schrauwen, Marc De Hert, Leen Gielen, Walter Schaeken Pragmatic language difficulties in people with psychosis have been demonstrated repeatedly but one of the most studied types of pragmatic language, i.e. scalar implicatures (SIs), has not yet been examined in this population. SIs are a special kind of pragmatic inferences, based on linguistic expressions like some, or, must. Such expressions are part of a scale of informativeness organized by informativity (e.g. some/many/all). Although semantically the less informative expressions imply the more informative ones, pragmatically people generally infer that the use of a less informative expression implies that the more informative option is not applicable. Based on the pragmatic language difficulties of people with psychosis we hypothesized that they may be less likely to derive these pragmatic SIs. We conducted two studies in which the ability of people with psychosis to derive SIs was compared to that of healthy controls matched for age and educational level. In the second study we additionally explored the possible link between the capacity to derive SIs and theory of mind (ToM) ability. In general, people with psychosis were less likely to derive SIs than controls. However, the patient group was not homogeneous: half had problems deriving SIs, the other half did not. This dichotomization seems linked to ToM ability because in the patient group, better ToM was associated with a higher ability to derive SIs. Based on the nature of the stimuli used in the SI-task we speculate that this link may not be a direct but an indirect one.
May 2018
What could be learned from a decade with standardized remission criteria in schizophrenia spectrum disorders: An exploratory follow-up study
Publication date: May 2018
Source:Schizophrenia Research, Volume 195 Author(s): Madeleine Johansson, Fredrik Hj
May 2018
Meta-analysis of adult height and birth length in schizophrenia
Publication date: May 2018
Source:Schizophrenia Research, Volume 195 Author(s): Keely Latham, Brian Kirkpatrick Objective As a group, people with schizophrenia have a number of subtle anatomical abnormalities as well as physiological abnormalities that precede antipsychotic treatment. Some studies have also found shorter birth length or shorter adult height in people with schizophrenia compared to control subjects. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies of birth length and adult height in schizophrenia, following PRISMA guidelines (Prospero Registration # CRD42016043718). Data sources We searched the PsycInfo, Web of Science, and PubMed databases for articles published 19472016. Study selection Articles were included if they had data for patients diagnosed with schizophrenia and a matched control group of subjects without a psychotic disorder; both groups were measured for birth length and/or adult height (18years or older); and the paper was published in English. Data extraction One author extracted the data, which was verified by the other. Results For adult height, six studies with 1,122 patients and 250,200 control subjects were included in analyses. There were six birth length studies, which included 984 patients and 976,296 controls. The patients did not differ from comparison subjects in birth length (effect size estimate=
May 2018
Risk factors of compliance with self-harm command hallucinations in individuals with affective and non-affective psychosis
Publication date: May 2018
Source:Schizophrenia Research, Volume 195 Author(s): Jules R. Dugr
May 2018
Objective assessment of exploratory behaviour in schizophrenia using wireless motion capture
Publication date: May 2018
Source:Schizophrenia Research, Volume 195 Author(s): Ishraq Siddiqui, Gary Remington, Paul J. Fletcher, Aristotle N. Voineskos, Jason W. Fong, Sarah Saperia, Gagan Fervaha, Susana Da Silva, Konstantine K. Zakzanis, George Foussias Motivation deficits are a prominent feature of schizophrenia and have substantial consequences for functional outcome. The impact of amotivation on exploratory behaviour has not been extensively assessed by entirely objective means. This study evaluated deficits in exploratory behaviour in an open-field setting using wireless motion capture. Twenty-one stable adult outpatients with schizophrenia and twenty matched healthy controls completed the Novelty Exploration Task, in which participants explored a novel environment containing familiar and uncommon objects. Objective motion data were used to index participants' locomotor activity and tendency for visual and tactile object exploration. Clinical assessments of positive and negative symptoms, apathy, cognition, depression, medication side-effects, and community functioning were also administered. Relationships between task performance and clinical measures were evaluated using Spearman correlations, and group differences were evaluated using multivariate analysis of covariance tests. Although locomotor activity and tactile exploration were similar between the schizophrenia and healthy control groups, schizophrenia participants exhibited reduced visual object exploration (F(2,35)=3.40, p=0.045). Further, schizophrenia participants' geometric pattern of locomotion, visual exploration, and tactile exploration were correlated with overall negative symptoms (|
May 2018
Psychosocial factors associated with physical activity behavior among patients with psychosis
Publication date: May 2018
Source:Schizophrenia Research, Volume 195 Author(s): Jenny T.M. Lee, Eunice Y.L. Law, Lincoln L.H. Lo, Jingxia Lin, Edwin H.M. Lee, Christy L.M. Hui, Catherine S.Y. Chong, Sherry K.W. Chan, William T.L. Lo, Eric Y.H. Chen Introduction Although physical activity helps to improve functioning and reduce the symptoms of mental illness, physical inactivity remains common in the mental illness population. This study aims to explore the associations between theoretical constructs in relation to physical activity behavior based on psychological theories to examine reasons for physical inactivity in psychosis population. Methods One hundred and eighty one Chinese outpatients diagnosed with psychotic disorders were recruited for this cross-sectional study. Sociodemographic data and responses to questionnaires measuring self-efficacy, decisional balance, processes of change, and stages of change on physical activity habit were collected. Results Ninety three subjects (51.4%) had the intention to engage in regular physical activity within the next six months. Significant differences were found in self-efficacy, pros of decisional balance and processes of change across the stages of change. Moreover, overall classification accuracy was 60.8% across the stages of change. Conclusions This study supports self-efficacy, pros of decisional balance and processes of change as useful factors in understanding physical activity behavior among patients with psychosis. Future promotions of regular physical activity can focus on improving self-efficacy, emphasizing on the benefits of regular physical activity and facilitating cognitive and behavior strategies from processes of change.
May 2018
Predictors of aggression in 3.322 patients with affective disorders and schizophrenia spectrum disorders evaluated in an emergency department setting
Publication date: May 2018
Source:Schizophrenia Research, Volume 195 Author(s): Emily A. Blanco, Laura M. Duque, Vivekananda Rachamallu, Eunice Yuen, John M. Kane, Juan A. Gallego Introduction The aim of this study is to determine odds of aggression and associated factors in patients with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders (SSD) and affective disorders who were evaluated in an emergency department setting. Methods A retrospective study was conducted using de-identified data from electronic medical records from 3.322 patients who were evaluated at emergency psychiatric settings. Data extracted included demographic information, variables related to aggression towards people or property in the past 6months, and other factors that could potentially impact the risk of aggression, such as comorbid diagnoses, physical abuse and sexual abuse. Bivariate analyses and multivariate regression analyses were conducted to determine the variables significantly associated with aggression. Results An initial multivariate regression analysis showed that SSD had 3.1 times the odds of aggression, while bipolar disorder had 2.2 times the odds of aggression compared to unipolar depression. A second regression analysis including bipolar subtypes showed, using unipolar depression as the reference group, that bipolar disorder with a recent mixed episode had an odds ratio (OR) of 4.3, schizophrenia had an OR of 2.6 and bipolar disorder with a recent manic episode had an OR of 2.2. Generalized anxiety disorder was associated with lower odds in both regression analyses. Conclusion As a whole, the SSD group had higher odds of aggression than the bipolar disorder group. However, after subdividing the groups, schizophrenia had higher odds of aggression than bipolar disorder with a recent manic episode and lower odds of aggression than bipolar disorder with a recent mixed episode.
May 2018
Sedentary behaviour, physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness and cardiometabolic risk in psychosis: The PsychiActive project
Publication date: May 2018
Source:Schizophrenia Research, Volume 195 Author(s): Javier Bueno-Antequera, Miguel
May 2018
The association between changes in depression/anxiety and trajectories of psychotic-like experiences over a year in adolescence
Publication date: May 2018
Source:Schizophrenia Research, Volume 195 Author(s): Syudo Yamasaki, Satoshi Usami, Ryo Sasaki, Shinsuke Koike, Shuntaro Ando, Yuko Kitagawa, Misato Matamura, Masako Fukushima, Hiromi Yonehara, Jerome Clifford Foo, Atsushi Nishida, Tsukasa Sasaki Background Recent cross-sectional studies suggest that psychotic-like experiences (PLEs) are associated with depression and anxiety in adolescents. While longitudinal studies have observed that adolescents suffer more severe symptoms of depression/anxiety when PLEs persist, it remains unclear whether depression/anxiety worsens or improves with PLE emergence or remission, respectively. In this prospective school-based study, we investigated the association between longitudinal changes in depression/anxiety and one-year PLE trajectories in adolescence. Methods Nine hundred and twelve adolescents participated in the baseline assessment of PLEs and depression/anxiety; 887 (97.3%) adolescents completed the follow-up assessment one year later. Multilevel analysis was conducted to evaluate the change in depression/anxiety, evaluated using the General Health Questionnaire-12 (GHQ-12), during the year according to PLE trajectory, adjusting for baseline depression/anxiety, gender, age, substance use and victimization. Results Sixteen percent of adolescents reported PLEs at baseline, with 56% of them remitting at follow-up. At follow-up, PLEs were experienced by 6.6% of adolescents not experiencing PLEs at baseline (incident PLE group). After adjusting for covariates, GHQ-12 score worsened significantly during the year in students with incident trajectories (regression coefficient for time,
May 2018
Intra-individual variability and psychotic-like experiences in adolescents: Findings from the ALSPAC cohort
Publication date: May 2018
Source:Schizophrenia Research, Volume 195 Author(s): Simon Wallace, Richard J. Linscott Clinical and epidemiological studies have demonstrated associations between elevated intra-individual variability (IIV) of reaction time and psychotic disorders. However, little attention has been paid to the relationship between performance stability and psychotic-like experiences (PLE) in adolescence, before psychotic disorder onset. Data from 6702 children from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) were used to address this issue. Children took part in a semi-structured clinical interview regarding psychotic symptoms at age 12 and 18, and reaction time variability was assessed at age 13 and 15. Children who had elevated IIV at age 15 were more likely to report suspected or definite PLE at age 18, with larger associations being found for more frequent or bizarre symptoms. Elevated IIV at age 15 was also associated with persistent PLE between age 12 and 18. These findings tentatively suggest that elevated IIV in early adolescence may be predictive of later PLE, and offer some support for the notion of a psychosis continuum.
May 2018
Functional network dysconnectivity as a biomarker of treatment resistance in schizophrenia
Publication date: May 2018
Source:Schizophrenia Research, Volume 195 Author(s): Carolyn B. McNabb, Roger J. Tait, Meghan E. McIlwain, Valerie M. Anderson, John Suckling, Robert R. Kydd, Bruce R. Russell Schizophrenia may develop from disruptions in functional connectivity regulated by neurotransmitters such as dopamine and acetylcholine. The modulatory effects of these neurotransmitters might explain how antipsychotics attenuate symptoms of schizophrenia and account for the variable response to antipsychotics observed in clinical practice. Based on the putative mechanisms of antipsychotics and evidence of disrupted connectivity in schizophrenia, we hypothesised that functional network connectivity, as assessed using network-based statistics, would exhibit differences between treatment response subtypes of schizophrenia and healthy controls. Resting-state functional MRI data were obtained from 17 healthy controls as well as individuals with schizophrenia who responded well to first-line atypical antipsychotics (first-line responders; FLR, n =18), had failed at least two trials of antipsychotics but responded to clozapine (treatment-resistant schizophrenia; TRS, n=18), or failed at least two trials of antipsychotics and a trial of clozapine (ultra-treatment-resistant schizophrenia; UTRS, n =16). Data were pre-processed using the Advanced Normalization Toolkit and BrainWavelet Toolbox. Network connectivity was assessed using the Network-Based Statistics toolbox in Matlab. ANOVA revealed a significant difference in functional connectivity between groups that extended between cerebellar and parietal regions to the frontal cortex (p <0.05). Post-hoc t-tests revealed weaker network connectivity in individuals with UTRS compared with healthy controls but no other differences between groups. Results demonstrated distinct differences in functional connectivity between individuals with UTRS and healthy controls. Future work must determine whether these changes occur prior to the onset of treatment and if they can be used to predict resistance to antipsychotics during first-episode psychosis.
May 2018
Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation may prevent loss of gray matter thickness in the left parieto-occipital cortex in first episode schizophrenia: A secondary outcome analysis of the OFFER randomized controlled study
Publication date: May 2018
Source:Schizophrenia Research, Volume 195 Author(s): Tomasz Pawe
May 2018
Combining actigraphy, ecological momentary assessment and neuroimaging to study apathy in patients with schizophrenia
Publication date: May 2018
Source:Schizophrenia Research, Volume 195 Author(s): Agne Kluge, Matthias Kirschner, Oliver M. Hager, Martin Bischof, Benedikt Habermeyer, Erich Seifritz, Sebastian Walther, Stefan Kaiser Background Apathy can be defined as a reduction of goal-directed behavior and is a strong predictor for poor functional outcome in schizophrenia. However, no objective measure of apathy has been identified and assessment is limited to retrospective interview-based ratings. Here we aimed to identify more precise objective readouts of apathy for translational research and clinical practice. Methods We employed a combined approach including interview-based ratings of the two negative symptom factors apathy and diminished expression, actigraphy based measures of spontaneous motor activity and the evaluation of daily activities using ecological momentary assessment. Furthermore, a functional magnetic resonance imaging task for reward anticipation was applied to investigate shared and divergent neural correlates of interview-based and behaviorally measured apathy. Results We found in 18 schizophrenia patients with high interview-based apathy levels that motor activity was negatively correlated with apathy but not with diminished expression. In contrast, measures of daily activities were not associated with apathy. Neural activation during reward anticipation revealed an association between hypoactivation of the ventral striatum and interview-based apathy as well as hypoactivation of the inferior frontal gyrus and motor activity level. Conclusions Spontaneous motor activity is an objective readout of apathy, which was specific and not present for diminished expression. On a neural level, interview-based and objective measures of apathy showed divergent neural correlates in the cortical-striatal network, which suggests dissociable neural processes. Finally, motor activity provides a promising readout for quantifying apathy in both translational research and clinical practice.
May 2018
The instability of functional connectivity in patients with schizophrenia and their siblings: A dynamic connectivity study
Publication date: May 2018
Source:Schizophrenia Research, Volume 195 Author(s): Shuixia Guo, Wei Zhao, Haojuan Tao, Zhening Liu, Lena Palaniyappan Background The distributed connectivity among brain regions is in a constant state of flux, even when a subject is at rest. This instability (temporal variability), when optimal, may contribute to efficient cross-network communications. We investigate the role of this variability in the genetic diathesis and symptom expression of schizophrenia. Methods Resting state functional MRI data acquired from 116 subjects (28 patients with schizophrenia, 28 siblings and 60 matched healthy controls). Using a sliding-window dynamic connectivity approach, we quantified the variability of whole-brain connectivity (dynamic functional connectivity or dFC) of each of the 90 brain regions obtained using a parcellation scheme that covered all contiguous brain regions of the cerebral cortex. Results We noted a high degree of instability anchored on the precuneus in patients with schizophrenia compared to both healthy controls (t=3.60, p=0.0005) and unaffected siblings (t=3.61, p=0.001) indicating a role for dFC of precuneus in the clinical expression of schizophrenia. Compared to patients, siblings also showed an increase in medial orbitofrontal but reduced putaminal instability; these latter changes were not seen in patients when compared to controls, indicating a lack of specificity for diathesis or expression related effects. Conclusions Instability in the intrinsic connectivity of precuneus, a functional core hub with a major role in task-free self-processing, is likely to be a core substrate of the clinical expression of schizophrenia.

The influence of MIR137 on white matter fractional anisotropy and cortical surface area in individuals with familial risk for psychosis
Publication date: May 2018
Source:Schizophrenia Research, Volume 195 Author(s): Bob O. Vogel, Tristram A. Lett, Susanne Erk, Sebastian Mohnke, Carolin Wackerhagen, Eva J. Brandl, Nina Romanczuk-Seiferth, Kristina Otto, Janina I. Schweiger, Heike Tost, Markus M. N
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