Journal Sciences News
Available online 28 February 2018
Laser ignition - Spark plug development and application in reciprocating engines
Publication date: Available online 13 April 2018
Source:Progress in Quantum Electronics Author(s): Nicolaie Pavel, Mark B
November 2017
Progress and prospects of GaN-based VCSEL from near UV to green emission
Publication date: Available online 28 February 2018
Source:Progress in Quantum Electronics Author(s): Hsin-chieh Yu, Zhi-wei Zheng, Yang Mei, Rong-bin Xu, Jian-ping Liu, Hui Yang, Bao-ping Zhang, Tien-chang Lu, Hao-chung Kuo GaN is a great material for making optoelectronic devices in the blue, blue-violet and green bands. Vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) have many advantages including small footprint, circular symmetry of output beam, two-dimensional scalability and/or addressability, surface-mount packaging, good price-performance ratio, and simple optics/alignment for output coupling. In this paper, we would like to (1) Review the design and fabrication of GaN-based VCSELs including some technology challenges, (2) Discuss the design and metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) growth of electrically pumped blue VCSELs and (3) Demonstrate world first green VCSEL using quantum dots (QDs) active region to overcome the 'green gap'.
September 2017
Non-invasive biomedical research and diagnostics enabled by innovative compact lasers
Publication date: November 2017
Source:Progress in Quantum Electronics, Volume 56 Author(s): Karina S. Litvinova, Ilya E. Rafailov, Andrey V. Dunaev, Sergei G. Sokolovski, Edik U. Rafailov For over half a century, laser technology has undergone a technological revolution. These technologies, particularly semiconductor lasers, are employed in a myriad of fields. Optical medical diagnostics, one of the emerging areas of laser application, are on the forefront of application around the world. Optical methods of non- or minimally invasive bio-tissue investigation offer significant advantages over alternative methods, including rapid real-time measurement, non-invasiveness and high resolution (guaranteeing the safety of a patient). These advantages demonstrate the growing success of such techniques. In this review, we will outline the recent status of laser technology applied in the biomedical field, focusing on the various available approaches, particularly utilising compact semiconductor lasers. We will further consider the advancement and integration of several complimentary biophotonic techniques into single multimodal devices, the potential impact of such devices and their future applications. Based on our own studies, we will also cover the simultaneous collection of physiological data with the aid a multifunctional diagnostics system, concentrating on the optimisation of the new technology towards a clinical application. Such data is invaluable for developing algorithms capable of delivering consistent, reliable and meaningful diagnostic information, which can ultimately be employed for the early diagnosis of disease conditions in individuals from around the world.
September 2017
Coherent multi-dimensional spectroscopy: Experimental considerations, direct comparisons and new capabilities
Publication date: September 2017
Source:Progress in Quantum Electronics, Volume 55 Author(s): Jonathan O. Tollerud, Jeffrey A. Davis Optical Coherent Multidimensional Spectroscopy (CMDS) has been developed to probe the electronic states of a diverse range of complex systems. The great advantage of CMDS over linear spectroscopy is the ability to separate and quantify different types of interactions. To do this, multiple carefully controlled femtosecond laser pulses drive a non-linear response in the sample. A specific component of this non-linear response is selected and its amplitude and phase measured. There are many challenges for the experimental realization of optical CMDS, yet there have been several different approaches developed, each with their own advantages and limitations. Identifying the best approach then becomes dependent on the sample and the information being sought. Here we review the various experimental considerations and different approaches that have been developed. We consider the advantages and limitations of each of these, specifically in the context of experiments on solid state systems such as semiconductor nanostructures and 2D atomically thin materials. Two important considerations that are difficult to compare independently of other extraneous factors are the stability and sensitivity of the system. Here, we describe the experimental implementation of two different approaches that experience otherwise identical conditions and present an unbiased comparison of the stability and sensitivity. Furthermore, we demonstrate that by merging these two approaches we are able to combine the advantages of both into a single experiment.
September 2017
Nonlinear optics in optical-fiber nanowires and their applications
Publication date: September 2017
Source:Progress in Quantum Electronics, Volume 55 Author(s): Fei Xu, Zhen-xing Wu, Yan-qing Lu We review recent research on nonlinear optical interactions in optical-fiber nanowires (OFNs) with sub-micron transverse dimensions. Such OFNs, which are fabricated from standard optical fibers, offer numerous beneficial optical and mechanical properties, including strong evanescent fields, high flexibility and configurability, a small mass, and low-loss interconnection to other optical fibers and fiberized components. In particular, the strong confinement of light enables a large enhancement of nonlinear interactions and group-velocity dispersion engineering. The combination of these properties makes OFNs ideal for many nonlinear optical applications, including harmonic generation, Brillouin scattering, four-wave mixing, supercontinuum generation, and optomechanics. With the incorporation of new materials, OFNs should be ideally suited for a host of nonlinear optical interactions and devices and offer great potential in miniature fiber devices for optical telecommunications and optical sensor applications.
September 2017
Two-dimensional topological photonic systems
Publication date: September 2017
Source:Progress in Quantum Electronics, Volume 55 Author(s): Xiao-Chen Sun, Cheng He, Xiao-Ping Liu, Ming-Hui Lu, Shi-Ning Zhu, Yan-Feng Chen The topological phase of matter, originally proposed and first demonstrated in fermionic electronic systems, has drawn considerable research attention in the past decades due to its robust transport of edge states and its potential with respect to future quantum information, communication, and computation. Recently, searching for such a unique material phase in bosonic systems has become a hot research topic worldwide. So far, many bosonic topological models and methods for realizing them have been discovered in photonic systems, acoustic systems, mechanical systems, etc. These discoveries have certainly yielded vast opportunities in designing material phases and related properties in the topological domain. In this review, we first focus on some of the representative photonic topological models and employ the underlying Dirac model to analyze the edge states and geometric phase. On the basis of these models, three common types of two-dimensional topological photonic systems are discussed: 1) photonic quantum Hall effect with broken time-reversal symmetry; 2) photonic topological insulator and the associated pseudo-time-reversal symmetry-protected mechanism; 3) time/space periodically modulated photonic Floquet topological insulator. Finally, we provide a summary and extension of this emerging field, including a brief introduction to the Weyl point in three-dimensional systems.
September 2017
Dressed photons in a new paradigm of off-shell quantum fields
Publication date: September 2017
Source:Progress in Quantum Electronics, Volume 55 Author(s): Hirofumi Sakuma, Izumi Ojima, Motoichi Ohtsu This article reviews recent progress in theoretical studies of dressed photons. For providing concrete physical images of dressed photons, several experimental studies are demonstrated. They are applications of dressed photons to novel optical functional devices, nano-fabrication technologies, energy conversion technologies, and photon breeding devices. After these experimental demonstrations, as the main part of this review, quantum-field theoretical formulation of dressed photons is attempted in use of the newly introduced Clebsch-dual variable of electromagnetic field. The reason for introducing the new formulation will be explained in the final section from the viewpoint to exhibit the contrast between free and interacting quantum fields in regard to their energy-momentum supports which are seldom touched upon (or forgotten) in the common physical discussions about quantum fields.
September 2017
A guide to wireless networking by light
Publication date: September 2017
Source:Progress in Quantum Electronics, Volume 55 Author(s): Harald Haas, Cheng Chen, Dominic O'Brien The lack of wireless spectrum in the radio frequency bands has led to a rapid growth in research in wireless networking using light, known as LiFi (light fidelity). In this paper an overview of the subsystems, challenges and techniques required to achieve this is presented.
September 2017
Laser-induced generation of singlet oxygen and its role in the cerebrovascular physiology
Publication date: September 2017
Source:Progress in Quantum Electronics, Volume 55 Author(s): O.V. Semyachkina-Glushkovskaya, S.G. Sokolovski, A. Goltsov, A.S. Gekaluyk, E.I. Saranceva, O.A. Bragina, V.V. Tuchin, E.U. Rafailov For over 55 years, laser technology has expanded from laboratory research to widespread fields, for example telecommunication and data storage amongst others. Recently application of lasers in biology and medicine presents itself as one of the emerging areas. In this review, we will outline the recent advances in using lasers for the generation of singlet oxygen, traditionally used to kill tumour cells or induce thrombotic stroke model due to damage vascular effects. Over the last two decade, completely new results on cerebrovascular effects of singlet oxygen generated during photodynamic therapy (PDT) have been shown alongside promising applications for delivery of drugs and nanoparticles into the brain for therapy of brain cancer. Furthermore, a “gold key” has been found to overcome the limitations of PDT, such as low light penetration and high toxicity of photosensitizers, by direct generation of singlet oxygen using quantum-dot laser diodes emitting in the near infrared (NIR) spectral range. It is our motivation to highlight these pioneering results in this review, to improve understanding of the biological role of singlet oxygen and to provide new perspectives for improving clinical application of laser based therapy in further research.
September 2017
Diamond photonics for distributed quantum networks
Publication date: September 2017
Source:Progress in Quantum Electronics, Volume 55 Author(s): Sam Johnson, Philip R. Dolan, Jason M. Smith The distributed quantum network, in which nodes comprising small but well-controlled quantum states are entangled via photonic channels, has in recent years emerged as a strategy for delivering a range of quantum technologies including secure communications, enhanced sensing and scalable quantum computing. Colour centres in diamond are amongst the most promising candidates for nodes fabricated in the solid-state, offering potential for large scale production and for chip-scale integrated devices. In this review we consider the progress made and the remaining challenges in developing diamond-based nodes for quantum networks. We focus on the nitrogen-vacancy and silicon-vacancy colour centres, which have demonstrated many of the necessary attributes for these applications. We focus in particular on the use of waveguides and other photonic microstructures for increasing the efficiency with which photons emitted from these colour centres can be coupled into a network, and the use of microcavities for increasing the fraction of photons emitted that are suitable for generating entanglement between nodes.
August 2017
Nano-scale chemical reactions based on non-uniform optical near-fields and their applications
Publication date: September 2017
Source:Progress in Quantum Electronics, Volume 55 Author(s): Takashi Yatsui, Maiku Yamaguchi, Katsuyuki Nobusada Interaction between light and materials is essential in the physics underlying all optical devices, including light emitting devices such as light emitting diodes and lasers, photo-voltaic devices, and photo-synthesis systems. The demand for higher light utilization efficiency is becoming increasingly important for advanced optical devices. This is because, when feature size is smaller than the incident light wavelength, photons cannot couple with devices efficiently. In this paper, we review recent progress regarding a unique phenomenon at the nano scale and its applications. First, we summarize the development of light–matter interactions at the nano-scale. Second, we review recent theoretical works focusing on optical near fields in which unique phenomena arise from non-uniform optical fields. We then review several recent developments based on the near-field effect, including artificial photosynthesis and near-field etching for realization of angstrom-scale fattened surfaces. Finally, we discuss the future outlook for these technologies.
August 2017
Editorial to “Special issue in honor of the 70th birthday of Professor Sir Peter Knight FRS”
Publication date: August 2017
Source:Progress in Quantum Electronics, Volume 54

August 2017
From quantum optics to quantum technologies
Publication date: August 2017
Source:Progress in Quantum Electronics, Volume 54 Author(s): Dan Browne, Sougato Bose, Florian Mintert, M.S. Kim Quantum optics is the study of the intrinsically quantum properties of light. During the second part of the 20th century experimental and theoretical progress developed together; nowadays quantum optics provides a testbed of many fundamental aspects of quantum mechanics such as coherence and quantum entanglement. Quantum optics helped trigger, both directly and indirectly, the birth of quantum technologies, whose aim is to harness non-classical quantum effects in applications from quantum key distribution to quantum computing. Quantum light remains at the heart of many of the most promising and potentially transformative quantum technologies. In this review, we celebrate the work of Sir Peter Knight and present an overview of the development of quantum optics and its impact on quantum technologies research. We describe the core theoretical tools developed to express and study the quantum properties of light, the key experimental approaches used to control, manipulate and measure such properties and their application in quantum simulation, and quantum computing.
May 2017
Journeys from quantum optics to quantum technology
Publication date: August 2017
Source:Progress in Quantum Electronics, Volume 54 Author(s): Stephen M. Barnett, Almut Beige, Artur Ekert, Barry M. Garraway, Christoph H. Keitel, Viv Kendon, Manfred Lein, Gerard J. Milburn, H
March 2017
Perovskite solar cells - An overview of critical issues
Publication date: May 2017
Source:Progress in Quantum Electronics, Volume 53 Author(s): A.B. Djuri
January 2017
Transfer print techniques for heterogeneous integration of photonic components
Publication date: March 2017
Source:Progress in Quantum Electronics, Volume 52 Author(s): Brian Corbett, Ruggero Loi, Weidong Zhou, Dong Liu, Zhenqiang Ma The essential functionality of photonic and electronic devices is contained in thin surface layers leaving the substrate often to play primarily a mechanical role. Layer transfer of optimised devices or materials and their heterogeneous integration is thus a very attractive strategy to realise high performance, low-cost circuits for a wide variety of new applications. Additionally, new device configurations can be achieved that could not otherwise be realised. A range of layer transfer methods have been developed over the years including epitaxial lift-off and wafer bonding with substrate removal. Recently, a new technique called transfer printing has been introduced which allows manipulation of small and thin materials along with devices on a massively parallel scale with micron scale placement accuracies to a wide choice of substrates such as silicon, glass, ceramic, metal and polymer. Thus, the co-integration of electronics with photonic devices made from compound semiconductors, silicon, polymer and new 2D materials is now achievable in a practical and scalable method. This is leading to exciting possibilities in microassembly. We review some of the recent developments in layer transfer and particularly the use of the transfer print technology for enabling active photonic devices on rigid and flexible foreign substrates.
November 2016
Spectral effects of stimulated Raman scattering in crystals
Publication date: January 2017
Source:Progress in Quantum Electronics, Volume 51 Author(s): David J. Spence This paper will review the coupling by stimulated Raman scattering between two laser fields and its dependence on the spectral properties of those fields. We describe the coupling in terms of an effective Raman gain that depends on the fields’ linewidths, the material dispersion, and specific experimental conditions. The aim is to provide an intuitive understanding of this behaviour, by presenting analytic and numerical results in both the time- and frequency-domains. We review some recent experimental results using crystalline Raman materials, to highlight why spectral effects must be taken into consideration to push crystalline Raman lasers to new extremes of performance.
September 2016
Quantitative imaging of cell membrane-associated effective mass density using Photonic Crystal Enhanced Microscopy (PCEM)
Publication date: November 2016
Source:Progress in Quantum Electronics, Volume 50 Author(s): Yue Zhuo, Ji Sun Choi, Thibault Marin, Hojeong Yu, Brendan A. Harley, Brian T. Cunningham Adhesion is a critical cellular process that contributes to migration, apoptosis, differentiation, and division. It is followed by the redistribution of cellular materials at the cell membrane or at the cell-surface interface for cells interacting with surfaces, such as basement membranes. Dynamic and quantitative tracking of changes in cell adhesion mass redistribution is challenging because cells are rapidly moving, inhomogeneous, and nonequilibrium objects, whose physical and mechanical properties are difficult to measure or predict. Here, we report a novel biosensor based microscopy approach termed Photonic Crystal Enhanced Microscopy (PCEM) that enables the movement of cellular materials at the plasma membrane of individual live cells to be dynamically monitored and quantitatively imaged. PCEM utilizes a photonic crystal biosensor surface, which can be coated with arbitrary extracellular matrix materials to facilitate cellular interactions, within a modified brightfield microscope with a low intensity non-coherent light source. Benefiting from the high sensitivity, narrow resonance peak, and tight spatial confinement of the evanescent field atop the photonic crystal biosensor, PCEM enables label-free live cell imaging with high sensitivity and high lateral and axial spatial-resolution, thereby allowing dynamic adhesion phenotyping of single cells without the use of fluorescent tags or stains. We apply PCEM to investigate adhesion and the early stage migration of different types of stem cells and cancer cells. By applying image processing algorithms to analyze the complex spatiotemporal information generated by PCEM, we offer insight into how the plasma membrane of anchorage dependent cells is dynamically organized during cell adhesion. The imaging and analysis results presented here provide a new tool for biologists to gain a deeper understanding of the fundamental mechanisms involved with cell adhesion and concurrent or subsequent migration events.
July 2016
Photon management of GaN-based optoelectronic devices via nanoscaled phenomena
Publication date: September 2016
Source:Progress in Quantum Electronics, Volume 49 Author(s): Yu-Lin Tsai, Kun-Yu Lai, Ming-Jui Lee, Yu-Kuang Liao, Boon S. Ooi, Hao-Chung Kuo, Jr-Hau He Photon management is essential in improving the performances of optoelectronic devices including light emitting diodes, solar cells and photo detectors. Beyond the advances in material growth and device structure design, photon management via nanoscaled phenomena have also been demonstrated as a promising way for further modifying/improving the device performance. The accomplishments achieved by photon management via nanoscaled phenomena include strain-induced polarization field management, crystal quality improvement, light extraction/harvesting enhancement, radiation pattern control, and spectrum management. In this review, we summarize recent development, challenges and underlying physics of photon management in GaN-based light emitting diodes and solar cells.
May 2016
Heterojunction and superlattice detectors for infrared to ultraviolet
Publication date: July 2016
Source:Progress in Quantum Electronics, Volume 48 Author(s): A.G.U. Perera The interest in Infrared and Ultraviolet detectors has increased immensely due to the emergence of important applications over a wide range of activities. Detectors based on free carrier absorption known as Hetero-junction Interfacial Workfunction Internal Photoemission (HEIWIP) detectors and variations of these heterojunction structures to be used as intervalence band detectors for a wide wavelength region are presented. Although this internal photoemission concept is valid for all semiconductor materials systems, using a well-studied III–V system of GaAs/ Al x Ga 1 - x As to cover a wide wavelength range from UV to far-infrared (THz) is an important development in detector technology. Using the intervalence band (heavy hole, light hole and split off) transitions for high operating temperature detection of mid Infrared radiation is also discussed. A promising new way to extend the detection wavelength threshold beyond the standard threshold connected with the energy gap in a GaAs/ Al x Ga 1 - x As system is also presented. Superlattice detector technology, which is another promising detector architecture, can be optimized using both Type I and Type II heterostructures. Here the focus will be on Type II Strained Layer (T2SL) Superlattice detectors. T2SL Superlattices based on InAs/(In,GA)Sb have made significant improvements demonstrating focal plane arrays operating around 80K and with multiple band detection capability. A novel spectroscopic method to evaluate the band offsets of both heterojunction and superlattice detectors is also discussed.
January–March 2016
HgCdTe barrier infrared detectors
Publication date: May 2016
Source:Progress in Quantum Electronics, Volume 47 Author(s): M. Kopytko, A. Rogalski In the last decade, new strategies to achieve high-operating temperature (HOT) detectors have been proposed, including barrier structures such as nBn devices, unipolar barrier photodiodes, and multistage (cascade) infrared detectors. The ability to tune the positions of the conduction and valence band edges independently in a broken-gap type-II superlattices is especially helpful in the design of unipolar barriers. This idea has been also implemented in HgCdTe ternary material system. However, the implementation of this detector structure in HgCdTe material system is not straightforward due to the existence of a valence band discontinuity (barrier) at the absorber–barrier interface. In this paper we present status of HgCdTe barrier detectors with emphasis on technological progress in fabrication of MOCVD-grown HgCdTe barrier detectors achieved recently at the Institute of Applied Physics, Military University of Technology. Their performance is comparable with state-of-the-art of HgCdTe photodiodes. From the perspective of device fabrication their important technological advantage results from less stringent surface passivation requirements and tolerance to threading dislocations.
January–March 2016
Retirement of J. Gary Eden as Editor-in-Chief
Publication date: January–March 2016
Source:Progress in Quantum Electronics, Volumes 45–46 Author(s): Chennupati Jagadish, Helena Jelinkova, Yeshaiahu Fainman, Martin Dawson, Ysabel Ermers
November 2015
Optically pumped planar waveguide lasers: Part II: Gain media, laser systems, and applications
Publication date: January–March 2016
Source:Progress in Quantum Electronics, Volumes 45–46 Author(s): Christos Grivas The field of optically pumped planar waveguide lasers has seen a rapid development over the last two decades driven by the requirements of a range of applications. This sustained research effort has led to the demonstration of a large variety of miniature highly efficient laser sources by combining different gain media and resonator geometries. One of the most attractive features of waveguide lasers is the broad range of regimes that they can operate, spanning from continuous wave and single frequency through to the generation of femtosecond pulses. Furthermore, their technology has experienced considerable advances to provide increased output power levels, deriving benefits from the relative immunity from the heat generated in the gain medium during laser operation and the use of cladding-pumped architectures. This second part of the review on optically pumped planar waveguide lasers provides a snapshot of the state-of-the-art research in this field in terms of gain materials, laser system designs, and as well as a perspective on the status of their application as real devices in various research areas.
November 2015
High speed parametric processing controlled by few photons
Publication date: November 2015
Source:Progress in Quantum Electronics, Volume 44 Author(s): Ana Pejkic, Stojan Radic Optical signal processing has long been recognized as a promising route to a new class of fast and energy efficient devices. The former parameter, the speed, has indeed been addressed in a number of different signal processing roles, confirming the superiority of optical signal processing devices with respect to their electronic counterpart. After gaining some maturity, the field has now advanced to reducing the energy consumption. In this regard, new efforts are directed toward designing an efficient photon interaction mediator, expected to provide both fast and energy efficient devices. The key topic of this review is the progress in longitudinal silica fiber dispersion engineering enabling efficient, non-reciprocal parametric mixers. We present how longitudinal dispersion fluctuations, once considered detrimental, can now be exploited to alter the phase matching condition, and thus, enable fast control of a high power beam by few photons. The potential of such a functionality in high-speed optical signal processing and sensing is discussed.
September 2015
III-Nitride nanowire optoelectronics
Publication date: November 2015
Source:Progress in Quantum Electronics, Volume 44 Author(s): Songrui Zhao, Hieu P.T. Nguyen, Md. G. Kibria, Zetian Mi Group-III nitride nanowire structures, including GaN, InN, AlN and their alloys, have been intensively studied in the past decade. Unique to this material system is that its energy bandgap can be tuned from the deep ultraviolet (~6.2eV for AlN) to the near infrared (~0.65eV for InN). In this article, we provide an overview on the recent progress made in III-nitride nanowire optoelectronic devices, including light emitting diodes, lasers, photodetectors, single photon sources, intraband devices, solar cells, and artificial photosynthesis. The present challenges and future prospects of III-nitride nanowire optoelectronic devices are also discussed.
September 2015
Ultrashort pulse generation in the mid-IR
Publication date: September 2015
Source:Progress in Quantum Electronics, Volume 43 Author(s): H. Pires, M. Baudisch, D. Sanchez, M. Hemmer, J. Biegert Recent developments in laser sources operating in the mid-IR ( 3 8
July 2015
Technology and engineering aspects of high power pulsed single longitudinal mode dye lasers
Publication date: September 2015
Source:Progress in Quantum Electronics, Volume 43 Author(s): V.S. Rawat, Jaya Mukherjee, L.M. Gantayet Tunable single mode pulsed dye lasers are capable of generating optical radiations in the visible range having very small bandwidths (transform limited), high average power (a few kW) at a high pulse repetition rate (a few tens of kHz), small beam divergence and relatively higher efficiencies. These dye lasers are generally utilized laser dyes dissolved in solvents such as water, heavy water, ethanol, methanol, etc. to provide a rapidly flowing gain medium. The dye laser is a versatile tool, which can lase either in the continuous wave (CW) or in the pulsed mode with pulse duration as small as a few tens of femtoseconds. In this review, we have examined the several cavity designs, various types of gain mediums and numerous types of dye cell geometries for obtaining the single longitudinal mode pulsed dye laser. Different types of cavity configuration, such as very short cavity, short cavity with frequency selective element and relatively longer cavity with multiple frequency selective elements were reviewed. These single mode lasers have been pumped by all kinds of pumping sources such as flash lamps, Excimer, Nitrogen, Ruby, Nd:YAG, Copper Bromide and Copper Vapor Lasers. The single mode dye lasers are either pumped transversely or longitudinally to the resonator axis. The pulse repletion rate of these pump lasers were ranging from a few Hz to a few tens of kHz. Physics technology and engineering aspects of tuning mechanism, mode hop free scanning and dye cell designs are also presented in this review. Tuning of a single mode dye laser with a resolution of a few MHz per step is a technologically challenging task, which is discussed here.
May 2015
Frequency down-conversion of solid-state laser sources to the mid-infrared spectral range using non-oxide nonlinear crystals
Publication date: July 2015
Source:Progress in Quantum Electronics, Volume 42 Author(s): Valentin Petrov The development of parametric devices down-converting the laser frequency to the mid-infrared (3–30µm) based on non-oxide nonlinear optical crystals is reviewed. Such devices, pumped by solid-state laser systems operating in the near-infrared, fill in this spectral gap where no such lasers exist, on practically all time scales, from continuous-wave to femtosecond regime. All important results obtained so far with difference-frequency generation, optical parametric oscillation, generation and amplification are presented in a comparative manner, illustrating examples of recent achievements are given in more detail, and some special issues such as continuum and frequency comb generation or pulse shaping are also discussed. The vital element in any frequency-conversion process is the nonlinear optical crystal and this represents one of the major limitations for achieving high energies and average powers in the mid-infrared although the broad spectral tunability seems not to be a problem. Hence, an overview of the available non-oxide nonlinear optical materials, emphasizing new developments such as wide band-gap, engineered (mixed), and quasi-phase-matched crystals, is also included.
May 2015
Dye-doped cholesteric lasers: Distributed feedback and photonic bandgap lasing models
Publication date: May 2015
Source:Progress in Quantum Electronics, Volume 41 Author(s): Igor P. Ilchishin, Eugene A. Tikhonov A review of authors’ contributions to dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystal (CLC) lasers started from the pioneer authors’ paper of 1980 in which the experimental realization of the first CLC laser is presented. Both distributed feedback (DFB) and photonics band edge lasing models are discussed for different experimental conditions. A detailed study and analysis of basic characteristics of steroidal CLC lasers with low liquid crystal optical birefringence is considered with respect to the DFB model. The manifestation of a planar texture quality and mutual orientations of directors on the substrates influencing on the lasing characteristics in steroidal CLCs have been shown and described. The reversible phototuning of the CLC laser wavelength by trans–cis transitions of photoactive components is realized. Reasons for two theoretical models
March 2015
Next-generation thermo-plasmonic technologies and plasmonic nanoparticles in optoelectronics
Publication date: May 2015
Source:Progress in Quantum Electronics, Volume 41 Author(s): Luciano De Sio, Tiziana Placido, Roberto Comparelli, M. Lucia Curri, Marinella Striccoli, Nelson Tabiryan, Timothy J. Bunning Controlling light interactions with matter on the nanometer scale provides for compelling opportunities for modern technology and stretches our understanding and exploitation of applied physics, electronics, and fabrication science. The smallest size to which light can be confined using standard optical elements such as lenses and mirrors is limited by diffraction. Plasmonic nanostructures have the extraordinary capability to control light beyond the diffraction limit through an unique phenomenon called the localized plasmon resonance. This remarkable capability enables unique prospects for the design, fabrication and characterization of highly integrated photonic signal-processing systems, nanoresolution optical imaging techniques and nanoscale electronic circuits. This paper summarizes the basic principles and the main achievements in the practical utilization of plasmonic effects in nanoparticles. Specifically, the paper aims at highlighting the major contributions of nanoparticles to nanoscale temperature monitoring, modern “drug free” medicine and the application of nanomaterials to a new generation of opto-electronics integrated circuits.
January 2015
Hyperbolic metamaterials and their applications
Publication date: March 2015
Source:Progress in Quantum Electronics, Volume 40 Author(s): Lorenzo Ferrari, Chihhui Wu, Dominic Lepage, Xiang Zhang, Zhaowei Liu This review aims at providing a comprehensive and updated picture of the field of hyperbolic metamaterials, from the foundations to the most recent progresses and future perspectives. The topics discussed embrace theoretical aspects, practical realization and key challenges for applications such as imaging, spontaneous emission engineering, thermal, active and tunable hyperbolic media.
January 2015
Plasmonic quasicrystals
Publication date: January 2015
Source:Progress in Quantum Electronics, Volume 39 Author(s): Venu Gopal Achanta Plasmonic quasicrystals consisting of quasi-periodic metal–dielectric patterns offer several advantages compared to the periodic patterns or plasmonic crystals. This paper reviews the present status in theoretical design, modeling, fabrication and basic and applied results on plasmonic quasicrystals. In addition to the current status, possible future prospects of plasmonic quasicrystals are also discussed.
November 2014
Monolithically-integrated laterally-arrayed multiple bandgap solar cells for spectrum-splitting photovoltaic systems
Publication date: January 2015
Source:Progress in Quantum Electronics, Volume 39 Author(s): Derek Caselli, C.Z. Ning Spectrum-splitting photovoltaics is an alternative to multi-junction tandem cells which has been the subject of renewed interest in recent years as researchers try to push the limits of efficiency and cost-reduction for solar energy production. A myriad of solutions have been proposed for the spectrum-splitting optics, yet the basic cell technologies for these systems have received comparatively little attention. This paper reports on and reviews the most recent progress on a fundamentally different approach to cell design and fabrication: that of Monolithically-Integrated Laterally-Arrayed Multi-Band gap (MILAMB) solar cells. The essence of this concept is to fabricate multiple cells simultaneously on a single substrate using composition-graded semiconductor alloy nanowires to simplify the process, cut costs, and eventually achieve high efficiencies. After a brief introduction and overview of the existing approaches to spectrum-splitting photovoltaics, we present results of theoretical design and numerical studies using two candidate materials, CdPbS and InGaN. These design studies show that the MILAMB cells are capable of similar efficiency levels to those of multi-junction tandem cells, with potentially much reduced cost. Proof-of-concept two-subcell devices fabricated simultaneously on a single substrate using CdSSe nanowire ensembles are reviewed. Their performance is compared to similar thin-film cells to illustrate the current limits and potential benefits of this new approach. Finally, future challenges and possible directions for developing a practical MILAMB system are outlined.
September 2014
Self-assembled InAs/InP quantum dots and quantum dashes: Material structures and devices
Publication date: November 2014
Source:Progress in Quantum Electronics, Volume 38, Issue 6 Author(s): Mohammed Zahed Mustafa Khan, Tien Khee Ng, Boon S. Ooi The advances in lasers, electronic and photonic integrated circuits (EPIC), optical interconnects as well as the modulation techniques allow the present day society to embrace the convenience of broadband, high speed internet and mobile network connectivity. However, the steep increase in energy demand and bandwidth requirement calls for further innovation in ultra-compact EPIC technologies. In the optical domain, advancement in the laser technologies beyond the current quantum well (Qwell) based laser technologies are already taking place and presenting very promising results. Homogeneously grown quantum dot (Qdot) lasers and optical amplifiers, can serve in the future energy saving information and communication technologies (ICT) as the work-horse for transmitting and amplifying information through optical fiber. The encouraging results in the zero-dimensional (0D) structures emitting at 980nm, in the form of vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL), are already operational at low threshold current density and capable of 40Gbps error-free transmission at 108 fJ/bit. Subsequent achievements for lasers and amplifiers operating in the O-, C-, L-, U-bands, and beyond will eventually lay the foundation for green ICT. On the hand, the inhomogeneously grown quasi 0D quantum dash (Qdash) lasers are brilliant solutions for potential broadband connectivity in server farms or access network. A single broadband Qdash laser operating in the stimulated emission mode can replace tens of discrete narrow-band lasers in dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM) transmission thereby further saving energy, cost and footprint. We herein reviewed the1 progress of both Qdots and Qdash devices, based on the InAs/InGaAlAs/InP and InAs/InGaAsP/InP material systems, from the angles of growth and device performance. In particular, we discussed the progress in lasers, semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOA), mode locked lasers, and superluminescent diodes, which are the building blocks of EPIC and ICT. Alternatively, these optical sources are potential candidates for other multi-disciplinary field applications.
July 2014
High-power mid-infrared supercontinuum sources: Current status and future perspectives
Publication date: September 2014
Source:Progress in Quantum Electronics, Volume 38, Issue 5 Author(s): Jacek Swiderski Mid-infrared (mid-IR) supercontinuum (SC) sources have recently gained much interest, as a key technology for such applications as spectral molecular fingerprinting, laser surgery, and infrared counter measures. However, one of the challenges facing this technology is how to obtain high power and broadband light covering a spectral band of at least 2–5µm, especially with a very efficient output power distribution towards the mid-IR region. This directly affects their usage in the practical applications mentioned above. Typically, an SC is generated by pumping a piece of nonlinear fibre with high-intensity femtosecond pulses provided by mode-locked lasers. Although this approach can lead to wide continuum generation, the output power is limited only to the milliWatt level. Therefore, to achieve high-power SC light, other laser systems need to be employed as pump sources. This paper briefly reviews SC sources, restricted to those with an average output power of over 0.4W and simultaneously with a long-wavelength edge of the continuum spectrum of over 2.4µm. Firstly, the concepts of SC generation, including the nonlinear phenomena governing this process and the most relevant mid-IR fibre materials, are presented. Following this study, a review of the main results on SC generation in silica and soft-glass fibres, also including my experimental results, is presented. Emphasis is given to high-power SC generation with the use of different pump schemes, providing an efficient power distribution towards longer wavelengths. Some discussion and prospective predictions are proposed at the end of the paper.
May 2014
Bessel beams from semiconductor light sources
Publication date: July 2014
Source:Progress in Quantum Electronics, Volume 38, Issue 4 Author(s): G.S. Sokolovskii, V.V. Dudelev, S.N. Losev, K.K. Soboleva, A.G. Deryagin, K.A. Fedorova, V.I. Kuchinskii, W. Sibbett, E.U. Rafailov We report on recent progress in the generation of non-diffracting (Bessel) beams from semiconductor light sources including both edge-emitting and surface-emitting semiconductor lasers as well as light-emitting diodes (LEDs). Bessel beams at the power level of Watts with central lobe diameters of a few to tens of micrometers were achieved from compact and highly efficient lasers. The practicality of reducing the central lobe size of the Bessel beam generated with high-power broad-stripe semiconductor lasers and LEDs to a level unachievable by means of traditional focusing has been demonstrated. We also discuss an approach to exceed the limit of power density for the focusing of radiation with high beam propagation parameter M 2. Finally, we consider the potential of the semiconductor lasers for applications in optical trapping/tweezing and the perspectives to replace their gas and solid-state laser counterparts for a range of implementations in optical manipulation towards lab-on-chip configurations.
March 2014
Surface and bulk structuring of materials by ripples with long and short laser pulses: Recent advances
Publication date: May 2014
Source:Progress in Quantum Electronics, Volume 38, Issue 3 Author(s): Ri
January 2014
Nonlinear optics, active plasmonics and metamaterials with liquid crystals
Publication date: March 2014
Source:Progress in Quantum Electronics, Volume 38, Issue 2 Author(s): Iam Choon Khoo Nematic liquid crystals possess large and versatile optical nonlinearities suitable for photonics applications spanning the femtoseconds to milliseconds time scales, and across a wide spectral window. We present a comprehensive review of the physical properties and mechanisms that underlie these multiple time scales nonlinearities, delving into individual molecular electronic responses as well as collective ordered-phase dynamical processes. Several exemplary theoretical formalisms and feasibility demonstrations of ultrafast all-optical transmission switching and tunable metamaterials and plasmonic photonic structures where the liquid crystal constituents play the critical role of enabling the processes are discussed. Emphasis is placed on all-optical processes, but we have also highlighted cases where electro-optical means could provide additional control, flexibility and enhancement possibility. We also point out how another phase of chiral nematic, namely, Blue-Phase liquid crystals could circumvent some of the limitations of nematic and present new possibilities.
January 2014
Progress in 2D photonic crystal Fano resonance photonics
Publication date: January 2014
Source:Progress in Quantum Electronics, Volume 38, Issue 1 Author(s): Weidong Zhou, Deyin Zhao, Yi-Chen Shuai, Hongjun Yang, Santhad Chuwongin, Arvinder Chadha, Jung-Hun Seo, Ken X. Wang, Victor Liu, Zhenqiang Ma, Shanhui Fan In contrast to a conventional symmetric Lorentzian resonance, Fano resonance is predominantly used to describe asymmetric-shaped resonances, which arise from the constructive and destructive interference of discrete resonance states with broadband continuum states. This phenomenon and the underlying mechanisms, being common and ubiquitous in many realms of physical sciences, can be found in a wide variety of nanophotonic structures and quantum systems, such as quantum dots, photonic crystals, plasmonics, and metamaterials. The asymmetric and steep dispersion of the Fano resonance profile promises applications for a wide range of photonic devices, such as optical filters, switches, sensors, broadband reflectors, lasers, detectors, slow-light and non-linear devices, etc. With advances in nanotechnology, impressive progress has been made in the emerging field of nanophotonic structures. One of the most attractive nanophotonic structures for integrated photonics is the two-dimensional photonic crystal slab (2D PCS), which can be integrated into a wide range of photonic devices. The objective of this manuscript is to provide an in depth review of the progress made in the general area of Fano resonance photonics, focusing on the photonic devices based on 2D PCS structures. General discussions are provided on the origins and characteristics of Fano resonances in 2D PCSs. A nanomembrane transfer printing fabrication technique is also reviewed, which is critical for the heterogeneous integrated Fano resonance photonics. The majority of the remaining sections review progress made on various photonic devices and structures, such as high quality factor filters, membrane reflectors, membrane lasers, detectors and sensors, as well as structures and phenomena related to Fano resonance slow light effect, nonlinearity, and optical forces in coupled PCSs. It is expected that further advances in the field will lead to more significant advances towards 3D integrated photonics, flat optics, and flexible optoelectronics, with lasting impact in areas ranging from computing, communications, to sensing and imaging systems.
November 2013
Corrigendum to “Editorial” [Prog. Quantum Electron. 37 (6) (2013) 325]
Publication date: January 2014
Source:Progress in Quantum Electronics, Volume 38, Issue 1 Author(s): J.G. Eden
November 2013
Publication date: November 2013
Source:Progress in Quantum Electronics, Volume 37, Issue 6

November 2013
Tunable laser optics: Applications to optics and quantum optics
Publication date: November 2013
Source:Progress in Quantum Electronics, Volume 37, Issue 6 Author(s): F.J. Duarte Optics originally developed for tunable organic dye lasers have found applications in other areas of optics, laser optics, and quantum optics. Here, the salient aspects of the physics related to the cavity linewidth equation and the effects of intracavity beam expansion and intracavity dispersion on this equation are reviewed. Additionally, the generalized multiple-prism dispersion equation is applied to direct-vision prisms, also known as Amici prisms, to calculate dispersion configurations of practical interest. Then, the higher derivatives of the multiple-prism dispersion equation applicable to laser pulse compression are considered. From this perspective, a new compact and generalized equation for higher-order phase derivatives is introduced for the first time. Furthermore, it is shown how the N-slit interferometric equation, derived from quantum principles using Dirac's notation, gives rise to generalized versions of the diffraction grating equation and the law of refraction. The nexus between the N-slit interferometric equation and the cavity linewidth equation is also illustrated. Finally, various optical and quantum optical applications that have benefited from these developments are highlighted.
September 2013
Solid state dye lasers with scattering feedback
Publication date: November 2013
Source:Progress in Quantum Electronics, Volume 37, Issue 6 Author(s): A. Costela, L. Cerd
July 2013
Physics of ultra-short laser interaction with matter: From phonon excitation to ultimate transformations
Publication date: September 2013
Source:Progress in Quantum Electronics, Volume 37, Issue 5 Author(s): E.G. Gamaly, A.V. Rode This review encompasses ultrafast laser interaction with matter in a broad range of intensities ~1010–1015 W/cm2. We consider the material transformation processes successively with increase of the absorbed laser intensity. We start with the subtle atomic displacements and excitation of phonons, and further analyze the phase transitions, ablation, transformation into plasma, and interaction of laser radiation with plasma up to the relativistic limit. The laser pulse is considered as of ultra-short duration if it is shorter the time scale of major energy relaxation processes such as the electron-to-lattice energy transfer, heat diffusion, and hydrodynamic motion. We describe the material response from the first principles, aiming to establish analytical scaling relations, which link the laser pulse characteristics with the properties of the material. Special section is dedicated to the possibility of creating super-high pressure and temperature with an ultrashort tabletop laser. The influence of the laser polarisation on the material ionisation is discussed. We consider theoretical and experimental aspects of a newly emerging topic of interaction of the ultrashort vortex beams and sculptured beams possessing complicated spatial and temporal distribution of intensity, polarisation, and the geometrical Berry-phase with matter. In conclusion, we discuss future directions related to the lasers and diagnostic tools on the attosecond time scale and with the photons energy in the x-ray range.
May 2013
Visible fiber lasers excited by GaN laser diodes
Publication date: July 2013
Source:Progress in Quantum Electronics, Volume 37, Issue 4 Author(s): Yasushi Fujimoto, Jun Nakanishi, Tsuyoshi Yamada, Osamu Ishii, Masaaki Yamazaki This paper describes and discusses visible fiber lasers that are excited by GaN laser diodes. One of the attractive points of visible light is that the human eye is sensitive to it between 400 and 700nm, and therefore we can see applications in display technology. Of course, many other applications exist. First, we briefly review previously developed visible lasers in the gas, liquid, and solid-state phases and describe the history of primary solid-state visible laser research by focusing on rare-earth doped fluoride media, including glasses and crystals, to clarify the differences and the merits of primary solid-state visible lasers. We also demonstrate over 1W operation of a Pr:WPFG fiber laser due to high-power GaN laser diodes and low-loss optical fibers (0.1dB/m) made by waterproof fluoride glasses. This new optical fiber glass is based on an AlF3 system fluoride glass, and its waterproof property is much better than the well known fluoride glass of ZBLAN. The configuration of primary visible fiber lasers promises highly efficient, cost-effective, and simple laser systems and will realize visible lasers with photon beam quality and quantity, such as high-power CW or tunable laser systems, compact ultraviolet lasers, and low-cost ultra-short pulse laser systems. We believe that primary visible fiber lasers, especially those excited by GaN laser diodes, will be effective tools for creating the next generation of research and light sources.
March 2013
On the physics of semiconductor quantum dots for applications in lasers and quantum optics
Publication date: May 2013
Source:Progress in Quantum Electronics, Volume 37, Issue 3 Author(s): Weng W. Chow, Frank Jahnke The progression of carrier confinement from quantum wells to quantum dots has received considerable interests because of the potential to improve the semiconductor laser performance at the underlying physics level and to explore quantum optical phenomena in semiconductors. Associated with the transition from quantum wells to quantum dots is a switch from a solid-state-like quasi-continuous density of states to an atom-like system with discrete states. As discussed in this paper, the transition changes the role of the carrier interaction processes that directly influence optical properties. Our goals in this review are two-fold. One is to identify and describe the physics that allows new applications and determines intrinsic limitations for applications in light emitters. We will analyze the use of quantum dots in conventional laser devices and in microcavity emitters, where cavity quantum electrodynamics can alter spontaneous emission and generate nonclassical light for applications in quantum information technologies. A second goal is to promote a new connection between physics and technology. This paper demonstrates how a first-principles theory may be applied to guide important technological decisions by predicting the performances of various active materials under a broad set of experimental conditions.
January 2013
Label-free optical resonant sensors for biochemical applications
Publication date: March 2013
Source:Progress in Quantum Electronics, Volume 37, Issue 2 Author(s): Caterina Ciminelli, Clarissa Martina Campanella, Francesco Dell’Olio, Carlo Edoardo Campanella, Mario Nicola Armenise For a number of years, the scientific community has been paying growing attention to the monitoring and enhancement of public health and the quality of life through the detection of all dangerous agents for the human body, including gases, proteins, virus, and bacterial agents. When these agents are detected through label-free biochemical sensors, the molecules are not modified structurally or functionally by adding fluorescent or radioactive dyes. This work focuses on label-free optical ring resonator-based configurations suited for bio-chemical sensing, highlighting their physical aspects and specific applications. Resonant wavelength shift and the modal splitting occurring when the analyte interacts with microresonant structures are the two major physical aspects analyzed in this paper. Competitive optical platforms proposed in the literature are also illustrated together with their properties and performance.


July–November 2012
Recent developments in optofluidic-assisted Raman spectroscopy
Publication date: January 2013
Source:Progress in Quantum Electronics, Volume 37, Issue 1 Author(s): Jacky S.W. Mak, Steve A. Rutledge, Rashid M. Abu-Ghazalah, Fatemeh Eftekhari, Juan Irizar, Natalie C.M. Tam, Gang Zheng, Amr S. Helmy This paper reviews and compares the different optofluidic techniques for enhancing the retrieved Raman signal in liquids with a focus on aqueous solutions. Recent progress in characterizing different nanostructures and biological molecules utilizing optofluidic fibers such as photonic crystal fibers (PCFs) in Raman spectroscopy are discussed. Techniques and applications to combine surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) with optofluidic-assisted Raman spectroscopy are further reviewed. Finally, challenges and future opportunities to advance Raman spectroscopy combined with optofluidics are presented.
July–November 2012
Chirped pulse laser sources and applications
Publication date: July–November 2012
Source:Progress in Quantum Electronics, Volume 36, Issues 4–6 Author(s): Peter J. Delfyett, Dimitrios Mandridis, Mohammad Umar Piracha, Dat Nguyen, Kyungbum Kim, Shinwook Lee This paper presents recent results in the development of novel ultrafast technologies based on the generation and application of extremely chirped optical pulses. Linearly frequency-swept mode-locked optical pulses of ns durations are generated, at the infrared telecommunications wavelength of 1.55

Carrier-envelope phase stabilization of femtosecond lasers by the direct locking method
Publication date: July–November 2012
Source:Progress in Quantum Electronics, Volume 36, Issues 4–6 Author(s): Tae Jun Yu, Chang Hee Nam The progress of carrier envelope phase (CEP) stabilization by the direct locking method developed at KAIST is summarized. The CEP of a femtosecond laser pulse has become a new laser parameter when the electric field of laser pulses, instead of the intensity, becomes a crucial interacting variable. The basic principle of the direct locking method is first explained, which operates in the time domain and generates CEP-stabilized laser pulses with identical CEP from a femtosecond oscillator. Then the method to achieve a long-term CEP stabilization, realized by installing a double feedback loop to a femtosecond laser, is explained. In addition the frequency-domain characteristics of the CEP-stabilized femtosecond laser are also analyzed. Finally the CEP stabilization of a kHz high-power femtosecond laser is presented.


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