Journal Sciences News
Theriogenology
Available online 31 May 2018
Advances and prospects of lasers developed from colloidal semiconductor nanostructures
Publication date: Available online 31 May 2018
Source:Progress in Quantum Electronics Author(s): Yue Wang, Handong Sun Since the first observation of stimulated emission from colloidal quantum dots (CQDs) in year 2000, tremendous progress has been made in developing solution-processed lasers from colloidal semiconductor nanostructures in terms of both understanding the fundamental physics and improving the device performance. In this review paper, we will start with a brief introduction about the fabrication of CQDs and the corresponding electronic structures. The emphasis will be put on the discussion about the optical gain and lasing from colloidal nanostructures including the gain mechanism, the main hurdles against optical gain and lasing as well as strategies to optimize the lasing performance. Afterwards, the recent advances in CQD lasers, exemplified by the achievement of continuous wave lasing, will be presented. Finally, the challenges and a perspective of the future development of lasers based on the colloidal semiconductor nanostructures will be presented.
March 2018
Nanolasers: Second-order Intensity Correlation, Direct Modulation and Electromagnetic Isolation in Array Architectures
Publication date: Available online 31 May 2018
Source:Progress in Quantum Electronics Author(s): Si Hui Pan, Suruj S. Deka, Abdelkrim El Amili, Qing Gu, Yeshaiahu Fainman Ideal integrated light emitters for optical interconnects should be compact in size, high in modulation bandwidth, efficient in energy consumption and tunable in frequency. Nanolasers are excellent candidates for such an application. In this article, we review and offer further in-depth analyses in three key aspects of recent nanolaser research, including second order intensity correlation, g 2 (
March 2018
Editorial Board
Publication date: March 2018
Source:Progress in Quantum Electronics, Volume 58

January 2018
Laser ignition - Spark plug development and application in reciprocating engines
Publication date: March 2018
Source:Progress in Quantum Electronics, Volume 58 Author(s): Nicolaie Pavel, Mark B
January 2018
Editorial Board
Publication date: January 2018
Source:Progress in Quantum Electronics, Volume 57

November 2017
Progress and prospects of GaN-based VCSEL from near UV to green emission
Publication date: January 2018
Source:Progress in Quantum Electronics, Volume 57 Author(s): Hsin-chieh Yu, Zhi-wei Zheng, Yang Mei, Rong-bin Xu, Jian-ping Liu, Hui Yang, Bao-ping Zhang, Tien-chang Lu, Hao-chung Kuo GaN is a great material for making optoelectronic devices in the blue, blue-violet and green bands. Vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) have many advantages including small footprint, circular symmetry of output beam, two-dimensional scalability and/or addressability, surface-mount packaging, good price-performance ratio, and simple optics/alignment for output coupling. In this paper, we would like to (1) Review the design and fabrication of GaN-based VCSELs including some technology challenges, (2) Discuss the design and metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) growth of electrically pumped blue VCSELs and (3) Demonstrate world first green VCSEL using quantum dots (QDs) active region to overcome the 'green gap'.
September 2017
Non-invasive biomedical research and diagnostics enabled by innovative compact lasers
Publication date: November 2017
Source:Progress in Quantum Electronics, Volume 56 Author(s): Karina S. Litvinova, Ilya E. Rafailov, Andrey V. Dunaev, Sergei G. Sokolovski, Edik U. Rafailov For over half a century, laser technology has undergone a technological revolution. These technologies, particularly semiconductor lasers, are employed in a myriad of fields. Optical medical diagnostics, one of the emerging areas of laser application, are on the forefront of application around the world. Optical methods of non- or minimally invasive bio-tissue investigation offer significant advantages over alternative methods, including rapid real-time measurement, non-invasiveness and high resolution (guaranteeing the safety of a patient). These advantages demonstrate the growing success of such techniques. In this review, we will outline the recent status of laser technology applied in the biomedical field, focusing on the various available approaches, particularly utilising compact semiconductor lasers. We will further consider the advancement and integration of several complimentary biophotonic techniques into single multimodal devices, the potential impact of such devices and their future applications. Based on our own studies, we will also cover the simultaneous collection of physiological data with the aid a multifunctional diagnostics system, concentrating on the optimisation of the new technology towards a clinical application. Such data is invaluable for developing algorithms capable of delivering consistent, reliable and meaningful diagnostic information, which can ultimately be employed for the early diagnosis of disease conditions in individuals from around the world.
September 2017
Coherent multi-dimensional spectroscopy: Experimental considerations, direct comparisons and new capabilities
Publication date: September 2017
Source:Progress in Quantum Electronics, Volume 55 Author(s): Jonathan O. Tollerud, Jeffrey A. Davis Optical Coherent Multidimensional Spectroscopy (CMDS) has been developed to probe the electronic states of a diverse range of complex systems. The great advantage of CMDS over linear spectroscopy is the ability to separate and quantify different types of interactions. To do this, multiple carefully controlled femtosecond laser pulses drive a non-linear response in the sample. A specific component of this non-linear response is selected and its amplitude and phase measured. There are many challenges for the experimental realization of optical CMDS, yet there have been several different approaches developed, each with their own advantages and limitations. Identifying the best approach then becomes dependent on the sample and the information being sought. Here we review the various experimental considerations and different approaches that have been developed. We consider the advantages and limitations of each of these, specifically in the context of experiments on solid state systems such as semiconductor nanostructures and 2D atomically thin materials. Two important considerations that are difficult to compare independently of other extraneous factors are the stability and sensitivity of the system. Here, we describe the experimental implementation of two different approaches that experience otherwise identical conditions and present an unbiased comparison of the stability and sensitivity. Furthermore, we demonstrate that by merging these two approaches we are able to combine the advantages of both into a single experiment.
September 2017
Nonlinear optics in optical-fiber nanowires and their applications
Publication date: September 2017
Source:Progress in Quantum Electronics, Volume 55 Author(s): Fei Xu, Zhen-xing Wu, Yan-qing Lu We review recent research on nonlinear optical interactions in optical-fiber nanowires (OFNs) with sub-micron transverse dimensions. Such OFNs, which are fabricated from standard optical fibers, offer numerous beneficial optical and mechanical properties, including strong evanescent fields, high flexibility and configurability, a small mass, and low-loss interconnection to other optical fibers and fiberized components. In particular, the strong confinement of light enables a large enhancement of nonlinear interactions and group-velocity dispersion engineering. The combination of these properties makes OFNs ideal for many nonlinear optical applications, including harmonic generation, Brillouin scattering, four-wave mixing, supercontinuum generation, and optomechanics. With the incorporation of new materials, OFNs should be ideally suited for a host of nonlinear optical interactions and devices and offer great potential in miniature fiber devices for optical telecommunications and optical sensor applications.
September 2017
Two-dimensional topological photonic systems
Publication date: September 2017
Source:Progress in Quantum Electronics, Volume 55 Author(s): Xiao-Chen Sun, Cheng He, Xiao-Ping Liu, Ming-Hui Lu, Shi-Ning Zhu, Yan-Feng Chen The topological phase of matter, originally proposed and first demonstrated in fermionic electronic systems, has drawn considerable research attention in the past decades due to its robust transport of edge states and its potential with respect to future quantum information, communication, and computation. Recently, searching for such a unique material phase in bosonic systems has become a hot research topic worldwide. So far, many bosonic topological models and methods for realizing them have been discovered in photonic systems, acoustic systems, mechanical systems, etc. These discoveries have certainly yielded vast opportunities in designing material phases and related properties in the topological domain. In this review, we first focus on some of the representative photonic topological models and employ the underlying Dirac model to analyze the edge states and geometric phase. On the basis of these models, three common types of two-dimensional topological photonic systems are discussed: 1) photonic quantum Hall effect with broken time-reversal symmetry; 2) photonic topological insulator and the associated pseudo-time-reversal symmetry-protected mechanism; 3) time/space periodically modulated photonic Floquet topological insulator. Finally, we provide a summary and extension of this emerging field, including a brief introduction to the Weyl point in three-dimensional systems.
September 2017
Dressed photons in a new paradigm of off-shell quantum fields
Publication date: September 2017
Source:Progress in Quantum Electronics, Volume 55 Author(s): Hirofumi Sakuma, Izumi Ojima, Motoichi Ohtsu This article reviews recent progress in theoretical studies of dressed photons. For providing concrete physical images of dressed photons, several experimental studies are demonstrated. They are applications of dressed photons to novel optical functional devices, nano-fabrication technologies, energy conversion technologies, and photon breeding devices. After these experimental demonstrations, as the main part of this review, quantum-field theoretical formulation of dressed photons is attempted in use of the newly introduced Clebsch-dual variable of electromagnetic field. The reason for introducing the new formulation will be explained in the final section from the viewpoint to exhibit the contrast between free and interacting quantum fields in regard to their energy-momentum supports which are seldom touched upon (or forgotten) in the common physical discussions about quantum fields.
September 2017
A guide to wireless networking by light
Publication date: September 2017
Source:Progress in Quantum Electronics, Volume 55 Author(s): Harald Haas, Cheng Chen, Dominic O'Brien The lack of wireless spectrum in the radio frequency bands has led to a rapid growth in research in wireless networking using light, known as LiFi (light fidelity). In this paper an overview of the subsystems, challenges and techniques required to achieve this is presented.
September 2017
Laser-induced generation of singlet oxygen and its role in the cerebrovascular physiology
Publication date: September 2017
Source:Progress in Quantum Electronics, Volume 55 Author(s): O.V. Semyachkina-Glushkovskaya, S.G. Sokolovski, A. Goltsov, A.S. Gekaluyk, E.I. Saranceva, O.A. Bragina, V.V. Tuchin, E.U. Rafailov For over 55 years, laser technology has expanded from laboratory research to widespread fields, for example telecommunication and data storage amongst others. Recently application of lasers in biology and medicine presents itself as one of the emerging areas. In this review, we will outline the recent advances in using lasers for the generation of singlet oxygen, traditionally used to kill tumour cells or induce thrombotic stroke model due to damage vascular effects. Over the last two decade, completely new results on cerebrovascular effects of singlet oxygen generated during photodynamic therapy (PDT) have been shown alongside promising applications for delivery of drugs and nanoparticles into the brain for therapy of brain cancer. Furthermore, a “gold key” has been found to overcome the limitations of PDT, such as low light penetration and high toxicity of photosensitizers, by direct generation of singlet oxygen using quantum-dot laser diodes emitting in the near infrared (NIR) spectral range. It is our motivation to highlight these pioneering results in this review, to improve understanding of the biological role of singlet oxygen and to provide new perspectives for improving clinical application of laser based therapy in further research.
September 2017
Diamond photonics for distributed quantum networks
Publication date: September 2017
Source:Progress in Quantum Electronics, Volume 55 Author(s): Sam Johnson, Philip R. Dolan, Jason M. Smith The distributed quantum network, in which nodes comprising small but well-controlled quantum states are entangled via photonic channels, has in recent years emerged as a strategy for delivering a range of quantum technologies including secure communications, enhanced sensing and scalable quantum computing. Colour centres in diamond are amongst the most promising candidates for nodes fabricated in the solid-state, offering potential for large scale production and for chip-scale integrated devices. In this review we consider the progress made and the remaining challenges in developing diamond-based nodes for quantum networks. We focus on the nitrogen-vacancy and silicon-vacancy colour centres, which have demonstrated many of the necessary attributes for these applications. We focus in particular on the use of waveguides and other photonic microstructures for increasing the efficiency with which photons emitted from these colour centres can be coupled into a network, and the use of microcavities for increasing the fraction of photons emitted that are suitable for generating entanglement between nodes.
August 2017
Nano-scale chemical reactions based on non-uniform optical near-fields and their applications
Publication date: September 2017
Source:Progress in Quantum Electronics, Volume 55 Author(s): Takashi Yatsui, Maiku Yamaguchi, Katsuyuki Nobusada Interaction between light and materials is essential in the physics underlying all optical devices, including light emitting devices such as light emitting diodes and lasers, photo-voltaic devices, and photo-synthesis systems. The demand for higher light utilization efficiency is becoming increasingly important for advanced optical devices. This is because, when feature size is smaller than the incident light wavelength, photons cannot couple with devices efficiently. In this paper, we review recent progress regarding a unique phenomenon at the nano scale and its applications. First, we summarize the development of light–matter interactions at the nano-scale. Second, we review recent theoretical works focusing on optical near fields in which unique phenomena arise from non-uniform optical fields. We then review several recent developments based on the near-field effect, including artificial photosynthesis and near-field etching for realization of angstrom-scale fattened surfaces. Finally, we discuss the future outlook for these technologies.
August 2017
Editorial to “Special issue in honor of the 70th birthday of Professor Sir Peter Knight FRS”
Publication date: August 2017
Source:Progress in Quantum Electronics, Volume 54

August 2017
From quantum optics to quantum technologies
Publication date: August 2017
Source:Progress in Quantum Electronics, Volume 54 Author(s): Dan Browne, Sougato Bose, Florian Mintert, M.S. Kim Quantum optics is the study of the intrinsically quantum properties of light. During the second part of the 20th century experimental and theoretical progress developed together; nowadays quantum optics provides a testbed of many fundamental aspects of quantum mechanics such as coherence and quantum entanglement. Quantum optics helped trigger, both directly and indirectly, the birth of quantum technologies, whose aim is to harness non-classical quantum effects in applications from quantum key distribution to quantum computing. Quantum light remains at the heart of many of the most promising and potentially transformative quantum technologies. In this review, we celebrate the work of Sir Peter Knight and present an overview of the development of quantum optics and its impact on quantum technologies research. We describe the core theoretical tools developed to express and study the quantum properties of light, the key experimental approaches used to control, manipulate and measure such properties and their application in quantum simulation, and quantum computing.
May 2017
Journeys from quantum optics to quantum technology
Publication date: August 2017
Source:Progress in Quantum Electronics, Volume 54 Author(s): Stephen M. Barnett, Almut Beige, Artur Ekert, Barry M. Garraway, Christoph H. Keitel, Viv Kendon, Manfred Lein, Gerard J. Milburn, H
March 2017
Perovskite solar cells - An overview of critical issues
Publication date: May 2017
Source:Progress in Quantum Electronics, Volume 53 Author(s): A.B. Djuri
January 2017
Transfer print techniques for heterogeneous integration of photonic components
Publication date: March 2017
Source:Progress in Quantum Electronics, Volume 52 Author(s): Brian Corbett, Ruggero Loi, Weidong Zhou, Dong Liu, Zhenqiang Ma The essential functionality of photonic and electronic devices is contained in thin surface layers leaving the substrate often to play primarily a mechanical role. Layer transfer of optimised devices or materials and their heterogeneous integration is thus a very attractive strategy to realise high performance, low-cost circuits for a wide variety of new applications. Additionally, new device configurations can be achieved that could not otherwise be realised. A range of layer transfer methods have been developed over the years including epitaxial lift-off and wafer bonding with substrate removal. Recently, a new technique called transfer printing has been introduced which allows manipulation of small and thin materials along with devices on a massively parallel scale with micron scale placement accuracies to a wide choice of substrates such as silicon, glass, ceramic, metal and polymer. Thus, the co-integration of electronics with photonic devices made from compound semiconductors, silicon, polymer and new 2D materials is now achievable in a practical and scalable method. This is leading to exciting possibilities in microassembly. We review some of the recent developments in layer transfer and particularly the use of the transfer print technology for enabling active photonic devices on rigid and flexible foreign substrates.
November 2016
Spectral effects of stimulated Raman scattering in crystals
Publication date: January 2017
Source:Progress in Quantum Electronics, Volume 51 Author(s): David J. Spence This paper will review the coupling by stimulated Raman scattering between two laser fields and its dependence on the spectral properties of those fields. We describe the coupling in terms of an effective Raman gain that depends on the fields’ linewidths, the material dispersion, and specific experimental conditions. The aim is to provide an intuitive understanding of this behaviour, by presenting analytic and numerical results in both the time- and frequency-domains. We review some recent experimental results using crystalline Raman materials, to highlight why spectral effects must be taken into consideration to push crystalline Raman lasers to new extremes of performance.
September 2016
Quantitative imaging of cell membrane-associated effective mass density using Photonic Crystal Enhanced Microscopy (PCEM)
Publication date: November 2016
Source:Progress in Quantum Electronics, Volume 50 Author(s): Yue Zhuo, Ji Sun Choi, Thibault Marin, Hojeong Yu, Brendan A. Harley, Brian T. Cunningham Adhesion is a critical cellular process that contributes to migration, apoptosis, differentiation, and division. It is followed by the redistribution of cellular materials at the cell membrane or at the cell-surface interface for cells interacting with surfaces, such as basement membranes. Dynamic and quantitative tracking of changes in cell adhesion mass redistribution is challenging because cells are rapidly moving, inhomogeneous, and nonequilibrium objects, whose physical and mechanical properties are difficult to measure or predict. Here, we report a novel biosensor based microscopy approach termed Photonic Crystal Enhanced Microscopy (PCEM) that enables the movement of cellular materials at the plasma membrane of individual live cells to be dynamically monitored and quantitatively imaged. PCEM utilizes a photonic crystal biosensor surface, which can be coated with arbitrary extracellular matrix materials to facilitate cellular interactions, within a modified brightfield microscope with a low intensity non-coherent light source. Benefiting from the high sensitivity, narrow resonance peak, and tight spatial confinement of the evanescent field atop the photonic crystal biosensor, PCEM enables label-free live cell imaging with high sensitivity and high lateral and axial spatial-resolution, thereby allowing dynamic adhesion phenotyping of single cells without the use of fluorescent tags or stains. We apply PCEM to investigate adhesion and the early stage migration of different types of stem cells and cancer cells. By applying image processing algorithms to analyze the complex spatiotemporal information generated by PCEM, we offer insight into how the plasma membrane of anchorage dependent cells is dynamically organized during cell adhesion. The imaging and analysis results presented here provide a new tool for biologists to gain a deeper understanding of the fundamental mechanisms involved with cell adhesion and concurrent or subsequent migration events.
July 2016
Photon management of GaN-based optoelectronic devices via nanoscaled phenomena
Publication date: September 2016
Source:Progress in Quantum Electronics, Volume 49 Author(s): Yu-Lin Tsai, Kun-Yu Lai, Ming-Jui Lee, Yu-Kuang Liao, Boon S. Ooi, Hao-Chung Kuo, Jr-Hau He Photon management is essential in improving the performances of optoelectronic devices including light emitting diodes, solar cells and photo detectors. Beyond the advances in material growth and device structure design, photon management via nanoscaled phenomena have also been demonstrated as a promising way for further modifying/improving the device performance. The accomplishments achieved by photon management via nanoscaled phenomena include strain-induced polarization field management, crystal quality improvement, light extraction/harvesting enhancement, radiation pattern control, and spectrum management. In this review, we summarize recent development, challenges and underlying physics of photon management in GaN-based light emitting diodes and solar cells.
May 2016
Heterojunction and superlattice detectors for infrared to ultraviolet
Publication date: July 2016
Source:Progress in Quantum Electronics, Volume 48 Author(s): A.G.U. Perera The interest in Infrared and Ultraviolet detectors has increased immensely due to the emergence of important applications over a wide range of activities. Detectors based on free carrier absorption known as Hetero-junction Interfacial Workfunction Internal Photoemission (HEIWIP) detectors and variations of these heterojunction structures to be used as intervalence band detectors for a wide wavelength region are presented. Although this internal photoemission concept is valid for all semiconductor materials systems, using a well-studied III–V system of GaAs/$Al x$ $Ga 1 - x As$ to cover a wide wavelength range from UV to far-infrared (THz) is an important development in detector technology. Using the intervalence band (heavy hole, light hole and split off) transitions for high operating temperature detection of mid Infrared radiation is also discussed. A promising new way to extend the detection wavelength threshold beyond the standard threshold connected with the energy gap in a GaAs/$Al x$ $Ga 1 - x As$ system is also presented. Superlattice detector technology, which is another promising detector architecture, can be optimized using both Type I and Type II heterostructures. Here the focus will be on Type II Strained Layer (T2SL) Superlattice detectors. T2SL Superlattices based on InAs/(In,GA)Sb have made significant improvements demonstrating focal plane arrays operating around 80K and with multiple band detection capability. A novel spectroscopic method to evaluate the band offsets of both heterojunction and superlattice detectors is also discussed.
January–March 2016
HgCdTe barrier infrared detectors
Publication date: May 2016
Source:Progress in Quantum Electronics, Volume 47 Author(s): M. Kopytko, A. Rogalski In the last decade, new strategies to achieve high-operating temperature (HOT) detectors have been proposed, including barrier structures such as nBn devices, unipolar barrier photodiodes, and multistage (cascade) infrared detectors. The ability to tune the positions of the conduction and valence band edges independently in a broken-gap type-II superlattices is especially helpful in the design of unipolar barriers. This idea has been also implemented in HgCdTe ternary material system. However, the implementation of this detector structure in HgCdTe material system is not straightforward due to the existence of a valence band discontinuity (barrier) at the absorber–barrier interface. In this paper we present status of HgCdTe barrier detectors with emphasis on technological progress in fabrication of MOCVD-grown HgCdTe barrier detectors achieved recently at the Institute of Applied Physics, Military University of Technology. Their performance is comparable with state-of-the-art of HgCdTe photodiodes. From the perspective of device fabrication their important technological advantage results from less stringent surface passivation requirements and tolerance to threading dislocations.
January–March 2016
Retirement of J. Gary Eden as Editor-in-Chief
Publication date: January–March 2016
Source:Progress in Quantum Electronics, Volumes 45–46 Author(s): Chennupati Jagadish, Helena Jelinkova, Yeshaiahu Fainman, Martin Dawson, Ysabel Ermers
November 2015
Optically pumped planar waveguide lasers: Part II: Gain media, laser systems, and applications
Publication date: January–March 2016
Source:Progress in Quantum Electronics, Volumes 45–46 Author(s): Christos Grivas The field of optically pumped planar waveguide lasers has seen a rapid development over the last two decades driven by the requirements of a range of applications. This sustained research effort has led to the demonstration of a large variety of miniature highly efficient laser sources by combining different gain media and resonator geometries. One of the most attractive features of waveguide lasers is the broad range of regimes that they can operate, spanning from continuous wave and single frequency through to the generation of femtosecond pulses. Furthermore, their technology has experienced considerable advances to provide increased output power levels, deriving benefits from the relative immunity from the heat generated in the gain medium during laser operation and the use of cladding-pumped architectures. This second part of the review on optically pumped planar waveguide lasers provides a snapshot of the state-of-the-art research in this field in terms of gain materials, laser system designs, and as well as a perspective on the status of their application as real devices in various research areas.
November 2015
High speed parametric processing controlled by few photons
Publication date: November 2015
Source:Progress in Quantum Electronics, Volume 44 Author(s): Ana Pejkic, Stojan Radic Optical signal processing has long been recognized as a promising route to a new class of fast and energy efficient devices. The former parameter, the speed, has indeed been addressed in a number of different signal processing roles, confirming the superiority of optical signal processing devices with respect to their electronic counterpart. After gaining some maturity, the field has now advanced to reducing the energy consumption. In this regard, new efforts are directed toward designing an efficient photon interaction mediator, expected to provide both fast and energy efficient devices. The key topic of this review is the progress in longitudinal silica fiber dispersion engineering enabling efficient, non-reciprocal parametric mixers. We present how longitudinal dispersion fluctuations, once considered detrimental, can now be exploited to alter the phase matching condition, and thus, enable fast control of a high power beam by few photons. The potential of such a functionality in high-speed optical signal processing and sensing is discussed.
September 2015
III-Nitride nanowire optoelectronics
Publication date: November 2015
Source:Progress in Quantum Electronics, Volume 44 Author(s): Songrui Zhao, Hieu P.T. Nguyen, Md. G. Kibria, Zetian Mi Group-III nitride nanowire structures, including GaN, InN, AlN and their alloys, have been intensively studied in the past decade. Unique to this material system is that its energy bandgap can be tuned from the deep ultraviolet (~6.2eV for AlN) to the near infrared (~0.65eV for InN). In this article, we provide an overview on the recent progress made in III-nitride nanowire optoelectronic devices, including light emitting diodes, lasers, photodetectors, single photon sources, intraband devices, solar cells, and artificial photosynthesis. The present challenges and future prospects of III-nitride nanowire optoelectronic devices are also discussed.
September 2015
Ultrashort pulse generation in the mid-IR
Publication date: September 2015
Source:Progress in Quantum Electronics, Volume 43 Author(s): H. Pires, M. Baudisch, D. Sanchez, M. Hemmer, J. Biegert Recent developments in laser sources operating in the mid-IR (