Journal Sciences News
Transfusion and Apheresis Science
August 2018
Child abuse and neglect re-report rates for young children with developmental delays
Publication date: September 2018
Source:Child Abuse & Neglect, Volume 83 Author(s): Judith L. Perrigo, Lauren D. Berkovits, Julie A. Cederbaum, Marian E. Williams, Michael S. Hurlburt The study objective was to examine the likelihood and magnitude of child abuse and neglect (CAN) re-reports for young children (0–71 months) with delays in cognitive, language, and adaptive development, compared to typically developing children. The National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being (NSCAW II), a nationally representative and longitudinal survey, was used to examine CAN re-reports at two follow-up waves, 18- and 36-months post baseline assessments. Logistic regression models were employed to determine the correlation between number of developmental delays and a CAN re-report at waves 2 and 3. Results indicate that children with three or more domains of delays had odds 4.73 times higher than children without developmental delays of re-report to CPS at wave 2 but not at wave 3. In this study, children with multiple developmental delays have elevated rates of CAN re-reports when compared to typically developing children. Allocation of child welfare resources should include strategies for preventing maltreatment risk among children with developmental delays.
August 2018
From mother to child: Maternal betrayal trauma and risk for maltreatment and psychopathology in the next generation
Publication date: August 2018
Source:Child Abuse & Neglect, Volume 82 Author(s): Rebecca L. Babcock Fenerci, Brian Allen The objective of this study was to investigate whether experiences of high betrayal trauma (BT; maltreatment by a parent/caregiver) during mothers' own childhoods may influence the intergenerational transmission of maltreatment and its associated psychopathology from mothers to their children. A prospective, longitudinal design was utilized to assess maternal physical and sexual betrayal trauma in relation to children’s own maltreatment experiences, and child mood and behavioral symptoms during pre-adolescence. Data from 706 mothers and children who participated in the Longitudinal Studies of Child Abuse and Neglect (LONGSCAN) was analyzed, including: mothers’ physical and sexual maltreatment histories, child protective services’ documented physical and sexual maltreatment during children’s first twelve years of life, and mother- and child-reports of child internalizing and externalizing symptoms at age 12. Children of mothers who survived high BT (maltreatment by a caregiver) were 4.52 times more likely to experience maltreatment than children of no BT mothers (mothers whom were not maltreated), and 1.58 times more likely than children whose mothers survived low BT (maltreatment by a non-caregiver). Higher levels of maternal physical BT significantly predicted more internalizing and externalizing symptoms in children at age 12, according to both mother (CBCL) and child (YSR) reports. More incidents of child physical maltreatment partially mediated associations between maternal physical BT and child symptoms. Incidents of sexual maltreatment also partially mediated associations between maternal sexual BT and child internalizing and externalizing symptoms (CBCL only). These findings have implications for understanding the role of betrayal trauma in perpetuating the cycle of maltreatment across generations.
August 2018
Maltreatment type, exposure characteristics, and mental health outcomes among clinic referred trauma-exposed youth
Publication date: August 2018
Source:Child Abuse & Neglect, Volume 82 Author(s): Hilary B. Hodgdon, Joseph Spinazzola, Ernestine C. Briggs, Li-Jung Liang, Alan M. Steinberg, Christopher M. Layne Building upon prior research documenting differential effects of psychological maltreatment, physical, and sexual abuse on youth mental health outcomes (Spinazzola et al., 2014), the present study sought to clarify the relative predictive contributions of type of maltreatment compared to salient exposure characteristics. The sample included 5058 clinic-referred youth from the Core Dataset (CDS) of the National Child Traumatic Stress Network (NCTSN) with lifetime histories of exposure to one or more of three specific types of maltreatment: psychological maltreatment (PM), physical abuse (PA), and sexual abuse (SA). First, we examined variations in salient trauma characteristics (age of onset, duration of exposure, number of co-occurring trauma types, and perpetrator type and number) by maltreatment group. Second, we examined whether type of maltreatment remained associated with mental health measures after adjusting for demographic variables and trauma characteristics. Profiles for youth with PM were more severe than youth who experienced either PA or SA only. Co-occurring PM and PA was associated with the most severe trauma exposure profile and with severity of PTSD symptoms, even after adjusting for demographic and trauma characteristics. Youth exposed to SA only had a distinct trauma profile and greater PTSD symptom severity after adjusting for demographic and trauma characteristic variables. Study findings hold important implications for trauma screening, assessment, and intervention, as well as for traumatic stress research methods that extend beyond abuse-specific or cumulative-risk approaches.
August 2018
Maternal intimate partner violence victimization and child maltreatment
Publication date: August 2018
Source:Child Abuse & Neglect, Volume 82 Author(s): Zohre Ahmadabadi, Jackob M. Najman, Gail M. Williams, Alexandra M. Clavarino, Peter d'Abbs, Amanuel Alemu Abajobir There is some limited evidence of an association between maternal intimate partner victimization (IPV) and children’s experience of maltreatment. Using data from a longitudinal study, we examine whether this relationship is independent of range of potential confounders including socio-economic, familial and psychological factors. Data were taken from the 14 and 30-year follow-ups of the Mater-University of Queensland Study of Pregnancy (MUSP) in Australia. A subsample of 2064 mothers and children (59.0% female) whose data on maternal IPV and child maltreatment was available, were analysed. In families with maternal IPV, two in five children reported being maltreated, compared to one in five children maltreated in families without maternal IPV. Except for sexual maltreatment which was consistently higher in female offspring, there was no gender differences in experiencing different types of maltreatment in families manifesting maternal IPV. Although both males and females were at increased risk of child maltreatment in families where mothers were victimized by their male partners, male children were more likely to be emotionally maltreated. The main associations were substantially independent of measured confounders, except for father’s history of mental health problems which attenuated the association of maternal IPV victimization and male offspring’s physical abuse. Our findings confirm that there is a robust association between maternal IPV and child maltreatment. Both maternal IPV victimization and child maltreatment co-occur in a household characterized by conflict and violence. Consequences of IPV go beyond the incident and influence all family members. Efforts to reduce child maltreatment may need to address the greater level of IPV associated with the cycle of family violence.
August 2018
Community perceptions of home environments that lead children & youth to the street in semi-rural Kenya
Publication date: August 2018
Source:Child Abuse & Neglect, Volume 82 Author(s): Sarah Seidel, James Muciimi, James Chang, Stanley Gitari, Philip Keiser, Michael L. Goodman Research with street-involved children and youth (SICY) in Sub-Saharan Africa over the past three decades has established a complex web of both micro and macro-level factors that simultaneously "push" and "pull" children and youth to the street. There is still little research with adult family and community members in communities from which SICY originate. Forty men and women from five semi-rural villages in Meru County, Kenya participated in a Rapid Rural Appraisal utilizing a fishbone diagram to explore main and underlying reasons for why children may be or may feel unwelcome in the home and thus migrate to the street. Responses were analyzed in terms of ecological levels, child or parent perspective, and the push/pull framework. Overall, community members identified families and households experiencing stress and lacking the necessary resources to successfully adjust and adapt. Four ecological levels of influence were proposed as main reasons, with parent and caregiver factors mentioned most often, followed by household factors, children’s intrapersonal factors, and interpersonal (family) factors. Community and environmental level factors were also proposed as underlying factors. Analysis by gender revealed that both men and women emphasized push factors over pull factors, though men proposed more pull factors (from peers and street life) than women did. Men placed more responsibility on the children than women did, citing children's negative behaviors, dissatisfaction with home, and a desire for independence and work/income. Women, in contrast, emphasized children's feelings of being unloved and the experience of harsh punishment or abuse from caregivers. Findings suggest that interventions to reduce street involvement should support economically, medically, and psychologically vulnerable families and households through comprehensive family strengthening programs that build financial capacity, improve parenting and communication skills, and promote education over child work and labor.
August 2018
Adaptation and psychometric properties of the ISPCAN Child Abuse Screening Tool for use in trials (ICAST-Trial) among South African adolescents and their primary caregivers
Publication date: August 2018
Source:Child Abuse & Neglect, Volume 82 Author(s): Franziska Meinck, Mark E. Boyes, Lucie Cluver, Catherine L. Ward, Peter Schmidt, Sachin DeStone, Michael P. Dunne Child abuse prevention research has been hampered by a lack of validated multi-dimensional non-proprietary instruments, sensitive enough to measure change in abuse victimization or behavior. This study aimed to adapt the ICAST child abuse self-report measure (parent and child) for use in intervention studies and to investigate the psychometric properties of this substantially modified tool in a South African sample. First, cross-cultural and sensitivity adaptation of the original ICAST tools resulted in two preliminary measures (ICAST-Trial adolescents: 27 items, ICAST-Trial caregivers: 19 items). Second, ICAST-Trial data from a cluster randomized trial of a parenting intervention for families with adolescents (N
August 2018
Area-socioeconomic disparities in mental health service use among children involved in the child welfare system
Publication date: August 2018
Source:Child Abuse & Neglect, Volume 82 Author(s): Minseop Kim, Antonio R. Garcia, Shuyan Yang, Nahri Jung Relying on data from a nationally representative sample of youth involved in the child welfare system (CWS) in 1999–2000 (the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being, Cohort 1) and 2008–2009 (Cohort 2), this study implemented a diverse set of disparity indicators to estimate area-socioeconomic disparities in mental health (MH) services use and changes in area-socioeconomic disparities between the two cohorts. Our study found that there are area-socioeconomic disparities in MH service use, indicating that the rates of MH service use among youth referred to the CWS differ by area-socioeconomic positions defined by county-level poverty rates. We also found that area-socioeconomic disparities increased over time. However, the magnitude of the increase varied widely across disparity measures, suggesting that there are different conclusions about the trend and magnitude of area-socioeconomic disparities, depending upon which disparity measures are implemented. A greater understanding of the methodological differences among disparity measures is warranted, which will in turn impact how interventions are designed to reduce socioeconomic disparities among children in the CWS.
August 2018
Change and consistency in descriptions of child maltreatment: A comparison of caregivers’ perspectives 20 years apart
Publication date: August 2018
Source:Child Abuse & Neglect, Volume 82 Author(s): James C. Spilsbury, Daphna Gross-Manos, Bridget M. Haas, Kristina Bowdrie, Francisca Richter, Jill E. Korbin, David S. Crampton, Claudia J. Coulton Although approximately one-fifth of child maltreatment reports originate with family members, friends, neighbors, or community members, their efforts to identify and report child maltreatment are still not well understood. Nor is it well understood how these individuals’ perceptions of what constitutes maltreatment may change over time. This study examined descriptions of behavior perceived as maltreatment by caregivers of minors in Cleveland, Ohio, USA neighborhoods. Data were obtained from two neighborhood-based cross-sectional surveys of caregivers of minors: one conducted in 1995–1996 and the other in 2014–2015. The sample consisted of 400 caregivers living in 20 census tracts with varying profiles of maltreatment risk in the 1995–1996 study, and 400 caregivers living in the same 20 census tracts surveyed in 2014–2015. Each time point, participants were asked to provide three examples of behaviors they considered to be child abuse and neglect. All responses were categorized using the 1995–1996 coding scheme. Logistic regression analyses including all 800 participants, adjusted for individual and neighborhood characteristics, and accounting for residential clustering in neighborhoods, showed that participating in the 2014–2015 survey was associated with 51% increased odds of mentioning an act of neglect and a 39% decreased odds of mentioning an act of physical abuse. No significant temporal changes were observed for inadequate supervision, emotional or verbal abuse, sexual abuse, and parental misbehavior. Associations between specific types of maltreatment and individual and neighborhood characteristics were observed. Potential practice implications and future research directions include seeking greater familiarity with caregivers’ perceptions of maltreating behaviors to better understand how these perceptions might “translate” into child maltreatment reports and investigations.
August 2018
Using time-to-event analysis to identify preconception and prenatal predictors of child protective services contact
Publication date: August 2018
Source:Child Abuse & Neglect, Volume 82 Author(s): Anna E. Austin, Jared W. Parrish, Meghan E. Shanahan We examined preconception and prenatal predictors of time to first child protective services (CPS) contact among Alaska children. Data were from the Alaska Longitudinal Child Abuse and Neglect Linkage (ALCANLink) project, a population-representative data source linking 2009–2011 Alaska Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS) data with administrative data sources through 2015. We examined the incidence CPS contact using the Kaplan-Meier method and predictors of CPS contact using Cox proportional hazards regression. Using data from the Alaska Permanent Fund Dividend and Child Death Review, we censored children who emigrated out-of-state or died during the study period. Significant predictors included low socioeconomic status (HR
August 2018
Childhood adversity and adult health-risk behaviors: Examining the roles of emotion dysregulation and urgency
Publication date: August 2018
Source:Child Abuse & Neglect, Volume 82 Author(s): Hannah C. Espeleta, Emma I. Brett, Leigh E. Ridings, Eleanor L.S. Leavens, Larry L. Mullins Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are important public health concerns, with links to higher prevalence rates of both health-risk behaviors and physical health difficulties in adulthood. Research has demonstrated an association between early adversity and long-term health-risk behavior development. The current study assessed the role of emotion dysregulation and facets of impulsivity as potential mediators in the relation between ACEs and general health-risk behaviors, including alcohol-related consequences and risky sexual behavior. College students (N
August 2018
Effect of worker contacts on risk of child maltreatment recurrence among CPS-involved children and families
Publication date: August 2018
Source:Child Abuse & Neglect, Volume 82 Author(s): Julie L. Halverson, Jesse Rio Russell, Colleen Kerwin The mission and responsibility of child protective services (CPS) is to investigate maltreatment; intervene to protect children from harm; and promote safety, permanency, and well-being (DePanfilis & Salus, 2003; Goldman, Salus, Wolcott, & Kennedy, 2003). In 2015, approximately 7.2 million children in the United States were referred to CPS agencies, and 3.4 million children had an investigation or received an alternative response (US Department of Health & Human Services, 2017). Fluke, Shusterman, Hollinshead, and Yuan (2005) found that about one third of children with an allegation of maltreatment would have at least one re-report within a five-year period. Research indicates that the rates of child maltreatment or changes in indicators of child maltreatment have remained unchanged over time (Gilbert et al., 2012). Despite policies aimed at reducing or preventing maltreatment, the development of CPS systems across the United States, and a CPS workforce, the aggregate effects of the CPS system, services, and worker efforts are not well understood.
August 2018
Exploring sexuality profiles of adolescents who have engaged in sexual abuse and their link to delinquency and offense characteristics
Publication date: August 2018
Source:Child Abuse & Neglect, Volume 82 Author(s): Jo-Annie Spearson Goulet, Monique Tardif Very few studies have taken a specific interest in the various sexual dimensions, beyond delinquent sexual behavior, of adolescents who have engaged in sexual abuse (AESA). Those that went beyond delinquent sexual behavior have report mixed results, suggesting they are a heterogeneous group. The current study used cluster analysis to examine the sexuality profiles of AESA, which included information on several sexual dimensions (atypical and normative fantasies and experiences, drive, body image, pornography, first masturbation, onset of sexual interest and first exposure to sex). Participants (N
August 2018
“I know it because it happened to me!” Confrontations of children within forensic investigations
Publication date: August 2018
Source:Child Abuse & Neglect, Volume 82 Author(s): Carmit Katz, Zion Barnetz Confrontations and cross-examination are considered to be a vital stage in forensic investigations; however, laboratory and field studies have systematically shown their adverse effects on children`s testimonies. The current field study aimed to assess the strategies utilized, and the frequency with which they are used, in confrontations within forensic investigations involving children following suspected abuse, and to assess their effects on the children's testimonies. The forensic investigations were conducted using the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) Protocol. The transcripts of 224 children aged 4–14, who were referred for forensic investigation following suspected physical or sexual abuse, were analyzed. All the cases included external evidence suggesting a high probability of abuse. The results indicated that confrontations of children were utilized in more than 60% of the forensic interviews, regardless of the child`s age. The vast majority of the interviewers’ confrontation strategies involved references to the alleged suspects, with the number of confrontations ranging from 1 to 18 per interview. An examination of the children`s responses to the confrontations revealed that most of the children insisted on their initial reported testimonies; however, some of the children displayed confusion or fear, and one child recanted the allegation. The discussion addresses how confrontations and cross-examination, as a necessary stage of forensic investigation, can affect children`s testimonies, and the implications of these effects for the forensic context.
August 2018
“Tell, tell, tell again”: The prevalence and correlates of young children’s response to and disclosure of an in-vivo lure from a stranger
Publication date: August 2018
Source:Child Abuse & Neglect, Volume 82 Author(s): Codi White, Dianne C. Shanley, Melanie J. Zimmer-Gembeck, Kerryann Walsh, Russell Hawkins, Katrina Lines Despite being a key target outcome to prevent child maltreatment, little research has been conducted to examine the prevalence and predictors of interpersonal safety skills in a standardised manner. In this study, interpersonal safety skills were measured in a Year 1–2 student sample through use of a standardised simulated risk scenario, with three primary skills examined: withdrawal from an unknown confederate (motor safety response), verbal refusal of an abduction lure (verbal safety response) and disclosure of confederate presence. Children who participated in this study had not completed any prior behavioural skills training or child protective education programs. Overall, the prevalence of interpersonal safety skills varied, with 27% children withdrawing from the confederate, 48% refusing the lure and 83% disclosing the confederate’s presence. For correlates, motor and verbal safety responses were positively associated with each other. However, the only other correlate of interpersonal safety skills was anxiety, with children who had greater anxiety disclosing earlier but also being more likely to agree to leave with the confederate. Future research may seek to examine whether these correlates remain present with different types of interpersonal safety risk (e.g., bullying) and to identify other potential predictors of interpersonal safety skill use.
August 2018
Promoting young children’s interpersonal safety knowledge, intentions, confidence, and protective behavior skills: Outcomes of a randomized controlled trial
Publication date: August 2018
Source:Child Abuse & Neglect, Volume 82 Author(s): Codi White, Dianne C. Shanley, Melanie J. Zimmer-Gembeck, Kerryann Walsh, Russell Hawkins, Katrina Lines, Haley Webb Promoting young children’s interpersonal safety knowledge, intentions confidence and skills is the goal of many child maltreatment prevention programs; however, evaluation of their effectiveness has been limited. In this study, a randomized controlled trial was conducted examining the effectiveness of the Australian protective behaviors program, Learn to be safe with Emmy and friends™ compared to a waitlist condition. In total, 611 Australian children in Grade 1 (5–7 years; 50% male) participated, with assessments at Pre-intervention, Post-intervention and a 6-month follow-up. This study also included a novel assessment of interpersonal safety skills through the Observed Protective Behaviors Test (OPBT). Analyses showed participating in Learn to be safe with Emmy and friends™ was effective post-program in improving interpersonal safety knowledge (child and parent-rated) and parent-rated interpersonal safety skills. These benefits were retained at the 6-month follow-up, with participating children also reporting increased disclosure confidence. However, Learn to be safe with Emmy and friends™ participation did not significantly impact children’s disclosure intentions, safety identification skills, or interpersonal safety skills as measured by the OPBT. Future research may seek to evaluate the effect of further parent and teacher integration into training methods and increased use of behavioral rehearsal and modelling to more effectively target specific disclosure intentions and skills.
August 2018
An effective measure of childhood adversity that is valid with older adults
Publication date: August 2018
Source:Child Abuse & Neglect, Volume 82 Author(s): Ramona Danielson, Gregory F. Sanders Childhood adversity (CA) has life-long effects that we are just beginning to understand. The Midlife in the United States (MIDUS) data is a rich resource that could contribute to the knowledge of the impact of CA in the later years but, while a number of CA items are included in MIDUS, a cumulative CA scale based on those items has not been created. Development of a CA scale would create numerous research opportunities within MIDUS and overcome some of the challenges of using a secondary dataset. The present study aimed to demonstrate that a cumulative measure of CA that is valid with older adults could be created using retrospective MIDUS Refresher study data (Ryff et al., 2016); analysis included data collected from 2011 to 2014 from 2542 adults ages 23–76 (1017 adults 55–76). The present study provided a rationale for which measures of CA to include in a cumulative scale. The distribution of eight types of CA and the cumulative CA scale were consistent with findings from past studies of CA. The factor structure of the cumulative CA scale was similar to the original ACE study and included two factors: household dynamics and child abuse/neglect. Consistent with past studies, the CA scale predicted a negative association with life satisfaction and a positive association with number of chronic conditions. This study demonstrated that an effective cumulative measure of CA could be created that would be of value to other studies using MIDUS data to explore outcomes with older adults.
August 2018
Adverse experiences in infancy and toddlerhood: Relations to adaptive behavior and academic status in middle childhood
Publication date: August 2018
Source:Child Abuse & Neglect, Volume 82 Author(s): Lorraine M. McKelvey, Nicola Conners Edge, Glenn R. Mesman, Leanne Whiteside-Mansell, Robert H. Bradley Findings from the Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) study articulated the negative effects of childhood trauma on long-term well-being. The purpose of the current study is to examine the associations between ACEs experienced in infancy and toddlerhood and adaptive behavior and academic status in middle childhood. We used data collected from a sample of low-income families during the impacts study of Early Head Start (EHS). Data were collected by trained interviewers demonstrating at least 85% reliability with protocols. Data come from 1469 socio-demographically diverse mothers and children collected at or near ages 1, 2, 3, and 11. At ages 1, 2, and 3, an EHS-ACEs index was created based on interview and observation items. The EHS-ACEs indices were averaged to represent exposure across infancy and toddlerhood. At age 11, parents were asked about school outcomes and completed the Child Behavior Checklist. Across development, children were exposed to zero (19%), one (31%), two (27%), and three or more ACEs (23%). Logistic regression analyses, controlling for EHS program assignment, and parent, school, and child characteristics, showed ACEs were significantly associated with parental report of the child: having an individualized educational program since starting school and in the current school year, having been retained a grade in school, and problems with externalizing and internalizing behavior, as well as attention. Findings suggest that ACEs influence children’s behavioral and academic outcomes early in development.
August 2018
Factors influencing child protection professionals’ decision-making and multidisciplinary collaboration in suspected abusive head trauma cases: A qualitative study
Publication date: August 2018
Source:Child Abuse & Neglect, Volume 82 Author(s): Laura E. Cowley, Sabine Maguire, Daniel M. Farewell, Harriet D. Quinn-Scoggins, Matthew O. Flynn, Alison M. Kemp Clinicians face unique challenges when assessing suspected child abuse cases. The majority of the literature exploring diagnostic decision-making in this field is anecdotal or survey-based and there is a lack of studies exploring decision-making around suspected abusive head trauma (AHT). We aimed to determine factors influencing decision-making and multidisciplinary collaboration in suspected AHT cases, amongst 56 child protection professionals. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with clinicians (25), child protection social workers (10), legal practitioners (9, including 4 judges), police officers (8), and pathologists (4), purposively sampled across southwest United Kingdom. Interviews were recorded, transcribed and imported into NVivo for thematic analysis (38% double-coded). We identified six themes influencing decision-making: ‘professional’, ‘medical’, ‘circumstantial’, ‘family’, ‘psychological’ and ‘legal’ factors. Participants diagnose AHT based on clinical features, the history, and the social history, after excluding potential differential diagnoses. Participants find these cases emotionally challenging but are aware of potential biases in their evaluations and strive to overcome these. Barriers to decision-making include lack of experience, uncertainty, the impact on the family, the pressure of making the correct diagnosis, and disagreements between professionals. Legal barriers include alternative theories of causation proposed in court. Facilitators include support from colleagues and knowledge of the evidence-base. Participants’ experiences with multidisciplinary collaboration are generally positive, however child protection social workers and police officers are heavily reliant on clinicians to guide their decision-making, suggesting the need for training on the medical aspects of physical abuse for these professionals and multidisciplinary training that provides knowledge about the roles of each agency.
August 2018
Externalizing behaviors among adopted children: A longitudinal comparison of preadoptive childhood sexual abuse and other forms of maltreatment
Publication date: August 2018
Source:Child Abuse & Neglect, Volume 82 Author(s): Thomas M. Crea, Scott D. Easton, Judith Florio, Richard P. Barth Previous research has established that child sexual abuse (CSA) and other forms of child maltreatment can have lasting and profound implications for survivors in terms of externalizing symptomatology. Few studies, however, have examined long-term consequences of CSA and maltreatment among adopted children. Guided by a polyvictimization framework, the present study investigated: (a) rates of co-occurrence of pre-adoptive CSA and maltreatment among adopted children, and (b) the relative impact of pre-adoptive CSA and maltreatment on externalizing behaviors at 14 years post-adoption. Analyses were based on four waves of data from the California Long-Range Adoption Study (CLAS) (n
July 2018
Child maltreatment reporting in the general population: Examining the roles of community, collective efficacy, and adverse childhood experiences
Publication date: August 2018
Source:Child Abuse & Neglect, Volume 82 Author(s): Jennifer Price Wolf, Arturo Baiocchi, Tyler Arg
July 2018
Inside Front Cover - Editorial Board
Publication date: July 2018
Source:Child Abuse & Neglect, Volume 81

July 2018
“Sometimes, Somebody Just Needs Somebody – Anybody – to Care:” The power of interpersonal relationships in the lives of domestic minor sex trafficking survivors
Publication date: July 2018
Source:Child Abuse & Neglect, Volume 81 Author(s): Jennifer E. O’Brien Domestic minor sex trafficking (DMST) is the recruitment, harboring, transportation, provision, or obtaining of U.S. minors for the purposes of a commercial sex act. DMST victims and survivors often become involved with state-level systems including the child welfare and/or juvenile justice systems. This study presents exploratory qualitative findings regarding the role of interpersonal relationships in the lives of system-involved DMST survivors from the perspectives of DMST survivors. Results indicate survivors perceive interpersonal relationships as key to promoting risk, providing protection, and fostering resiliency over DMST. Findings from the current study not only provide a context for understanding the role of interpersonal relationships in the lives of DMST survivors but also point to directions for development of interventions targeted toward this population.
July 2018
Negative parental attribution and emotional dysregulation in Chinese early adolescents: Harsh fathering and harsh mothering as potential mediators
Publication date: July 2018
Source:Child Abuse & Neglect, Volume 81 Author(s): Mingzhong Wang, Jing Wang The current study examined the potential mediating roles of harsh fathering and harsh mothering in the association between negative parental attribution and emotional dysregulation in Chinese adolescents and explored the moderating role of child gender on this indirect association. 864 students (367 girls, mean age
July 2018
Childhood sexual abuse, mental health, and religion across the Jewish community
Publication date: July 2018
Source:Child Abuse & Neglect, Volume 81 Author(s): David H. Rosmarin, Steven Pirutinsky, Moses Appel, Talia Kaplan, David Pelcovitz Current estimates of childhood sexual abuse among Jews in the United States are only available for females and do not include a spectrum of religiosity. We examined sexual abuse, mental health, and religion, in a religiously diverse sample of male and female Jewish adults from North America, using a novel methodology to minimize sampling/response biases. A total of 372 diversely religious Jews participated. Prevalence of any form of childhood sexual abuse was statistically equivalent to national rates, except that females reported less involuntary penetration (OR
July 2018
The effects of recurrent physical abuse on the co-development of behavior problems and posttraumatic stress symptoms among child welfare-involved youth
Publication date: July 2018
Source:Child Abuse & Neglect, Volume 81 Author(s): Susan Yoon, Sheila Barnhart, Jamie Cage The primary aim of the current study was to examine the longitudinal effects of ongoing physical abuse on the co-development of externalizing behavior problems and posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms among child welfare-involved adolescents. Using three waves of data from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being, we performed unconditional and conditional parallel process latent growth curve modeling in a structural equation modeling framework. The study sample included 491 adolescents who were between 11 and 13 years of age at baseline. Higher levels of initial PTS symptoms were associated with higher levels of externalizing behavior problems, but the rate of change in PTS symptoms were not significantly associated with the rate of change in externalizing behavior problems over time. Although physical abuse was concurrently associated with both externalizing behavior problems and PTS symptoms at all assessment points, there were no lagged effects. Additionally, we found that physical abuse indirectly affects subsequent development of externalizing behavior problems and PTS symptoms through ongoing physical abuse. Findings highlight the comorbidity of externalizing behaviors and PTS symptoms among early adolescents in the child welfare system, underlining the importance of screening for and addressing these problems simultaneously. Findings also point to the need for continued assessment of and protection from ongoing physical abuse during adolescence.
July 2018
Predictors of maternal support following children’s sexual abuse disclosures
Publication date: July 2018
Source:Child Abuse & Neglect, Volume 81 Author(s): Rachel Wamser-Nanney, Julia C. Sager Despite the importance of parental support following children’s sexual abuse (CSA) disclosures, there is a dearth of research regarding the predictors of support. Much of the prior literature is limited by the use of small sample sizes, measures of support without adequately reported psychometric properties, and inadequate or inconsistent definitions of support, which hinders the ability to accurately identify key predictors. Further, some potentially important predictors of parental support remain unexplored, including child-reported abuse stressors (e.g., family conflict, nonsupportive disclosure responses). The present study aimed to better delineate predictors of maternal belief and emotional support by examining the links between child, maternal, and family factors, and abuse characteristics as reported by both mothers and children. Two hundred and forty-seven treatment-seeking children (M age
July 2018
Examining internal and external job resources in child welfare: Protecting against caseworker burnout
Publication date: July 2018
Source:Child Abuse & Neglect, Volume 81 Author(s): Amy S. He, Jon D. Phillips, Erica L. Lizano, Shauna Rienks, Robin Leake Given intense job demands, it is not surprising that job burnout is a consistent threat to the well-being and retention of the child welfare workforce. Guided by central postulates of the Job Demands and Resources (JD-R) model which suggests that job burnout develops because of experiences of high work demands coupled with low resources in the workplace, we applied a conceptual model of job burnout (client and work related) that accounts for both internal and external resources available to child welfare workers. Findings among child welfare caseworkers from three states (N
July 2018
Typologies of intimate partner violence-maternal parenting and children’s externalizing problems: The moderating effect of the exposure to other forms of family violence
Publication date: July 2018
Source:Child Abuse & Neglect, Volume 81 Author(s): Diogo Lamela, In
July 2018
Ritualistic child sexual abuse in post-conflict Eastern DRC: Factors associated with the phenomenon and implications for social work
Publication date: July 2018
Source:Child Abuse & Neglect, Volume 81 Author(s): Amani Clovis Kasherwa, Janestic Mwende Twikirize Ritualistic child sexual abuse (RCSA) is a critical and under-recognised form of child maltreatment prevailing in developing countries. In the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), children from specific communities suffer complex forms of RCSA perpetrated with extreme brutality by various individuals and groups of conspirators. Although the DRC has achieved significant milestones towards combatting war-related sexual abuse of women and children, disturbing forms of RCSA, notably child kidnapping, rape, child defilement for fetish and superstitious beliefs, child sexual exploitation, and cult-based child marriage persist and affect many victims. This study examines the factors associated with the resurgence of RCSA in post-conflict eastern DRC. The article also discusses the implications of such forms of abuse for social work practice and education in a post-war context.
July 2018
The emotional and behavioural symptom trajectories of children in long-term out-of-home care in an English local authority
Publication date: July 2018
Source:Child Abuse & Neglect, Volume 81 Author(s): Rachel M. Hiller, Michelle C. St. Clair The significant mental health needs of young people in out-of-home care has been well-documented. However, there is little empirical evidence on the timing or development of these difficulties, once these young people have been removed from the maltreatment-environment. Such information may provide useful clinical insight in to how problems develop and persist and whether intervention timings may allow for the prevention of later mental health problems. The current service-data study explored the emotional and behavioural symptom trajectories of 207 young people under the long-term care of a local authority in the South West of England, over their first five years in the care system. Data were extracted from the yearly carer-completed strengths and difficulties questionnaire – providing an index of emotional problems, peer problems, conduct problems and hyperactivity. Trajectories were analysed using growth mixture modelling. For most domains the largest trajectories were chronic symptom profiles, where young people were rated in the abnormal range from their first year in care and remained in this range across the full five years. These young people had significantly more placement moves than their peers on resilient trajectories. There was some evidence that later age of removal was associated with more chronic internalising problems. Overall, findings demonstrate the significant mental health needs of young people in care and particularly highlight that, in many cases, the removal from the adverse environment is simply not enough to expect a young person in care to be resilient to their earlier experiences.
July 2018
Comparing disciplinary methods used by mothers in Palestine and Qatar
Publication date: July 2018
Source:Child Abuse & Neglect, Volume 81 Author(s): Madeeha Kamal, Samia Halileh, Soha Dargham, Khalid A. Alyafei, Rita Giacaman, Sawsan Imseeh, Nehal Eldeeb, Shiraz Nasr, Mona Korayem, Niveen Abu-Rmeileh, Ziyad Mahfoud, Hassan Tawfik, Mohamed H. Mahmoud, Marcellina Mian, Margaret A. Lynch This paper explores child disciplinary methods used by parents in Qatar and Palestine. In this study ICAST-P, an internationally recognized tool, was used with mothers reporting on one of their children up to their 12th birthday. It questions about disciplinary methods: nonviolent; physical: moderate and severe; and psychological methods that had been used in the previous year on the index child in the family. A comparative national cross-sectional household survey of mothers aged 25–50 years old was conducted in both Qatar and Palestine, both Arabic Muslim states, but with very different socio-economic and political contexts that place Qataris in a much more advantageous position. Our results show that the 1299 Palestinian mothers interviewed were younger, had more children and less education compared to the 1018 Qatari mothers. Fewer mothers from Palestine were working. The index child in Palestine tended to be younger with 60% being under 5 years, while 73.7% of Qatari children were over 5 years of age. Severe physical disciplinary methods were reported significantly more often, in Palestine, e.g. Kicking the child (P value
July 2018
Exploring detection of contact vs. fantasy online sexual offenders in chats with minors: Statistical discourse analysis of self-disclosure and emotion words
Publication date: July 2018
Source:Child Abuse & Neglect, Volume 81 Author(s): Ming Ming Chiu, Kathryn C. Seigfried-Spellar, Tatiana R. Ringenberg This exploratory study is the first to identify content differences between youths’ online chats with contact child sex offenders (CCSOs; seek to meet with youths) and those with fantasy child sex offenders (FCSOs; do not meet with youths) using statistical discourse analysis (SDA). Past studies suggest that CCSOs share their experiences and emotions with targeted youths (self-disclosure grooming tactic) and encourage them to reciprocate, to build trust and closer relationships through a cycle of self-disclosures. In this study, we examined 36,029 words in 4,353 messages within 107 anonymized online chat sessions by 21 people, specifically 12 youths and 9 arrested sex offenders (5 CCSOs and 4 FCSOs), using SDA. Results showed that CCSOs were more likely than FCSOs to write online messages with specific words (first person pronouns, negative emotions and positive emotions), suggesting the use of self-disclosure grooming tactics. CCSO’s self-disclosure messages elicited corresponding self-disclosure messages from their targeted youths. These results suggest that CCSOs use grooming tactics that help engender youths’ trust to meet in the physical world, but FCSOs do not.
July 2018
A pernicious cycle: Finding the pathways from child maltreatment to adolescent peer victimization
Publication date: July 2018
Source:Child Abuse & Neglect, Volume 81 Author(s): Dalhee Yoon, Susan Yoon, Jiho Park, Miyoung Yoon The purpose of this study was to identify the pathways from childhood physical and sexual abuse to adolescent physical and sexual victimization by assessing behavior symptoms (both internalizing and externalizing) and peer popularity as potential mediating variables. The data derive from Longitudinal Studies of Child Abuse and Neglect (LONGSCAN), which tracks the consequences of child abuse and neglect using five study sites across the US. Child physical and sexual abuse was measured at age 12 using self-reports of life-time maltreatment experiences. Internalizing and externalizing symptoms were assessed at age 12 using the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). Peer popularity was assessed at age 14 by teachers. Peer victimization was assessed at age 16 using the modified version of the Juvenile Victimization Questionnaire. The results indicated that physical abuse had no direct effect on either physical or sexual peer victimization, whereas sexual abuse had significant direct effect on both physical and sexual victimization. Assessed at age 12, children who had been physically or sexually maltreated were found to have higher levels of internalizing and externalizing symptoms. These increased symptoms are associated with lower peer popularity at age 14, which in turn is associated with greater physical and sexual peer victimization at age 16. The findings suggest that multiple points for interventions may exist to disrupt the cycle of victimization. Early assessment and treatment for externalizing symptoms and for low peer popularity may be helpful in preventing physical peer victimization among adolescents who have been physically and/or sexually abused.
July 2018
The impact of a statewide trauma-informed child welfare initiative on children’s permanency and maltreatment outcomes
Publication date: July 2018
Source:Child Abuse & Neglect, Volume 81 Author(s): Beth Barto, Jessica Dym Bartlett, Adam Von Ende, Ruth Bodian, Carmen Rosa Noro
July 2018
Maladaptive schemas as mediators of the relationship between previous victimizations in the family and dating violence victimization in adolescents
Publication date: July 2018
Source:Child Abuse & Neglect, Volume 81 Author(s): Esther Calvete, Manuel G
July 2018
A changing child welfare workforce: What worker characteristics are valued in child welfare?
Publication date: July 2018
Source:Child Abuse & Neglect, Volume 81 Author(s): Kristen Lwin, Barbara Fallon, Nico Trocm
July 2018
Factors associated with child protection recurrence in Australia
Publication date: July 2018
Source:Child Abuse & Neglect, Volume 81 Author(s): Brian Q. Jenkins, Clare Tilbury, Hennessey Hayes, Paul Mazerolle The aim of the current research was to advance understanding of child protection in Australia by examining the factors associated with recurrence of child protection notifications to the formal child protection system. Extant research has been primarily undertaken in the USA and it is important to understand whether similar factors associated with recurrence actually hold in the Australian context. Administrative data were obtained for a sample of 9608 children first subject to a screened-in report in 2011–12. Children were followed for 12 months. Cox Proportional Hazard models were used to measure associations between 26 independent variables and four types of recurrence: subsequent reports, subsequent investigations, subsequent substantiations, and subsequent intervention. Factors associated with recurrence in Australia were broadly similar to those identified in other jurisdictions, including reports and substantiation for neglect, younger age, prior child protection involvement in the household, and parental characteristics including drug use, mental health problems, and history of maltreatment as a child. As in previous studies, post-investigative service provision was positively associated with recurrence. In prior US research, race did not predict recurrence. However, in the present study, Indigenous Australian children were significantly more likely to be subject to all types of recurrence measured. Future research on recurrence should aim to disentangle the complex relationships between child protection recurrence, child maltreatment, and service delivery. Recurrence is not a good proxy indicator of child safety. The findings have implications for the equity of recurrence-based risk assessment tools as they are applied to indigenous populations.
July 2018
Acceptability of the Predicting Abusive Head Trauma (PredAHT) clinical prediction tool: A qualitative study with child protection professionals
Publication date: July 2018
Source:Child Abuse & Neglect, Volume 81 Author(s): Laura E. Cowley, Sabine Maguire, Daniel M. Farewell, Harriet D. Quinn-Scoggins, Matthew O. Flynn, Alison M. Kemp The validated Predicting Abusive Head Trauma (PredAHT) tool estimates the probability of abusive head trauma (AHT) based on combinations of six clinical features: head/neck bruising; apnea; seizures; rib/long-bone fractures; retinal hemorrhages. We aimed to determine the acceptability of PredAHT to child protection professionals. We conducted qualitative semi-structured interviews with 56 participants: clinicians (25), child protection social workers (10), legal practitioners (9, including 4 judges), police officers (8), and pathologists (4), purposively sampled across southwest United Kingdom. Interviews were recorded, transcribed and imported into NVivo for thematic analysis (38% double-coded). We explored participants’ evaluations of PredAHT, their opinions about the optimal way to present the calculated probabilities, and their interpretation of probabilities in the context of suspected AHT. Clinicians, child protection social workers and police thought PredAHT would be beneficial as an objective adjunct to their professional judgment, to give them greater confidence in their decisions. Lawyers and pathologists appreciated its value for prompting multidisciplinary investigations, but were uncertain of its usefulness in court. Perceived disadvantages included: possible over-reliance and false reassurance from a low score. Interpretations regarding which percentages equate to ‘low’, ‘medium’ or ‘high’ likelihood of AHT varied; participants preferred a precise % probability over these general terms. Participants would use PredAHT with provisos: if they received multi-agency training to define accepted risk thresholds for consistent interpretation; with knowledge of its development; if it was accepted by colleagues. PredAHT may therefore increase professionals’ confidence in their decision-making when investigating suspected AHT, but may be of less value in court.
July 2018
Substance-exposed newborn infants and public health law: Differences in addressing the legal mandate to report
Publication date: July 2018
Source:Child Abuse & Neglect, Volume 81 Author(s): Jordan J. Hoerr, Anthony M. Heard, Meredith M. Baker, Joshua Fogel, Anne Elizabeth Glassgow, William C. Kling, Maureen D. Clark, James P. Ronayne Prenatal exposure to illicit substances is a finding that typically requires reporting to a child protective services agency. We examine whether there is differential reporting to two public agencies, and whether it varies by race/ethnicity and region. We also study predictors of indicating a maltreatment report as credible. Data on positive neonatal toxicology reports were obtained from the Illinois Department of Public Health (IDPH) and the Illinois Department of Children and Family Services (DCFS). Variation in reporting rates by race/ethnicity and region were compared with Pearson chi-square analysis. Multivariate logistic regression examined factors related to the likelihood of DCFS indicating a report as credible for maltreatment. IDPH recorded 1838 reports of substance-exposed newborn infants while DCFS only recorded 459 reports. There was a greater percentage of whites than blacks reported to DCFS as compared to those reported to IDPH (p
July 2018
Physical, sexual and emotional abuse during childhood: Experiences of a sample of Sri Lankan Young adults
Publication date: July 2018
Source:Child Abuse & Neglect, Volume 81 Author(s): Nadeeka K. Chandraratne, Asvini D. Fernando, Nalika Gunawardena Abuse during childhood is a human tragedy leading to lifelong adverse health, social, and economic consequences for survivors. This descriptive, cross-sectional study aimed to determine the prevalence of childhood physical, sexual and emotional abusive experiences among students (aged 18–19 years) in a Sri Lankan district. Multistage cluster sampling was used to select a sample of 1500 students. Experiences of physical, sexual and emotional abuse and age at abuse, perpetrators, consequences and severity were assessed using a version of ISPCAN Child Abuse Screening Tool-Retrospective Version (ICAST-R) which was culturally adapted and validated by the authors for use amongst Sinhalese students. The prevalence of the various forms of abuse during childhood was as follows: physical: 45.4% (95% CI: 42.9–7.9); sexual: 9.1% (95% CI: 7.6–10.5); emotional: 27.9% (95% CI: 25.7–30.2). The corresponding percentages of individuals categorized as having experienced severe or very severe abuse were as follows, physical: 0.3% (2/672); sexual: 4.05% (3/135); emotional: 8.8% (36/412). Experience of physical abuse was more prevalent amongst male students (54.8% vs. 38.3%) as was emotional abuse (33.9% vs. 23.2%), whereas experience of sexual abuse was more prevalent amongst female students (11.5% vs. 6.4%). Parents and teachers were the commonest perpetrators of physical and emotional abuse. Most of the sexually abusive acts were committed by neighbors or strangers. Some physically abusive acts were more frequent at earlier ages than emotional and sexual abusive acts, which were more common in late adolescence. The results indicate the necessity of targeted interventions to address this public health issue.
July 2018
Callous unemotional traits and the relationship between aggressive parenting practices and conduct problems in Singaporean families
Publication date: July 2018
Source:Child Abuse & Neglect, Volume 81 Author(s): Khai Imm Sng, David J. Hawes, Adrian Raine, Rebecca P. Ang, Yoon Phaik Ooi, Daniel S.S. Fung Research into parenting influences on child conduct problems in Asian countries has been limited compared to that conducted in Western countries, especially with regard to interplay between parenting and callous unemotional (CU) traits (e.g., lack of guilt and empathy). This study examined associations between dimensions of aggressive parenting practices (psychological aggression, mild and severe physical aggression), dimensions of child aggression (proactive, reactive), and child CU traits, in Singapore. Participants were children and adolescents with clinic-referred externalizing problems (N
July 2018
Understanding child protection decisions involving parents with mental illness and substance abuse
Publication date: July 2018
Source:Child Abuse & Neglect, Volume 81 Author(s): Joseph N. Roscoe, Bridgette Lery, Jaclyn E. Chambers Among children investigated for maltreatment, those with parents experiencing mental illness or substance abuse are more likely to be placed out-of-home; however, little is known about why these children are at greater risk. Using a sample of 2488 Structured Decision Making® assessments administered in San Francisco county from 2011 to 2015, we identified a profile of safety threats that accounts for why workers are more likely to determine children of parents with mental illness and/or substance abuse unsafe in the home. Eight percent of assessments in our sample involved parents with current mental illness only and 10% had comorbid substance abuse. The odds of an unsafe determination more than doubled among parents with mental illness (OR
July 2018
Negative parental attributions mediate associations between risk factors and dysfunctional parenting: A replication and extension
Publication date: July 2018
Source:Child Abuse & Neglect, Volume 81 Author(s): Marieke Beckerman, Sheila R. van Berkel, Judi Mesman, Lenneke R.A. Alink The primary goal of the current study was to replicate our previous study in which was found that negative maternal attributions mediate the association between parenting stress and harsh and abusive discipline. In addition, we investigated this association in fathers, and added observational parenting data. During two home visits mothers and fathers were observed with their children (age 1.5–6.0 years), filled in questionnaires, and completed the Parental Attributions of Child behavior Task (PACT; a computerized attribution task). Similar to our previous study, negative parental attributions mediated the relation between parenting stress and self-reported harsh and abusive parenting for both mothers and fathers. For mothers, this mediation effect was also found in the relation between parenting stress and lower levels of observed supportive parenting in a challenging disciplinary task. In addition, the relation of partner-related stress and abuse risk with harsh, abusive, and (low) supportive parenting were also mediated by maternal negative attributions. When parenting stress, partner-related stress, and abuse risk were studied in one model, only parenting stress remained significant. Results are discussed in terms of the importance of targeting parental attributions for prevention and intervention purposes in families experiencing stress.
July 2018
Adverse and adaptive childhood experiences are associated with parental reflective functioning in mothers with substance use disorder
Publication date: July 2018
Source:Child Abuse & Neglect, Volume 81 Author(s): Ulrika H
July 2018
Associations between abuse/neglect and ADHD from childhood to young adulthood: A prospective nationally-representative twin study
Publication date: July 2018
Source:Child Abuse & Neglect, Volume 81 Author(s): Adi Stern, Jessica Agnew-Blais, Andrea Danese, Helen L. Fisher, Sara R. Jaffee, Timothy Matthews, Guilherme V. Polanczyk, Louise Arseneault Child maltreatment has consistently been found to be associated with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, the robustness of this association and the direction of the link between maltreatment and ADHD remain unclear. We used data from the Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study, a cohort of 2232 British twins, to investigate the associations between exposure to abuse/neglect and ADHD in childhood and in young adulthood, and to test their robustness and specificity. We also aimed to test longitudinal associations between abuse/neglect and ADHD from childhood to young adulthood, controlling for confounders. Results indicated strong associations between abuse/neglect and ADHD in childhood and also in young adulthood. In childhood, the association was concentrated among children with comorbid conduct disorder. Longitudinal analyses showed that childhood ADHD predicted abuse/neglect in later years. This association was again concentrated among individuals with comorbid conduct disorder. Abuse/neglect in childhood was not associated with later ADHD in young adulthood after adjusting for childhood ADHD. Our study does not provide support of a causal link between child abuse/neglect and adult ADHD but highlights the possibility of a long-term effect of disruptive behaviors on the risk for experiencing abuse/neglect. These findings emphasize the need for clinicians treating people with ADHD, especially those with comorbid conduct disorder, to be aware of their increased risk for experiencing abuse/neglect. Interventions aimed at reducing risks of abuse/neglect should also focus on the environment of individuals with disruptive behaviors.
July 2018
Adolescents’ motives for selling sex in a welfare state – A Swedish national study
Publication date: July 2018
Source:Child Abuse & Neglect, Volume 81 Author(s): Cecilia Fredlund,
July 2018
Identifying the trauma recovery needs of maltreated children: An examination of child welfare workers’ effectiveness in screening for traumatic stress
Publication date: July 2018
Source:Child Abuse & Neglect, Volume 81 Author(s): Adrienne Whitt-Woosley, Ginny Sprang, David G. Royse Children in the child welfare system comprise a group characterized by exposure to trauma via experiences of maltreatment, under circumstances presenting multiple risk factors for traumatic stress. High rates of posttraumatic stress have been observed in this population. However, there is currently no standard for the universal screening of children in child welfare for trauma exposure and traumatic stress. This study examined the trauma experiences of a sample of maltreated children and whether their child welfare workers were effective screeners of traumatic stress symptoms. Descriptive and correlational analyses were conducted regarding a sample of children (N
July 2018
Violence against child protection workers: A study of workers’ experiences, attributions, and coping strategies
Publication date: July 2018
Source:Child Abuse & Neglect, Volume 81 Author(s): Josianne Lamothe, Am
July 2018
Health out of foster care as young adults age out of foster care: A phenomenological exploration of seeking healthcare services after aging out of the US foster care system
Publication date: July 2018
Source:Child Abuse & Neglect, Volume 81 Author(s): Jennifer L. Collins, Rosalinda Jimenez, Laura J. Thomas Some adolescents in the United States who have been abused and/or neglected by caregivers and placed in permanent custody of the state leave, or “age out” of foster care at 18 years of age. Poor health outcomes among individuals who age out are notable, yet few studies describe the phenomenon of seeking healthcare services after leaving foster care. The investigators specifically queried the phenomenon of seeking healthcare services after foster care drawing from the Phenomenology of Practice approach. We interviewed 13 young adults who aged out of care. Investigators extracted lived experience descriptions (LEDs) from interview transcripts and analyzed under phenomenological themes. Healthcare experiences were marked by avoiding self-disclosure, having no choice but to wait, missing family history, and relying on the kindness of strangers. Healthcare providers who integrate the findings into care delivery models will engage young adults with more understanding and sensitivities of ethical practice.

Post-traumatic stress symptom development as a function of changing witnessing in-home violence and changing peer relationship quality: Evaluating protective effects of peer relationship quality
Publication date: July 2018
Source:Child Abuse & Neglect, Volume 81 Author(s): Aura A. Mishra, Sharon L. Christ, Laura M. Schwab-Reese, Nayantara Nair In the present study, witnessing in-home violence and peer relationship quality are evaluated as to their relative impact on Post Traumatic Stress (PTS) symptoms among children aged 8 to 17 investigated by child protective services (CPS) for maltreatment exposure. The sample included 2151 children from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being II (NSCAW II). Linear growth models were estimated to assess associations between changes in PTS symptoms, witnessing in-home violence, and peer relationship quality over time. Greater frequency of witnessing in-home violence at baseline (i.e. wave 1) was associated with higher baseline PTS symptoms (
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