Journal Sciences News
Transfusion and Apheresis Science
June 2018
The effects of gender, personal trauma history and memory continuity on the believability of child sexual abuse disclosure among psychologists
Publication date: June 2018
Source:Child Abuse & Neglect, Volume 80 Author(s): Alexandra Page, Natalie M.V. Morrison Gender, a personal history of trauma and attitudes towards continuous vs recovered memories of abuse significantly impact the believability of Child Sexual Abuse (CSA) disclosures in community samples. Yet, whether these variables influence the believability of CSA disclosure and subsequent clinical decisions made by practicing psychologists is underexplored. A vignette of trauma disclosure from a hypothetical adult client was presented via an online survey to 292 registered psychologists. Participants rated the believability of the disclosure, answered an open-ended item regarding treatment planning, and completed the Brief Betrayal Trauma Survey to measure personal trauma history. Results indicated that female psychologists believed disclosures significantly more than male psychologists and that disclosures comprised of continuous memories were believed more than recently recovered memories. A significant interaction between gender and personal trauma history was also revealed. Female psychologists believed disclosures regardless of their personal trauma history, while male psychologists with a personal history of trauma believed disclosures significantly more than male psychologists without personal trauma history. Reported believability of the disclosure, while unrelated to treatment planning, was associated with a reported intention to validate the client’s experience. The results support that, similar to community samples, gender and a personal trauma history impact psychologist believability of CSA disclosure. The research further supports that psychologist level of belief then translates into clinical implications.
June 2018
Modeling life course pathways from adverse childhood experiences to adult mental health
Publication date: June 2018
Source:Child Abuse & Neglect, Volume 80 Author(s): Tiffany M. Jones, Paula Nurius, Chiho Song, Christopher M. Fleming Although the association between adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and adult mental health is becoming well established, less is known about the complex and multiple pathways through which ACEs exert their influence. Growing evidence suggests that adversity early in life conveys not only early impacts, but also augments risk of stress-related life course cascades that continue to undermine health. The present study aims to test pathways of stress proliferation and stress embodiment processes linking ACEs to mental health impairment in adulthood. Data are from the 2011 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey, a representative sample of Washington State adults ages 18 and over (N
June 2018
Are negative/unrealistic parent descriptors of infant attributes associated with physical abuse?
Publication date: June 2018
Source:Child Abuse & Neglect, Volume 80 Author(s): Audrey Young, Mary Clyde Pierce, Kim Kaczor, Douglas J. Lorenz, Sheila Hickey, Susan P. Berger, Suzanne M. Schmidt, Amanda Fingarson, Kristine Fortin, Richard Thompson Parents’ perceptions of child behavior influence their responses to the child and may be important predictors of physical abuse. We examined whether infants 12 months of age or younger who were described with negative or developmentally unrealistic words were more likely than other infants to have been physically abused. As part of a prospective observational multicenter study investigating bruising and familial psychosocial characteristics, parents were asked to (1) describe their child’s personality, and (2) list three words to describe their child. Four independent raters coded parent responses using a qualitative content analysis, identifying descriptors of infants and classifying each as positive, neutral, or negative/unrealistic. A medical expert panel, blinded to the psychosocial data, separately categorized each case as abuse or accident. We then analyzed the potential association between negative/unrealistic descriptors and abusive injury. Of 185 children enrolled, 147 cases (79%) were categorized as accident and 38 (21%) as abuse. Parents used at least one negative/unrealistic descriptor in 35/185 cases (19%), while the remaining 150 cases (81%) included only positive or neutral descriptors. Of the infants described with negative/unrealistic words, 60% were abused, compared to 11% of those described with positive or neutral words (p
June 2018
Child maltreatment in rural southern counties: Another perspective on race, poverty and child welfare
Publication date: June 2018
Source:Child Abuse & Neglect, Volume 80 Author(s): Brenda D. Smith, Emma Sophia Kay, Tracy D. Pressley Building on research that has identified community characteristics associated with child maltreatment, this study investigates the adequacy and equity of the child welfare response at the county level. The study focuses on states in the U.S. south with demographic characteristics that make it possible to disentangle county racial composition from county rurality. County-level child maltreatment data were merged with data from the U.S. Census and other publicly-available sources for the 354 counties in four southern states. Results from multiple regression models indicated that, despite a greater preponderance of risk factors typically associated with child maltreatment, rural, majority African-American counties had lower rates of reported and substantiated child maltreatment compared to other southern counties. Cross-sectional results were consistent across three years: 2012, 2013, and 2014. The findings suggest that children and families in rural, majority African-American counties in the South may not be receiving adequate or equitable responses from the formal child welfare system.
June 2018
Child maltreatment and adult depressive symptoms: Roles of self-compassion and gratitude
Publication date: June 2018
Source:Child Abuse & Neglect, Volume 80 Author(s): Qinglu Wu, Peilian Chi, Xiuyun Lin, Hongfei Du Child maltreatment, including abuse (physical, emotional, and sexual) and neglect (physical and emotional), is positively associated with depressive symptoms in adulthood. However, most studies have been conducted within a psychopathological framework and focused on underlying dysfunctional processes (e.g., insecure attachment styles, maladaptive schemas, and negative attribution styles). Protective factors that affect the relationship between child maltreatment and adult depressive symptoms are underexplored. Guided by emotion regulation theory and the perspective of positive psychology, we examined the roles of self-compassion and gratitude as protective factors in the relationship between child maltreatment and adult depressive symptoms in a sample of 358 college students. Results showed that psychological maltreatment (emotional abuse and emotional neglect) was associated with adult depressive symptoms through decreased self-compassion. Neglect (emotional neglect and physical neglect) and sexual abuse were associated with adult depressive symptoms through decreased gratitude. There was no association between physical abuse and depressive symptoms through either self-compassion or gratitude. Our findings suggest that clinical practices focusing on self-compassion and gratitude might help prevent the development of adult depressive symptoms among clients with a history of maltreatment in childhood.
June 2018
Examining the utility of a train-the-trainer model for dissemination of sexual violence prevention in schools
Publication date: June 2018
Source:Child Abuse & Neglect, Volume 80 Author(s): Christine Weingarten, Jina Rabago, Jasmine Reynolds, Kalani Gates, Evie Yanagida, Charlene Baker Rates of childhood sexual abuse are unacceptably high, with potentially long-lasting consequences for those who have been victimized. Currently, there are a number of sexual violence prevention programs that have been developed to lower rates of victimization, increase awareness, and connect victims with resources. Within this area of research, there has been less focus on effective methods of program dissemination. For example, school-based sexual violence prevention programs have had positive outcomes; however, little is known about how these programs are disseminated. The train-the-trainer model of dissemination utilizes master trainers to equip others to implement programs, thereby allowing more adults to teach and subsequently more children to receive the program. This study used survey data from teachers and other school personnel (n
June 2018
Self-reported neglect, amygdala volume, and symptoms of anxiety in adolescent boys
Publication date: June 2018
Source:Child Abuse & Neglect, Volume 80 Author(s): Marissa C. Roth, Kathryn L. Humphreys, Lucy S. King, Ian H. Gotlib Experiences of psychosocial neglect affect the developing brain and may place individuals at increased risk for anxiety. The majority of research in this area has focused on children who have experienced severe psychosocial deprivation; it is not clear whether typical variation in neglect experienced in community samples would have the same neurobiological consequences as those documented in extreme samples. The present study examined the associations among self-reported childhood neglect, amygdala volume, and anxiety symptoms in a community sample of 138 adolescents ages 9–15 years (43% male). Linear mixed modeling yielded a three-way interaction of neglect, sex, and brain hemisphere, reflecting a significant positive association between neglect and right amygdala volume in boys. Additional analyses indicated that right amygdala volume significantly mediated the association between neglect and anxiety symptoms in boys. These findings are consistent with previous reports of larger amygdala volumes in previously institutionalized children, and with documented associations between caregiving deprivation and anxiety symptoms. The results suggest that the effects of childhood neglect on limbic structures are sex-specific and lateralized, and provide support for a neural mechanism relating childhood neglect to later difficulties in emotional functioning.
June 2018
Neighborhood collective efficacy, parental spanking, and subsequent risk of household child protective services involvement
Publication date: June 2018
Source:Child Abuse & Neglect, Volume 80 Author(s): Julie Ma, Andrew Grogan-Kaylor, Sacha Klein Children exposed to negative neighborhood conditions and parental spanking are at higher risk of experiencing maltreatment. We conducted prospective analyses of secondary data to determine the effects of neighborhood collective efficacy and parental spanking on household Child Protective Services (CPS) involvement, and whether spanking mediates the relationship between neighborhood collective efficacy and CPS involvement. The sample (N
June 2018
Do emotion regulation difficulties explain the association between executive functions and child physical abuse risk?
Publication date: June 2018
Source:Child Abuse & Neglect, Volume 80 Author(s): Julie L. Crouch, Erin R. McKay, Gabriela Lelakowska, Regina Hiraoka, Ericka Rutledge, David J. Bridgett, Joel S. Milner This study examined the associations between executive functioning problems, emotion regulation difficulties, and risk for perpetrating child physical abuse (CPA). It was hypothesized that: (a) poor executive functions (i.e., working memory problems and inhibition/switching problems) would be associated with higher levels of emotion regulation difficulties and CPA risk; (b) emotion regulation difficulties would be positively associated with CPA risk; and (c) emotion regulation difficulties would partially explain the association between executive functions (i.e., working memory problems and inhibition/switching problems) and CPA risk. To examine these predictions, a sample of 133 general population parents (31% fathers) completed self-report measures of CPA risk, emotion regulation difficulties, working memory problems, and a performance-based measure of inhibition/switching skills. Results revealed that executive functioning problems were linked with emotion regulation difficulties, which in turn were associated with CPA risk. Moreover, emotion regulation difficulties explained the relationship between executive functions (working memory, inhibition/switching) and CPA risk. The final model accounted for 41% of the variance in CPA risk. Although additional research is needed, the present findings suggest that enhancing parents’ executive functioning and teaching them effective emotion regulation skills may be important targets for CPA prevention efforts.
June 2018
A pilot study demonstrating the efficacy of transcutaneous bilirubin meters to quantitatively differentiate contusions from Congenital Dermal Melanocytosis
Publication date: June 2018
Source:Child Abuse & Neglect, Volume 80 Author(s): Nicole A. Abdy, Robert Martinez, Isabelle Chea, Bethany Boczar, Tomas Nu
June 2018
The effects of implicit encouragement and the putative confession on children’s memory reports
Publication date: June 2018
Source:Child Abuse & Neglect, Volume 80 Author(s): Kyndra C. Cleveland, Jodi A. Quas, Thomas D. Lyon The current study tested the effects of two interview techniques on children's report productivity and accuracy following exposure to suggestion: implicit encouragement (backchanneling, use of children's names) and the putative confession (telling children that a suspect "told me everything that happened and wants you to tell the truth"). One hundred and forty-three, 3–8-year-old children participated in a classroom event. One week later, they took part in a highly suggestive conversation about the event and then a mock forensic interview in which the two techniques were experimentally manipulated. Greater use of implicit encouragement led to increases, with age, in children's narrative productivity. Neither technique improved or reduced children's accuracy. No increases in errors about previously suggested information were evident when children received either technique. Implications for the use of these techniques in child forensic interviews are discussed.
June 2018
Do adverse childhood experiences predict adult interpersonal difficulties? The role of emotion dysregulation
Publication date: June 2018
Source:Child Abuse & Neglect, Volume 80 Author(s): Julia C. Poole, Keith S. Dobson, Dennis Pusch Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are risk factors for interpersonal difficulties in adulthood, however the mechanism that underlies this association is unknown. The current study investigated the association of a wide range of ACEs with interpersonal difficulties in adulthood, and tested whether emotion dysregulation mediated the relationship between ACEs and interpersonal difficulties. Patients over the age of 18 were recruited from primary care clinics (N
June 2018
Consequences of parental burnout: Its specific effect on child neglect and violence
Publication date: June 2018
Source:Child Abuse & Neglect, Volume 80 Author(s): Mo
June 2018
Childhood emotional maltreatment, anxiety, attachment, and mindfulness: Associations with facial emotion recognition
Publication date: June 2018
Source:Child Abuse & Neglect, Volume 80 Author(s): Lianne H. English, Melanie Wisener, Heidi N. Bailey The current study investigated factors thought to contribute to facial emotion processing. Female university students (N
June 2018
Childhood maltreatment: A predictor of mental health problems among adolescents and young adults
Publication date: June 2018
Source:Child Abuse & Neglect, Volume 80 Author(s): Hanan E. Badr, Jumana Naser, Abdullah Al-Zaabi, Anfal Al-Saeedi, Khalifa Al-Munefi, Shaikha Al-Houli, Dana Al-Rashidi Child maltreatment is a risk factor for detrimental effects on mental health that may extend to adulthood. This study aimed to examine the association between exposure to childhood maltreatment, socio-demographic factors, and students’ mental health status and self-esteem. A cross-sectional study enrolled a representative sample of 1270 students from Kuwait University. An anonymous self-administered questionnaire included students’ socio-demographic characteristics, history of exposure to childhood physical and/or emotional maltreatment, DASS-21 to assess mental health status, and Rosenberg self-esteem scale was used. Chi-square test and binary logistic regression models were applied. The study found that among participants, 49.6%(95% CI: 64.8%–52.4%), 63.0%(95% CI: 60.3%–65.7%), and 43.8%(95% CI: 41.1%–46.6%) reported having depression, anxiety, and stress respectively. Moreover, 22.5%(95% CI: 20.1%–24.8%) and 18.6%(95% CI:16.5%–20.9%) reported childhood physical and emotional maltreatment, respectively; while 12.7% reported both. Multivariate analysis revealed that experiencing childhood physical and emotional maltreatment were independent contributors to reporting depression and anxiety; while exposure to only emotional maltreatment contributed to reporting stress. Gender, GPA, childhood enrollment in private/public schools, number of close friends, were other contributors to mental health problems. Participants’ median score of self-esteem was 17/30, and only childhood emotional maltreatment was a significant predictor to low self-esteem after adjustment for other confounders. Mental health problems, and experiencing childhood physical and emotional maltreatment were prevalent relatively high among university students. Childhood corporal and emotional maltreatment were independent predictors to adolescents and young adults’ mental health problems. Experiencing childhood emotional maltreatment predicted low self-esteem. Further research to assess culture factors associated with childhood maltreatment is recommended.
June 2018
Changes in the prevalence of child maltreatment in Vietnam over 10 years
Publication date: June 2018
Source:Child Abuse & Neglect, Volume 80 Author(s): Nhu K. Tran, Sheila R. van Berkel, Huong T. Nguyen, Marinus H. van IJzendoorn, Lenneke R.A. Alink Objectives In the context of the shortage of studies on child maltreatment changes over time in limited resource settings, this paper explored the changes in the prevalence of multiple types of child maltreatment over a period of 10 years in Vietnam and tested the moderating role of some demographic characteristics in these changes. Methods We used data from two prevalence studies conducted in 2004 and in 2014 using similar methodologies. Both studies used self-report questionnaires which were completed by randomly selected students aged 12–17 years from different provinces in Vietnam. We also compared Hanoi subgroups to examine the trend using the most equivalent samples. Results While the prevalence estimates of sexual abuse and neglect were unchanged over 10 years, the prevalence of physical abuse and emotional abuse declined. The decrease in the prevalence of physical abuse was larger for younger adolescents and boys than for their counterparts. For sexual abuse, older adolescents reported an increase in the prevalence of sexual abuse. In the Hanoi sample comparison, only the prevalence of emotional abuse declined and this reduction was smaller for younger adolescents than for the older group. Conclusion Despite the reduction of emotional and physical abuse in the whole sample and emotional abuse in the Hanoi sample, all types of child maltreatment were still highly prevalent in Vietnam. We argue that interventions on all types of child maltreatment should be further implemented. Similar studies could be conducted to evaluate the effect of child protection policies on the prevalence of child maltreatment.
June 2018
Lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) youth within in welfare: Prevalence, risk and outcomes
Publication date: June 2018
Source:Child Abuse & Neglect, Volume 80 Author(s): Alan J. Dettlaff, Micki Washburn, Lynley “Christian” Carr, Alicia “Nikki” Vogel The purpose of this study was to estimate the population of sexual minority or LGB (lesbian, gay and bisexual) children and youth involved with the child welfare system, and to compare their health, mental health, placement and permanency outcomes to those of non-LGB youth. Data were drawn from the Second National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being (NSCAW-II), a nationally representative sample of children who were referred to child welfare due to a report of abuse or neglect over a fifteen month period. This sample included youth ages eleven and older who self-identified their sexual orientation (n
June 2018
Tailoring health-related messages for young adults with adverse childhood experiences (ACEs)
Publication date: June 2018
Source:Child Abuse & Neglect, Volume 80 Author(s): Canan Karatekin, Rohini Ahluwalia, Michelle Desir The goal was to identify factors that might affect likelihood of seeking health-related interventions for young adults with adverse childhood experiences (ACEs). We tested whether ACEs were associated with (1) regulatory focus (tendency toward promoting good outcomes versus preventing bad outcomes), and (2) patient activation (the intention to take active charge of one’s health). We further tested whether promotion and prevention and patient activation were associated with each other and with health. Students at a public university (N
June 2018
Progression, maintenance, and feedback of online child sexual grooming: A qualitative analysis of online predators
Publication date: June 2018
Source:Child Abuse & Neglect, Volume 80 Author(s): Patricia de Santisteban, Joana del Hoyo, Miguel
June 2018
Men’s experiences of early life trauma and pathways into long-term homelessness
Publication date: June 2018
Source:Child Abuse & Neglect, Volume 80 Author(s): Julia Woodhall-Melnik, James R. Dunn, Stephen Svenson, Caroline Patterson, Flora I. Matheson Previous studies that have explored the association between childhood trauma and homelessness indicate that traumatic events can lead to survivor distrust of interpersonal relationships and institutions, prolonged homelessness and poor health and social outcomes. The majority of this literature relies on quantitative data and fails to investigate the personal experiences of childhood trauma that are found to impact housing status later in life. Semi-structured, qualitative interviews were conducted with 25 men living in an urban area in Ontario who had spent more than 30 consecutive nights in an emergency shelter over the course of their housing histories. During data analysis, it was observed that all of the men had experienced some form of trauma or neglect in childhood which contributed to their entries into homelessness. Using a case study approach, three entry pathways into long term homelessness are described: 1) youth; 2) emerging or early adulthood; and 3) middle adulthood. Participants are classified into the pathways by the developmental period at which they first entered homelessness. These findings have implications for policy makers and service providers, as key intervention points are identified. Establishing effective interventions that address crises experienced at these points could assist with homelessness prevention across the life course.
June 2018
Perinatal interventions for mothers and fathers who are survivors of childhood sexual abuse
Publication date: June 2018
Source:Child Abuse & Neglect, Volume 80 Author(s): Lucy A. Stephenson, Katherine Beck, Paula Busuulwa, Camilla Rosan, Carmine M. Pariante, Susan Pawlby, Vaheshta Sethna Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is a worldwide problem with severe long-term consequences. A history of CSA can impact the childbearing experience of mothers and fathers; affecting their mental health, parenting skills and compromising infant development. Nonetheless, the perinatal period offers huge opportunity for intervention and hope. This literature review collates evidence for perinatal psychosocial interventions targeting both mothers and fathers who are survivors of CSA. Publications dating from 1970 to June 2016 were searched using Medline, Maternity and Infant Health, PsychINFO, PsychArticles, PubMed and the International Bibliography of the Social Sciences (IBSS). There were no perinatal interventions that considered the needs of survivor fathers. Sixteen publications on 9 psychosocial perinatal interventions for CSA survivors were identified. However, no sub-analyses specific to CSA survivors were reported. Trauma-specific perinatal interventions drew from a range of theoretical models and varied widely in format. Generally interventions were associated with improvements in maternal mental health, parenting competence, infant attachment security and positive public health outcomes. They were safe and feasible to implement, acceptable to parents and therapist, and therapists were able to implement protocols with adequate fidelity. Yet current data is hampered by small sample size, inconsistent reporting of CSA rates and outcome measures, scarcity of observational data and longer-term follow-up. Intervention modifications are proposed for CSA survivors in view of their unique childbearing experiences.
June 2018
The complex experience of child pornography survivors
Publication date: June 2018
Source:Child Abuse & Neglect, Volume 80 Author(s): Ateret Gewirtz-Meydan, Wendy Walsh, Janis Wolak, David Finkelhor This research explores the complex experiences of survivors of child pornography production. The study was conducted among a convenience sample of child pornography adult survivors (N
June 2018
Influence of childhood abuse and neglect subtypes on late-life suicide risk beyond depression
Publication date: June 2018
Source:Child Abuse & Neglect, Volume 80 Author(s): Gabriel Behr Gomes Jardim, Marta Novelo, Lucas Spanemberg, Armin von Gunten, Paula Engroff, Eduardo Lopes Nogueira, Alfredo Cataldo Neto The association of childhood maltreatment and suicide has been extensively examined within the population. Depression figures as a main cause for the elevated suicide rate in advanced ages and is often related to childhood maltreatment. The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationship between childhood maltreatment subtypes and suicide risk, testing geriatric depression as a moderator. This is a cross-sectional study looking at a sample of 449 individuals 60
June 2018
Sexual abuse but not posttraumatic stress disorder is associated with neurocognitive deficits in South African traumatized adolescents
Publication date: June 2018
Source:Child Abuse & Neglect, Volume 80 Author(s): Sarah V. Biedermann, Stefanie Meliss, Candice Simmons, Jani N
June 2018
Common components of evidence-based parenting programs for preventing maltreatment of school-age children
Publication date: June 2018
Source:Child Abuse & Neglect, Volume 80 Author(s): Caroline E. Temcheff, Marie-Jos
June 2018
Ecological momentary assessment of contextual variables, satisfaction, and emotional and behavioral states of adolescents by level of victimization
Publication date: June 2018
Source:Child Abuse & Neglect, Volume 80 Author(s): E. Magall
June 2018
Religiosity and interpersonal problems explain individual differences in self esteem among young adults with child maltreatment experiences
Publication date: June 2018
Source:Child Abuse & Neglect, Volume 80 Author(s): Jonathan C. Waldron, Angela Scarpa, Jungmeen Kim-Spoon Child maltreatment can have a lasting impact, which is why it is important to understand factors that may exacerbate or mitigate self-esteem difficulties in adulthood. Although there is tremendous benefit that can come from religion and spirituality, few studies examine religious views after child maltreatment. Subsequent interpersonal difficulties may also affect self-esteem in maltreatment survivors. This study sought to examine interpersonal problems and religiosity as mediators in the link between childhood maltreatment and self-esteem in adulthood. The study recruited 718 women (M
June 2018
The impact of patterns of trauma exposure among low income children with and without histories of child maltreatment
Publication date: June 2018
Source:Child Abuse & Neglect, Volume 80 Author(s): Abigail L. Rosen, Elizabeth D. Handley, Dante Cicchetti, Fred A. Rogosch Previous research has revealed a large prevalence of trauma experienced by children, creating high risk for the development of psychopathology. Research investigating the negative impacts of child maltreatment and other traumas has typically examined these experiences individually, controlling for co-occurring traumas, or has combined these experiences into a general variable of risk, thereby obscuring the complex relationships among environmental traumas and maltreatment. The current study expands on previous research by elucidating relationships between multiple contexts of overlapping traumas and maltreatment experienced by children, and by categorizing how these experiences join together to impact internalizing and externalizing symptomatology. Participants included 316 maltreated children and 269 nonmaltreated children (M age
June 2018
Disentangling the mental health impact of childhood abuse and neglect: A replication and extension study in a Brazilian sample of high-risk youth
Publication date: June 2018
Source:Child Abuse & Neglect, Volume 80 Author(s): Irismar Reis de Oliveira, Ana Cristina Matos-Ragazzo, Yuning Zhang, Nina Maia Vasconcelos, Michella Lopes Velasquez, Daniela Reis, Monica Gon
May 2018
Intimate partner violence victimization and parenting: A systematic review
Publication date: June 2018
Source:Child Abuse & Neglect, Volume 80 Author(s): Antonia E. Chiesa, Leigh Kallechey, Nicole Harlaar, C. Rashaan Ford, Edward F. Garrido, William R. Betts, Sabine Maguire Early studies examining parenting in the setting of intimate partner violence (IPV) often focus on abuse by the IPV perpetrator or effects of long term exposure. This review addresses how intimate partner violence impacts victim parenting. Seven databases were searched for the time period 1970–2015. Included were comparative studies involving children 11
May 2018
Inside Front Cover - Editorial Board
Publication date: May 2018
Source:Child Abuse & Neglect, Volume 79

May 2018
Intergenerational transmission of harsh discipline: The moderating role of parenting stress and parent gender
Publication date: May 2018
Source:Child Abuse & Neglect, Volume 79 Author(s): Hua Niu, Li Liu, Meifang Wang The present study examined the intergenerational transmission of harsh discipline (psychological aggression and corporal punishment) and the moderating effects of parenting stress and parent gender in Chinese societies. Utilizing a sample of 634 Chinese father–mother dyads with preschoolers, findings revealed that both mothers’ and fathers’ harsh discipline were transmitted across generations and the strength of transmission varied by the severity of harsh discipline and the parent gender. For both mothers and fathers, high parenting stress intensified the intergenerational transmission of psychological aggression and corporal punishment, whereas low parenting stress weakened the transmission of psychological aggression and even disrupted the transmission of corporal punishment. Moreover, the moderating effects of parenting stress on the transmission were stronger for mothers than for fathers. Findings from the present study highlight the importance of considering how the proximal environmental factors (such as parenting stress) may influence the intergenerational transmission of harsh discipline.
May 2018
National survey of hospital child protection teams in Japan
Publication date: May 2018
Source:Child Abuse & Neglect, Volume 79 Author(s): Koji Tanoue, Masayoshi Senda, Byongmun An, Midori Tasaki, Megumi Taguchi, Kosuke Kobashi, Shinji Oana, Fumitake Mizoguchi, Yuko Shiraishi, Fujiko Yamada, Makiko Okuyama, Kotaro Ichikawa This study aimed to investigate the penetration rate of child protection teams (CPTs) in medical institutions and associations between CPT functions and hospital services. We collected data in October of 2015 from 377 hospitals in Japan offering pediatric organ transplantation. The questionnaire included questions regarding the existence of a CPT, the number of child maltreatment cases discussed and reported per year, CPT functions including 21 items about staffing, manuals, meeting, prevention, education, and collaboration, and the services provided by the hospital. Of the 377 institutions, 122 (32.4%) answered the survey. There were significant associations between CPT functions and the number of pediatric beds (r
May 2018
The relationship between child protection contact and mental health outcomes among Canadian adults with a child abuse history
Publication date: May 2018
Source:Child Abuse & Neglect, Volume 79 Author(s): Tracie O. Afifi, Jill McTavish, Sarah Turner, Harriet L. MacMillan, C. Nadine Wathen Despite being a primary response to child abuse, it is currently unknown whether contact with child protection services (CPS) does more good than harm. The aim of the current study was to examine whether contact with CPS is associated with improved mental health outcomes among adult respondents who reported experiencing child abuse, after adjusting for sociodemographic factors and abuse severity. The data were drawn from the 2012 Canadian Community Health Survey-Mental Health (CCHS-2012), which used a multistage stratified cluster design (household-level response rate
May 2018
Domestic violence, parental substance misuse and the decision to substantiate child maltreatment
Publication date: May 2018
Source:Child Abuse & Neglect, Volume 79 Author(s): Bryan G. Victor, Andrew Grogan-Kaylor, Joseph P. Ryan, Brian E. Perron, Terri Ticknor Gilbert Families that experience domestic violence and parental substance misuse are disproportionately involved with the child welfare system. Prior research suggests that child protective services (CPS) caseworkers are more likely to substantiate maltreatment allegations when domestic violence and parental substance misuse are identified during the investigation, pointing to one possible mechanism for this disproportionate involvement. While previous studies have relied on nationally representative data sets, the current study used administrative records from a large Midwestern child welfare agency that accounts for state-level variation in child welfare policy and practice. A total of 501,060 substantiation decisions made between 2009 and 2013 were examined to assess the influence of caseworker-perceived domestic violence and parental substance misuse on the decision to substantiate reported maltreatment. Results from multilevel modeling suggest that the identification of domestic violence and parental substance misuse during an investigation significantly increased the probability that an allegation would be substantiated. The implication of these findings for child welfare practice are considered in light of the fact that many child welfare agencies do not consider exposure to domestic violence and parental substance misuse in and of themselves to constitute child maltreatment.
May 2018
Developmental effects of childhood household adversity, transitions, and relationship quality on adult outcomes of socioeconomic status: Effects of substantiated child maltreatment
Publication date: May 2018
Source:Child Abuse & Neglect, Volume 79 Author(s): Amy L. Stevens, Todd I. Herrenkohl, W. Alex Mason, Gail L. Smith, Joanne Klevens, Melissa T. Merrick The degree to which child maltreatment interacts with other household adversities to exacerbate risk for poor adult socioeconomic outcomes is uncertain. Moreover, the effects of residential, school, and caregiver transitions during childhood on adult outcomes are not well understood. This study examined the relation between household adversity and transitions in childhood with adult income problems, education, and unemployment in individuals with or without a childhood maltreatment history. The potential protective role of positive relationship quality in buffering these risk relationships was also tested. Data were from the Lehigh Longitudinal Study (n
May 2018
Suggestibility in neglected children: The influence of intelligence, language, and social skills
Publication date: May 2018
Source:Child Abuse & Neglect, Volume 79 Author(s): Laura Benedan, Martine B. Powell, Rachel Zajac, Jarrad A.G. Lum, Pamela Snow We administered the GSS-2, a standardised measure of suggestibility, to 5- to 12-year-old children to ascertain whether neglected children’s responses to leading questions distinguish them from those of their non-neglected counterparts. Neglected children (n
May 2018
Internalizing and externalizing symptoms among Palestinian adolescents from Israel as consequences of their exposure to community violence: Are they moderated by their self-efficacy and collective efficacy?
Publication date: May 2018
Source:Child Abuse & Neglect, Volume 79 Author(s): Neveen Ali-Saleh Darawshy, Muhammad M. Haj-Yahia This article presents the findings of a study that examined the rates and the consequences of exposure to community violence (ECV) as reflected in witnessing and experiencing such violence, among Palestinian adolescents from Israel. In particular, it examined the extent to which these adolescents exhibit high levels of internalizing and externalizing symptoms as consequences of such exposure, and the extent to which self-efficacy and collective efficacy moderate these consequences. A systematic random sample of 760 Palestinian adolescents in Israel (320 boys, and 440 girls) filled out a self-administered questionnaire. The results show that most of the adolescents had witnessed community violence during the last year and during lifetime, and more than one third had directly experienced such violence during their lifetime compared with 19.6% during the last year. Boys were exposed to community violence more often than girls. Moreover, participants' ECV predicted high levels of externalizing and internalizing symptoms. Hierarchical regression analysis revealed that collective efficacy moderated the correlation between experiencing community violence and internalizing symptoms, whereas self-efficacy moderated the correlation between witnessing community violence and externalizing symptoms. There is a need for providing support for youth from close adults as well as from formal and informal resources in the community before and after their ECV.
May 2018
Typologies of adverse childhood experiences and their relationship to incarceration in U.S. military veterans
Publication date: May 2018
Source:Child Abuse & Neglect, Volume 79 Author(s): Jana Ross, Bethany Waterhouse-Bradley, Ateka A. Contractor, Cherie Armour Numerous studies have reported that adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are associated with negative psychosocial outcomes in adulthood, but no study has examined the different typologies of ACEs and the relationship of these with adult incarceration in military veterans. The current study used latent class analysis to examine the existence of different childhood maltreatment and household dysfunction typologies in a sample of U.S. military veterans identified through the National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions-III ((NESARC-III)). A total of 60.73% of veterans reported one or more ACEs. Four latent classes were identified and were named Low adversities, Moderate maltreatment with high household substance use, Severe maltreatment with moderate household dysfunction and Severe multi-type adversities. Relative to the Low adversities class, the three maltreatment/dysfunction classes had significantly elevated odds ratios (1.72–2.29) for adult incarceration, when controlling for sociodemographic characteristics and alcohol and drug use. The results point to the importance of examining childhood risk factors for incarceration and suggest that a certain sub-group of military personnel who are about to transition into the civilian life may need additional support to adjust and live successful lives.
May 2018
Multiple traumas and resilience among street children in Haiti: Psychopathology of survival
Publication date: May 2018
Source:Child Abuse & Neglect, Volume 79 Author(s): Jude Mary C
May 2018
Childhood adversity increases the risk of onward transmission from perinatal HIV-infected adolescents and youth in South Africa
Publication date: May 2018
Source:Child Abuse & Neglect, Volume 79 Author(s): Rachel Kidman, Sharon Nachman, Janan Dietrich, Afaaf Liberty, Avy Violari Repeated exposure to childhood adversity (abuse, neglect and other traumas experienced before age 18) can have lifelong impacts on health. For HIV-infected adolescents and youth, such impacts may include onward transmission of HIV. To evaluate this possibility, the current study measured the burden of childhood adversity and its influence on risky health behaviors among perinatally-infected adolescents and youth. We surveyed 250 perinatally-infected adolescents and youth (13–24 years) receiving care in Soweto, South Africa. Both male and female participants reported on childhood adversity (using the ACE-IQ), sexual behavior, and psychosocial state. Viral load was also abstracted from their charts. We used logistic regressions to test the association between cumulative adversity and behavioral outcomes. Half the sample reported eight or more adversities. Overall, 72% experienced emotional abuse, 59% experienced physical abuse, 34% experienced sexual abuse, 82% witnessed domestic violence, and 91% saw someone being attacked in their community. A clear gradient emerged between cumulative adversities and behavioral risk. Having experienced one additional childhood adversity raised the odds of risky sexual behavior by almost 30% (OR 1.27, 95% CI 1.09–1.48). Viral suppression was poor overall (31% had viral loads >400
May 2018
Examining the association between suicidal behaviors and referral for mental health services among children involved in the child welfare system in Ontario, Canada
Publication date: May 2018
Source:Child Abuse & Neglect, Volume 79 Author(s): Philip Baiden, Barbara Fallon Although various studies have investigated factors associated with mental health service utilization, few studies have examined factors associated with referral for mental health services among maltreated children. The objective of this study was to examine the association between suicidal thoughts and self-harming behavior and referral for mental health services among children involved in the Child Welfare System in Ontario, Canada. Data for this study were obtained from the Ontario Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect 2013. An estimate 57,798 child maltreatment investigations was analyzed using binary logistic regression with referral for mental health service as the outcome variable. Of the 57,798 cases, 4709 (8.1%), were referred for mental health services. More than seven out of ten maltreated children who engaged in self-harming behavior and two out of three maltreated children who expressed suicidal thoughts were not referred for mental health services. In the multivariate logistic regression model, children who expressed suicidal thoughts had 2.39 times higher odds of being referred for mental health services compared to children with no suicidal thoughts (AOR
May 2018
Perceptions of child protective services among pregnant or recently pregnant, opioid-using women in substance abuse treatment
Publication date: May 2018
Source:Child Abuse & Neglect, Volume 79 Author(s): Lynn Falletta, Kelsey Hamilton, Rebecca Fischbein, Julie Aultman, Beth Kinney, Deric Kenne Pregnant, opioid-using women represent a challenge to healthcare providers attempting to engage them in prenatal and substance abuse services. Limited, primarily international research suggests that child welfare clients have mixed feelings about Child Protective Services (CPS) and that fear of CPS may present a barrier to care. Understanding how pregnant opioid-using women in substance abuse treatment perceive CPS may be useful in encouraging substance abuse treatment initiation. Participants were currently or recently (within past 12 months) pregnant women with current or recent (within past 12 months) abuse/dependence of pharmaceutical opioids at a drug treatment facility. Participants were recruited by treatment staff to participate in a comprehensive study across multiple domains. Data for this analysis were collected using semi-structured qualitative interviews. Transcribed data were thematically analyzed using in vivo and interpretive coding by three coders for purposes of inter-rater reliability. Following 2, two-hour meetings, consensus was reached on primary themes and sub-themes. Two major themes and several sub-themes were identified: 1) Participants’ feelings and attitudes about CPS (positive and negative); 2) Interaction-based perceptions of CPS’ function and performance. Participants’ feelings toward CPS were often conditioned by their experiences with individual caseworkers. While many pregnant, opioid-using women identify legitimate, and even useful features of CPS, fear of CPS can be a barrier to care. Making substance abuse treatment accessible to this population requires recognition of their complex feelings toward CPS, and coordination among CPS case workers and substance abuse treatment providers.
May 2018
Occult abusive injuries in children brought for care after intimate partner violence: An exploratory study
Publication date: May 2018
Source:Child Abuse & Neglect, Volume 79 Author(s): Gunjan Tiyyagura, Cindy Christian, Rachel Berger, Daniel Lindberg Children in homes with intimate partner violence (IPV) are at increased risk for physical abuse. We determined the frequency and injury patterns in children who underwent child abuse consultation after IPV exposure by retrospectively analyzing the "Examination of Siblings To Recognize Abuse" cohort of children referred for physical abuse. Children were selected who presented after IPV exposure. Among 2890 children evaluated by child abuse pediatricians, 61 (2.1%) patients presented after IPV exposure. Of the 61, 11 (18.0%) were exposed to IPV, but had no direct involvement in the IPV event, 36 (59.0%) sustained inadvertent trauma during IPV, and 14 (23.0%) were directly assaulted during IPV. Thirty-six patients (59.0%) had an injury: 31 (51.0%) had cutaneous injuries and 15 (24.6%) had internal injuries including fracture(s), intracranial or intra-abdominal injury. Of the 15 patients with internal injuries, 14 (93.3%) were less than 12 months old. Among the 36 patients with injuries, 16 (44.4%) had no report of direct injury, a report of a mechanism that did not explain the identified injuries, or a report of trauma without a specific mechanism. Five (13.9%) did not have physical examination findings to suggest the extent of their internal injuries. Injuries are present in a significant proportion of children presenting to Emergency Departments after IPV exposure. History and physical examination alone are insufficient to detect internal injuries especially in infants. These preliminary results support the need for future, prospective studies of occult injury in children exposed to IPV.
May 2018
The role of dissociation in revictimization across the lifespan: A 32-year prospective study
Publication date: May 2018
Source:Child Abuse & Neglect, Volume 79 Author(s): Osnat Zamir, Ohad Szepsenwol, Michelle M. Englund, Jeffry A. Simpson Exposure to childhood abuse puts women at risk for revictimization in adult intimate relationships, but knowledge about the mechanism by which it occurs is limited. The present study investigated whether dissociation mediates the effect of exposure to physical or sexual child abuse on intimate partner violence in adulthood. We tested this using prospective data collected from birth to age 32 from 80 female participants in the Minnesota Longitudinal Study of Risk and Adaptation. We found that women who experienced sexual or physical abuse during the first 17.5 years of life (n
May 2018
How gender norms are reinforced through violence against adolescent girls in two conflict-affected populations
Publication date: May 2018
Source:Child Abuse & Neglect, Volume 79 Author(s): Marni Sommer, Miguel Mu
May 2018
Correlates of disclosure of sexual violence among Kenyan youth
Publication date: May 2018
Source:Child Abuse & Neglect, Volume 79 Author(s): Courtney L. Boudreau, Howard Kress, Roger W. Rochat, Kathryn M. Yount Introduction Sexual violence (SV) against children is a global health and human rights issue that can have short and long-term consequences for health and wellbeing. Disclosing SV increases the likelihood that children can access health and protective services and receive psychosocial support. Research in high-income countries has found that child SV survivors are more likely to disclose when they are girls/women, experience fewer SV events, and experience SV perpetrated by a stranger. No studies have examined correlates of SV disclosure in Kenya. Objective The objective of this research was to assess the correlates of disclosing SV among Kenyan youth ages 13–24 who reported an SV experience before age 18. Methods In 2010, the Kenya Ministry of Gender, Children and Social Development, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s (CDC) Division of Violence Prevention, the UNICEF Kenya Country Office, and the Kenya National Bureau of Statistics (KNBS) conducted a national survey of violence against children. These data were used to conduct weighted logistic regression analyses to determine which factors were correlated with reporting SV disclosure. Results Among the 27.8% of girls/women and 14.5% of boys/men who reported SV before age 18, 44.6% of girls/women and 28.2% of boys/men reported to have disclosed the experience. In weighted logistic regression analysis, the odds of disclosure were lower among survivors who were boys/men and among survivors who reported more SV events, and higher when any perpetrator was a family member. Conclusion More context-specific research on SV disclosure among young people is needed globally.
May 2018
Early maltreatment is associated with greater risk of conduct problems and lack of guilt in adolescence
Publication date: May 2018
Source:Child Abuse & Neglect, Volume 79 Author(s): Meagan Docherty, Joanna Kubik, Carolina M. Herrera, Paul Boxer Previous research indicates a link between childhood maltreatment and elevated conduct problems. Yet the literature is less clear on associations between maltreatment and callousness (e.g., lack of empathy or guilt). This is a critical gap given that callousness is a robust predictor of serious aggressive and violent behavior. We examine the association between substantiated maltreatment events in childhood and adolescence (up to age 13) and conduct problems and lack of guilt at age 14. We analyze self- and parent-report data along with official maltreatment records on 557 youth (50% female; 69% non-white) from a larger dataset (Longitudinal Studies on Childhood Abuse and Neglect; N
May 2018
Willingness to disclose child maltreatment: CSA vs other forms of child abuse in relation to gender
Publication date: May 2018
Source:Child Abuse & Neglect, Volume 79 Author(s): Rachel Lev-Wiesel, Maya First The aim of the study was to examine the role of gender in willingness to disclose childhood sexual abuse (CSA) compared to other forms of abuse (physical, emotional and neglect) in young adolescents. Willingness was examined through two terms: reluctance— the level of unwillingness or disinclination to disclose, and urge—the need to share in order to get rid of unbearable feelings. The sample consisted of 3,156 boys (n

Individual-level factors related to better mental health outcomes following child maltreatment among adolescents
Publication date: May 2018
Source:Child Abuse & Neglect, Volume 79 Author(s): Kristene Cheung, Tamara Taillieu, Sarah Turner, Janique Fortier, Jitender Sareen, Harriet L. MacMillan, Michael H. Boyle, Tracie O. Afifi Research on factors associated with good mental health following child maltreatment is often based on unrepresentative adult samples. To address these limitations, the current study investigated the relationship between individual-level factors and overall mental health status among adolescents with and without a history of maltreatment in a representative sample. The objectives of the present study were to: 1) compute the prevalence of mental health indicators by child maltreatment types, 2) estimate the prevalence of overall good, moderate, and poor mental health by child maltreatment types; and 3) examine the relationship between individual-level factors and overall mental health status of adolescents with and without a history of maltreatment. Data were from the National Comorbidity Survey of Adolescents (NCS-A; n
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