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Transfusion and Apheresis Science
March 2018
A longitudinal analysis of the impact of child custody loss on drug use and crime among a sample of African American mothers
Publication date: March 2018
Source:Child Abuse & Neglect, Volume 77 Author(s): Kathi L.H. Harp, Carrie B. Oser This study examines the influence of child custody loss on drug use and crime among a sample of African American mothers. Two types of custody loss are examined: informal custody loss (child living apart from mother but courts not involved), and official loss (child removed from mother’s care by authorities). Methods Using data from 339 African American women, longitudinal random coefficient models analyzed the effects of each type of custody loss on subsequent drug use and crime. Results indicated that both informal and official custody loss predicted increased drug use, and informal loss predicted increased criminal involvement. Findings demonstrate that child custody loss has negative health implications for African American mothers, potentially reducing their likelihood of regaining or retaining custody of their children. Conclusions This study highlights the need to integrate drug treatment and other types of assistance into family case plans to improve reunification rates and outcomes among mothers, children, and families. Additionally, the finding that informal loss predicts increased drug use suggests that community-based efforts within the mother’s social network could be implemented to intervene before child welfare system involvement becomes necessary.
March 2018
Empirical evidence of child poverty and deprivation in Nigeria
Publication date: March 2018
Source:Child Abuse & Neglect, Volume 77 Author(s): Fidelis O. Ogwumike, Uche M. Ozughalu Development economists and policy makers have in recent times focused attention on child poverty as a crucial aspect of poverty. The importance of the analysis of child poverty partly lies in the fact that children are the most vulnerable group in every society. This study used two poverty lines and the Foster-Greer-Thorbecke index to analyze extreme and overall child poverty headcount, depth and severity in Nigeria. The study also used the headcount ratio to analyze the extent of child deprivation in education, health, nutrition, child protection, water and sanitation. The study was based on the 2010 Harmonized Nigeria Living Standard Survey (HNLSS) and the 2011 Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS), obtained from the National Bureau of Statistics (NBS), Abuja, Nigeria. The study revealed that 23.22% of children in Nigeria were in extreme child poverty while 70.31% of children in the country were in overall child poverty. The study further showed that there was pronounced child deprivation in education, health, nutrition, child protection, water and sanitation. Both child poverty and child deprivation were more pronounced in the rural sector than in the urban sector and in Northern Nigeria than in Southern Nigeria. Therefore, the Nigerian government should take adequate steps to eradicate child poverty and obliterate all forms of child deprivation in Nigeria – particularly deprivation in basic needs. In taking such steps, more attention should be focused on rural areas and Northern Nigeria.
March 2018
The past is present: The role of maltreatment history in perceptual, behavioral and autonomic responses to infant emotional signals
Publication date: March 2018
Source:Child Abuse & Neglect, Volume 77 Author(s): Renate S.M. Buisman, Katharina Pittner, Laura H.C.G. Compier-de Block, Lisa J.M. van den Berg, Marian J. Bakermans-Kranenburg, Lenneke R.A. Alink In the current study associations between parents’ experiences of childhood maltreatment and their perceptual, behavioral and autonomic responses to infant emotional signals were examined in a sample of 160 parents. Experienced maltreatment (both physical and emotional abuse and neglect) was reported by the participants and, in approximately half of the cases, also by their parents. During a standardized infant vocalization paradigm, participants were asked to squeeze a handgrip dynamometer at maximal and at half strength while listening to infant crying and laughter sounds and to rate their perception of the sounds. In addition, their heart rate (HR), pre-ejection period (PEP), and vagal tone (RSA) were measured as indicators of underlying sympathetic and parasympathetic reactivity. Results indicated that participants did not differ in their perceptions of the infant vocalizations signals according to their maltreatment experiences. However, maltreatment experiences were associated with the modulation of behavioral responses. Experiences of neglect during childhood were related to more handgrip force during infant crying and to less handgrip force during infant laughter. Moreover, a history of neglect was associated with a higher HR and a shorter PEP during the entire infant vocalization paradigm, which may indicate chronic cardiovascular arousal. The findings imply that a history of childhood neglect negatively influences parents’ capacities to regulate their emotions and behavior, which would be problematic when reacting to children’s emotional expressions.
March 2018
Population attributable fractions of psychopathology and suicidal behaviour associated with childhood adversities in Northern Ireland
Publication date: March 2018
Source:Child Abuse & Neglect, Volume 77 Author(s): Margaret McLafferty, Siobhan O’Neill, Sam Murphy, Cherie Armour, Brendan Bunting Childhood adversities are strong predictors of psychopathology and suicidality. However, specific adversities are associated with different outcomes, with cross-national variations reported. The current study examined rates of adversities reported in Northern Ireland (NI), and associations between adverse childhood experiences and psychopathology and suicidal behaviour were explored. Data was obtained from the Northern Ireland Study of Health and Stress (NISHS), conducted as part of the World Mental Health (WMH) survey initiative (2004–2008); response rate 68.4% (n
March 2018
Experiences of sexual harassment are associated with the sexual behavior of 14- to 18-year-old adolescents
Publication date: March 2018
Source:Child Abuse & Neglect, Volume 77 Author(s): Riittakerttu Kaltiala-Heino, Hanna Savioja, Sari Fr
March 2018
Maternal negative emotional expression and discipline in Beijing, China: The moderating role of educational attainment
Publication date: March 2018
Source:Child Abuse & Neglect, Volume 77 Author(s): Feng Cheng, Yifang Wang, Xixian Wu, Zhuqing Su The current study shows that parental punitive discipline places children at risk of developing internalizing and externalizing problems. Although some studies have analyzed the reasons for the use of discipline methods, little to no research has analyzed the moderating effects. In this study, we examine the relationship between maternal negative emotional expression and mothers’ use of disciplinary methods (psychological aggression, corporal punishment and physical maltreatment) and the moderating effects of educational attainment in Chinese societies. Five hundred and sixteen mothers with preschool-aged children were recruited to participate in this research. The Chinese versions of the Self-Expressiveness in the Family Questionnaire (SEFQ) and the Parent-Child Conflict Tactics Scales (CTSPC) were used to measure the mothers’ negative emotional expression and discipline, respectively. The results suggested that the mothers’ negative emotional expression was positively related to their disciplinary behaviors. Moreover, maternal educational attainment moderated the association between negative emotional expression and discipline. The findings of the current study highlight the importance of considering how mothers’ educational backgrounds may interact with their emotions to influence maternal disciplinary behaviors.
March 2018
Child maltreatment re-offending in families served by the United States Air Force Family Advocacy Program
Publication date: March 2018
Source:Child Abuse & Neglect, Volume 77 Author(s): Randy J. McCarthy, Joel S. Milner, Sarah L. Coley, LaJuana Ormsby, Mark Oliver The current study examined child maltreatment re-offending in United States Air Force (USAF) families. In a clinical database containing 24,999 child maltreatment incidents perpetrated by 15,042 offenders between the years 1997 and 2013, 13% of offenders maltreated a child on more than one date (i.e., they re-offended). We explored several offender demographic characteristics associated with who re-offended and found that civilians re-offended at a similar rate as active duty members, males re-offended at a similar rate as females, and younger offenders were more likely to re-offend than older offenders. We also explored incident characteristics associated with who re-offended: Re-offending was more likely if the initial maltreatment was neglect or emotional abuse and re-offenders were likely to perpetrate subsequent maltreatment that was the same type and severity as their initial incident. The current data indicate that young offenders and offenders of neglect and emotional maltreatment are the greatest risk of re-offending. These offender and incident characteristics could be used by the USAF to guide their efforts to reduce re-offending.
March 2018
Effect of parental neglect on smartphone addiction in adolescents in South Korea
Publication date: March 2018
Source:Child Abuse & Neglect, Volume 77 Author(s): Ju Yeon Kwak, Jae Yop Kim, Yoe Won Yoon The purpose of this study was to investigate the importance of the relationships with parents, peers, and teachers as a cause of adolescents’ smartphone addiction, and to examine the effect of parental neglect on smartphone addiction and the mediating effect of relational maladjustment in school, especially focusing on the relational maladjustment with peers and teachers. For this purpose, a survey was conducted of students from middle schools and high schools in four regions of South Korea. A total of 1170 middle-school students who reported using smartphone took part in this study. A multiple mediator model was analyzed using the bootstrapping mediation methods Parental neglect was significantly associated with adolescents’ smartphone addiction. Furthermore, in the relationship between parental neglect and smartphone addiction, parental neglect was not significantly associated with the relational maladjustment with peers, whereas the relational maladjustment with peers negatively influenced smartphone addiction. On the other hand, the relational maladjustment with teachers had a partial mediation effect between parental neglect and smartphone addiction. Based on the results of this study, some implications are suggested that include the need for (1) a customized program for adolescents who use smartphones addictively, (2) a family therapy program to strengthen family function, (3) an integrated case-management system to prevent the reoccurrence of parental neglect, (4) a program to improve relationships with teachers, and (5) expanding the leisure activity infrastructure to improve relationships with friends off-line.
March 2018
A situational crime prevention analysis of Anglican clergy’s child protective practices
Publication date: March 2018
Source:Child Abuse & Neglect, Volume 77 Author(s): Michael Andre Guerzoni To date, a predominant focus within the field of ‘clerical collar crime’ has revolved around institutional-level church responses to child sexual abuse events, survivors and offenders. Comparatively, little attention has been directed towards the micro-level and in particular, examining clerical responses to child sexual abuse. This article presents empirical findings concerning the ‘everyday’ child protective practices of Anglican clergy in the Diocese of Tasmania, Australia. Research data was acquired through open-ended qualitative interviews conducted with a sample of 34 clergy in a broader study of clerical culture, habitus and life amidst the ‘church abuse crisis’. The framework of Situational Crime Prevention is employed to evaluate the feasibility of clergy’s child-safe practices and comment on how these practices could be further altered through professional development. Research findings demonstrate that clergy possess an active awareness of risk, and execute a series of protective measures to minimise both sexual interactions with children and allegations of impropriety.
March 2018
Mediators between adverse childhood experiences and suicidality
Publication date: March 2018
Source:Child Abuse & Neglect, Volume 77 Author(s): Minna Rytil
March 2018
Violence and maltreatment in Tanzanian families—Findings from a nationally representative sample of secondary school students and their parents
Publication date: March 2018
Source:Child Abuse & Neglect, Volume 77 Author(s): Mabula Nkuba, Katharin Hermenau, Tobias Hecker Though the Sustainable Development Goals of the United Nations aim to end all forms of violence against minors, child maltreatment remains a globally prevalent phenomenon. Despite the fact that parents in numerous countries apply violent discipline methods to control children’s behavior, little is known about the prevalence of maltreatment and violent discipline in Sub-Saharan Africa. In this study, we examined the prevalence of maltreatment and violent discipline from both the adolescents’ and parents’ perspectives. In addition, we explored risk factors that could be associated with violent discipline by parents. We administered questionnaires to a nationally representative sample of 700 Tanzanian secondary school students (52% girls, mean age: 14.92 years, SD
March 2018
The association between child maltreatment and adult poverty – A systematic review of longitudinal research
Publication date: March 2018
Source:Child Abuse & Neglect, Volume 77 Author(s): Lisa Bunting, Gavin Davidson, Claire McCartan, Jennifer Hanratty, Paul Bywaters, Will Mason, Nicole Steils Child maltreatment is a global problem affecting millions of children and is associated with an array of cumulative negative outcomes later in life, including unemployment and financial difficulties. Although establishing child maltreatment as a causal mechanism for adult economic outcomes is fraught with difficulty, understanding the relationship between the two is essential to reducing such inequality. This paper presents findings from a systematic review of longitudinal research examining experiences of child maltreatment and economic outcomes in adulthood. A systematic search of seven databases found twelve eligible retrospective and prospective cohort studies. From the available evidence, there was a relatively clear relationship between ‘child maltreatment’ and poorer economic outcomes such as reduced income, unemployment, lower level of job skill and fewer assets, over and above the influence of family of origin socio-economic status. Despite an extremely limited evidence base, neglect had a consistent relationship with a number of long-term economic outcomes, while physical abuse has a more consistent relationship with income and employment. Studies examining sexual abuse found less of an association with income and employment, although they did find a relationship other outcomes such as sickness absence, assets, welfare receipt and financial insecurity. Nonetheless, all twelve studies showed some association between at least one maltreatment type and at least one economic measure. The task for future research is to clarify the relationship between specific maltreatment types and specific economic outcomes, taking account of how this may be influenced by gender and life course stage.
February 2018
Psychological and physical intimate partner violence and young children’s mental health: The role of maternal posttraumatic stress symptoms and parenting behaviors
Publication date: March 2018
Source:Child Abuse & Neglect, Volume 77 Author(s): Carolyn A. Greene, Grace Chan, Kimberly J. McCarthy, Lauren S. Wakschlag, Margaret J. Briggs-Gowan Young children are at significant risk of exposure to intimate partner violence (IPV), and vulnerable to exposure-related psychopathology, yet few studies investigate the effects of exposure to IPV on children under the age of 5 years. The current study investigated the role of maternal PTSD symptoms and parenting strategies in the relationship between mothers’ IPV experiences and psychopathology in their young children, ages 3–6 years in a community-based cohort of 308 mother-child dyads at high risk for family violence. Data were collected from 2011 to 2014. IPV history and maternal PTSD symptoms were assessed by self-report questionnaires. Children’s symptoms were assessed with a developmentally-sensitive psychiatric interview administered to mothers. Punitive/restrictive parenting was independently-coded from in-depth interviews with mothers about their disciplinary practices. Hypothesized direct and indirect pathways between physical and psychological IPV, maternal PTSD, maternal parenting style, and children’s internalizing and externalizing symptoms were examined with mediation models. Results indicated that neither physical nor psychological IPV experienced by mothers was directly associated with children’s symptoms. However, both types of victimization were associated with maternal PTSD symptoms. Examination of indirect pathways suggested that maternal PTSD symptoms mediated the relationship between mothers’ psychological and physical IPV experiences and children’s internalizing and externalizing symptoms and mothers’ restrictive/punitive parenting mediated the relationship between mothers’ psychological IPV and children’s externalizing symptoms. In addition, there was a path from maternal physical IPV to child externalizing symptoms through both maternal PTSD symptoms and restrictive/punitive parenting. Findings highlight the importance of supporting parents in recovering from the sequelae of their own traumatic experiences, as their ensuing mental health symptoms and parenting behaviors may have a significant impact on their children’s emotional health.
February 2018
Inside Front Cover - Editorial Board
Publication date: February 2018
Source:Child Abuse & Neglect, Volume 76

February 2018
Predictors of having a first child taken into care at birth: A population-based retrospective cohort study
Publication date: February 2018
Source:Child Abuse & Neglect, Volume 76 Author(s): Elizabeth Wall-Wieler, Leslie L. Roos, Marni Brownell, Nathan C. Nickel, Dan Chateau The objective of this study is to determine which maternal events and diagnoses in the two years before childbirth are associated with higher risk for having a first child taken into care at birth by child protection services. A population-based retrospective cohort of women whose first child was born in Manitoba, Canada between 2002 and 2012 and lived in the province at least two years before the birth of their first child (n=53,565) was created using linkable administrative data. A logistic regression model determined the adjusted odds ratios (AOR) of having a child taken into care at birth. Characteristics having the strongest association with a woman’s first child being taken into care at birth were mother being in care at the birth of her child (AOR=11.10; 95% CI=8.38–14.71), substance abuse (AOR=8.94; 95% CI=5.08–15.71), schizophrenia (AOR=6.69; 95% CI=3.89–11.52) developmental disability (AOR=6.45; 95% CI=2.69–14.29), and no prenatal care (AOR=5.47; 95% CI=3.56–8.41). Most characteristics of women deemed to be at high risk for having their child taken into care at birth are modifiable or could be mitigated with appropriate services.
February 2018
Evaluation of second step child protection videos: A randomized controlled trial
Publication date: February 2018
Source:Child Abuse & Neglect, Volume 76 Author(s): Amanda B. Nickerson, Jennifer A. Livingston, Kimberly Kamper-DeMarco This randomized controlled trial (RCT) examined the effects of the Second Step Child Protection Unit videos on parents’ knowledge, motivation, and self-reported communication with their child about personal safety and childhood sexual abuse prevention. Parents of children between the ages of 3–11 years were randomly assigned to the intervention (watching the Second Step videos) or the control (watching videos on child obesity) groups. They completed measures assessing their knowledge of child sexual abuse (CSA), motivation to discuss CSA, self-reported discussions of CSA, child history of victimization, parent exposure to CSA, and comparable measures on topics of health and nutrition at pre-test. Participants viewed the videos one week later and immediately completed post-test 1, and then two months later completed the measures again. Multivariate Analyses of Covariance (MANCOVAs) and serial mediation analyses were conducted with the final sample of 438. The intervention group, compared to the control group, had significant increases in knowledge (specifically, less restrictive stereotype beliefs about CSA) and motivation to talk with their children about CSA both immediately after the intervention and at the two-month follow-up. Although the intervention did not have a direct effect on parent self-reported conversations with their children about CSA, it had a mediated effect. The intervention increased knowledge regarding CSA, which then predicted motivation, which in turn predicted conversations. The most pronounced effect was the intervention’s direct effect of increasing motivation immediately after the intervention, which then increased self-reported conversations with children about personal safety and CSA two months later.
February 2018
Social workers’ views on pre-trial therapy in cases of child sexual abuse in South Africa
Publication date: February 2018
Source:Child Abuse & Neglect, Volume 76 Author(s): Ansie Fouch
February 2018
Attitudes mediate the intergenerational transmission of corporal punishment in China
Publication date: February 2018
Source:Child Abuse & Neglect, Volume 76 Author(s): Fang Wang, Meifang Wang, Xiaopei Xing This research aimed to examine the intergenerational transmission of corporal punishment and the role of parents’ attitudes toward corporal punishment in the transmission processes in Chinese societies. Based on social-cognitive theory, it was hypothesized that parents' attitudes toward corporal punishment would mediate the transmission of corporal punishment. Seven hundred and eighty-five fathers and eight hundred and eleven mothers with elementary school-age children (data collected in winter 2009) were recruited through convenience sampling techniques. The Chinese version of Parent-Child Conflict Tactics Scale (CTSPC) and Attitude toward Physical Punishment Scale (ATPP) were used as the main assessment tools to measure parents' corporal punishment experiences in childhood, current use of corporal punishment and attitudes toward corporal punishment. Findings revealed that the strength of intergenerational transmission of corporal punishment was strong and parents' attitudes toward corporal punishment played a mediating role in the continuity of corporal punishment for both fathers and mothers in China. The findings highlighted the role of attitudes in the intergenerational transmission of corporal punishment within the Chinese cultural context and also suggested the need for intervention programs to focus on modification of maladaptive attitudes toward what is appropriate and effective discipline.
February 2018
Does parental substance use always engender risk for children? Comparing incidence rate ratios of abusive and neglectful behaviors across substance use behavior patterns
Publication date: February 2018
Source:Child Abuse & Neglect, Volume 76 Author(s): Nancy J. Kepple Parental substance use disorder (SUD) is associated with an added risk for child abuse and neglect, but less is understood about how a range of parental use behaviors is associated with differential maltreatment frequencies. This study used the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being (NSCAW I) to create categories for parental substance use behaviors that are conceptually associated with varying levels of substance-related impairments. The study sample was composed of 2100 parents of children ages 2–17 years from Wave 4 data collection. Weighted negative binomial regression models assessed the relationship between substance use behavior patterns and maltreatment frequencies by type. Behavior patterns defined by some form of past year substance use were associated with a higher frequency of physical or emotional abuse compared to non-users. In contrast, only past year SUD was associated with a higher frequency of neglect compared to other categories. In sum, the relationship between substance use and maltreatment frequencies differed for abuse and neglect, suggesting different pathways may be underlying these observed relationships.
February 2018
Examining factors associated with elevated Lie Scale responding on the Child Abuse Potential Inventory
Publication date: February 2018
Source:Child Abuse & Neglect, Volume 76 Author(s): Amanda H. Costello, Natalie J. Shook, Nancy M. Wallace, Cheryl B. McNeil Child maltreatment remains a serious public health issue in the United States. Therefore, it is important to engage in quality control of the assessment, prevention, and treatment services for families affected by maltreatment. Parenting capacity assessments (PCAs) are typically an integral part of service delivery for families affected by maltreatment and can carry serious consequences for the referred parent. The Child Abuse Potential Inventory (CAPI) is a measure that is widely used in PCAs; however, socially desirable responding on the CAPI can serve to invalidate the important information derived from this assessment, as well as lead to negative impressions of the parent. Using data collected via multiple methods (including a non-face valid behavioral measure, intelligence screening, and self-report) from a predominantly at-risk sample of parents, the aim of this study was to better understand factors that may predict socially desirable responding on the CAPI. Results indicated that lower parental intelligence, a “positivity bias” (i.e., the tendency to learn and attend to positive over negative information during the non-face valid behavioral task), and lower reported depressive symptoms were associated with higher socially desirable responding. These findings suggest that assessors should thoughtfully consider the possibility that invalid CAPI scores may be more related to low intelligence and a positivity bias than to psychopathy and manipulation (e.g., purposefully trying to present oneself in a positive light to gain favor in a PCA).
February 2018
The influence of maltreatment history and out-of-home-care on children’s language and social skills
Publication date: February 2018
Source:Child Abuse & Neglect, Volume 76 Author(s): Jarrad A.G. Lum, Martine Powell, Pamela C. Snow This study examined the extent to which maltreatment history and the characteristics of out-of-home care correlated with the language and social skills of maltreated children. Participants in this study were 82 maltreated children aged between 5 and 12 years of age. All children were residing with state-designated carers in out-of-home-care. The children were presented with standardised tests assessing language and social skills. Results showed that the sample performed significantly below the normative mean on both tests. Correlation analyses showed social skills, but not language skills were correlated with aspects of maltreatment history. The education level of the state-designated carer/s was correlated with the children's language skills; higher education level was associated with higher language skills. The study provides evidence that at the group level, language and social skills are poor in maltreated children. However, gains in language skills might be made via the out-of-home-care environment. Improvements in the social skills of maltreated children may require additional support.
February 2018
Prenatal substance exposure diagnosed at birth and infant involvement with child protective services
Publication date: February 2018
Source:Child Abuse & Neglect, Volume 76 Author(s): John J. Prindle, Ivy Hammond, Emily Putnam-Hornstein Infants have the highest rates of maltreatment reporting and entries to foster care. Prenatal substance exposure is thought to contribute to early involvement with child protective services (CPS), yet there have been limited data with which to examine this relationship or variations by substance type. Using linked birth, hospital discharge, and CPS records from California, we estimated the population prevalence of medically diagnosed substance exposure and neonatal withdrawal disorders at birth. We then explored the corresponding rates of CPS involvement during the first year of life by substance type after adjusting for sociodemographic and health factors. Among 551,232 infants born alive in 2006, 1.45% (n =7994) were diagnosed with prenatal substance exposure at birth; 61.2% of those diagnosed were reported to CPS before age 1 and nearly one third (29.9%) were placed in foster care. Medically diagnosed prenatal substance exposure was strongly associated with an infant’s likelihood of being reported to CPS, yet significant variation in the likelihood and level of CPS involvement was observed by substance type. Although these data undoubtedly understate the prevalence of prenatal illicit drug and alcohol use, this study provides a population-based characterization of a common pathway to CPS involvement during infancy. Future research is needed to explicate the longer-term trajectories of infants diagnosed with prenatal substance exposure, including the role of CPS.
February 2018
Children’s disclosures of sexual abuse in a population-based sample
Publication date: February 2018
Source:Child Abuse & Neglect, Volume 76 Author(s): Hanna-Mari Lahtinen, Aarno Laitila, Julia Korkman, Noora Ellonen Most previous studies on disclosing child sexual abuse (CSA) have either been retrospective or focused on children who already have disclosed. The present study aimed to explore the overall CSA disclosure rate and factors associated with disclosing to adults in a large population-based sample. A representative sample of 11,364 sixth and ninth graders participated in the Finnish Child Victim Survey concerning experiences of violence, including CSA. CSA was defined as having sexual experiences with a person at least five years older at the time of the experience. Within this sample, the CSA prevalence was 2.4%. Children reporting CSA experiences also answered questions regarding disclosure, the disclosure recipient, and potential reasons for not disclosing. The results indicate that most of the children (80%) had disclosed to someone, usually a friend (48%). However, only 26% had disclosed to adults, and even fewer had reported their experiences to authorities (12%). The most common reason for non-disclosing was that the experience was not considered serious enough for reporting (41%), and half of the children having CSA experiences did not self-label their experiences as sexual abuse. Relatively few children reported lacking the courage to disclose (14%). Logistic regression analyses showed that the perpetrator’s age, the age of the victim at the time of abuse, and having no experiences of emotional abuse by the mother were associated with disclosing to an adult. The results contribute to understanding the factors underlying children’s disclosure patterns in a population-based sample and highlight the need for age-appropriate safety education for children and adolescents.
February 2018
Violence against children in Afghanistan: Concerns and opportunities for positive change
Publication date: February 2018
Source:Child Abuse & Neglect, Volume 76 Author(s): Patrick O’Leary, Cate M. Cameron, Ali Lakhani, Jodie M. Osborne, Luana de Souza, Kristen Hope, Mohammad S. Naimi, Hassan Khan, Qazi S. Jawad, Sabir Majidi Violence against children (VAC) in Afghanistan is a serious issue in the context of many decades of conflict and poverty. To date, limited studies have explored the extent of VAC in Afghanistan and the settings where VAC takes place. To understand (i) the extent of VAC, (ii) settings where VAC takes place, (iii) parental forms of VAC and (iv) regional differences, an interview administered cross-sectional survey was employed among a community sample of 145 children and 104 parents living within Kabul, Torkham, and Jalalabad. Demographic information was collected as well as items from the International Child Abuse Screening Tool (ICAST-CH). In this study, 71% of children reported experiencing physical violence is some form in the past year. Home was the most likely location of violence. The overwhelming majority of parents reported using physical violence as a discipline method. Parents who attained higher levels of education and had more skilled occupations used violence less as a discipline method. However, consistent with international research, children cited their parents as their preferred source of support in situations of violence. Interestingly, parents did not see violent forms of discipline as more effective than non-violent strategies. The results offer a disturbing yet ‘on the ground’ insight into VAC in Afghanistan from the experience of children and parents. The results have important implications for programming design and provide a focus for stopping and preventing VAC in Afghanistan and similar contexts.
February 2018
Associations of neighborhood disorganization and maternal spanking with children’s aggression: A fixed-effects regression analysis
Publication date: February 2018
Source:Child Abuse & Neglect, Volume 76 Author(s): Julie Ma, Andrew Grogan-Kaylor, Shawna J. Lee This study employed fixed effects regression that controls for selection bias, omitted variables bias, and all time-invariant aspects of parent and child characteristics to examine the simultaneous associations between neighborhood disorganization, maternal spanking, and aggressive behavior in early childhood using data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (FFCWS). Analysis was based on 2,472 children and their mothers who participated in Wave 3 (2001–2003; child age 3) and Wave 4 (2003–2006; child age 5) of the FFCWS. Results indicated that higher rates of neighborhood crime and violence predicted higher levels of child aggression. Maternal spanking in the past year, whether frequent or infrequent, was also associated with increases in aggressive behavior. This study contributes statistically rigorous evidence that exposure to violence in the neighborhood as well as the family context are predictors of child aggression. We conclude with a discussion for the need for multilevel prevention and intervention approaches that target both community and parenting factors.
February 2018
Transformational change in parenting practices after child interpersonal trauma: A grounded theory examination of parental response
Publication date: February 2018
Source:Child Abuse & Neglect, Volume 76 Author(s): Jorden A. Cummings Child interpersonal trauma is associated with a host of negative outcomes, both concurrently and in adulthood. Parental responses following trauma can play an important role in modulating child responses, symptoms, and post-trauma functioning. However, parents themselves are also impacted after their child experiences trauma, reporting distress, psychopathology, concerns about the child’s safety, changes in discipline and protectiveness, and feelings of blame. Most of this previous research, however, suffers from methodological limitations such as focusing on description and correlations, providing static “one shot” assessments of parenting after trauma, and relying mainly on results related to child sexual abuse. This project developed a comprehensive, explanatory theory of the dynamic process by which parenting changes in response to a range of child trauma, using a sample of parents whose children had experienced a range of interpersonal trauma types. Grounded theory analyses revealed a three-phase dynamic model of discontinuous transformation, in which parents experienced destabilization, recalibration, and re-stabilization of parenting practices in response to child trauma. Parents were focused on Protecting and Healing the child victim, often at the expense of their own needs. Most parents reached a phase of posttraumatic growth, labelled Thriving Recovery, but processes that hindered this recovery are also discussed. This study provides the first evidence that dynamic systems of change as well as vicarious posttraumatic growth can apply to parents of child trauma victims. Generating an explanatory theory provides important avenues for future research as well as interventions and services aimed at families who have experienced child trauma.
February 2018
Preventing violence against children in schools: Contributions from the Be Safe program in Sri Lanka
Publication date: February 2018
Source:Child Abuse & Neglect, Volume 76 Author(s): Steven Lam, Christine Zwart, Inem Chahal, David Lane, Harry Cummings Violence against children is a global public health issue with serious social, economic, physical, and emotional impacts. This study evaluates the effectiveness of a school-based program aimed to prevent and respond to physical, sexual, and psychological violence against children in Sri Lanka from the perspective of parents. A cross-sectional retrospective study design was used. A total of 835 parents of children who participated in the program were surveyed across seven districts in Sri Lanka. Dose-response analyses were conducted to assess for correlations between program exposure and perceived prevention of violence against children. Low to moderate correlations were found between exposure to the program and perceived child safety in schools, school policies, and in the community. The findings provide preliminary evidence of program effectiveness; however, more efforts are needed to validate and sustain outcomes. Implications for future violence prevention programming, along with the use of dose-response evaluations, are discussed.
February 2018
Associations of adversity in childhood and risk factors for cardiovascular disease in mid-adulthood
Publication date: February 2018
Source:Child Abuse & Neglect, Volume 76 Author(s): Emma L. Anderson, Abigail Fraser, Rishi Caleyachetty, Rebecca Hardy, Debbie A. Lawlor, Laura D. Howe Studies assessing associations of childhood psychosocial adversity (e.g. sexual abuse, physical neglect, parental death), as opposed to socioeconomic adversity, with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in adulthood are scarce. The aim of this study is to assess associations of various types of psychosocial adversity and cumulative adversity in childhood, with multiple CVD risk factors in mid-life. At study enrolment, women from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (N=3612) retrospectively reported: lack of maternal care, maternal overprotection, parental mental illness, household dysfunction, sexual abuse, physical and emotional abuse, and neglect in childhood. Approximately 23 years later, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, plasma glucose, insulin, triglycerides, low and high density lipoprotein cholesterol, C-reactive protein, carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) and arterial distensibility were assessed (mean age 51 years). We examined associations of each specific type of psychosocial adversity and cumulative adversity with CVD risk factors. No specific type of psychosocial adversity was consistently associated with the CVD risk factors. There was evidence that a one standard deviation greater cumulative psychosocial adversity was associated with 0.51cm greater waist circumference (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.02cm, 1.00cm, p=0.04) and a lower arterial distensibility, even after adjustment for age, ethnicity and childhood and adult socioeconomic position. We found no consistent evidence that any specific type of psychosocial adversity, or cumulative psychosocial adversity in childhood, is associated with CVD risk factors in adult women.
February 2018
Temperamental sensitivity to early maltreatment and later family cohesion for externalizing behaviors in youth adopted from foster care
Publication date: February 2018
Source:Child Abuse & Neglect, Volume 76 Author(s): Irene Tung, Amanda N. Noro
February 2018
Implementation of deinstitutionalization of child care institutions in post-soviet countries: The case of Azerbaijan
Publication date: February 2018
Source:Child Abuse & Neglect, Volume 76 Author(s): Aytakin Huseynli Institutional care has proven to be detrimental for child development. This study examined the status of the State Program on Deinstitutionalization and Alternative Care (SPDAC), a public policy aimed at transforming 55 institutions covering 14,500 children during 2006–2016 in Azerbaijan. The success of this public policy was crucial for the country's entire child welfare system. The study used a crosssectional, descriptive, exploratory, and qualitative method. Data were collected through in-depth, semistructured interviews and archival resources. Twenty key informants were selected through a purposive sampling strategy. They led projects or were heads of departments related to implementing the SPDAC at government agencies, national or international nongovernmental organizations, UNICEF, or as social workers in newly established alternative services. Interviews were analyzed in TAMSAnalyzer. Themes supporting possible explanations such as lack of political will, weak child protection systems, weak civil society, illequipped human resources, absence of alternative services, and low levels of knowledge of children's rights emerged in the analysis. The findings could contribute to research on child welfare reform and reflect hidden factors behind policies to guide practice in former Soviet Union states and countries rich in natural resources such oil, gas, and minerals. The primary finding of a lack of political will raises the question of how to create political will and how to motivate government officials to invest in the welfare of children.
February 2018
Teachers’ stress intensifies violent disciplining in Tanzanian secondary schools
Publication date: February 2018
Source:Child Abuse & Neglect, Volume 76 Author(s): Tobias Hecker, Katharina Goessmann, Mabula Nkuba, Katharin Hermenau Violent forms of discipline in schools continue to be widespread across the globe despite their damaging effects. Since little is known about factors influencing the extent of violence applied by teachers, this study aimed to investigate the influence of teachers’ stress, work satisfaction, and personal characteristics on their disciplining style. Using structural equation modeling, associations between violent discipline, burnout symptoms, and job perceptions (pressure and difficulties in class) reported by 222 teachers from 11 secondary schools in Tanzania in 2015 were analyzed. Results indicated a direct association between perceived stress and emotional violent discipline (
February 2018
The experience of violence against children in domestic servitude in Haiti: Results from the Violence Against Children Survey, Haiti 2012
Publication date: February 2018
Source:Child Abuse & Neglect, Volume 76 Author(s): Leah Gilbert, Avid Reza, James Mercy, Veronica Lea, Juliette Lee, Likang Xu, Louis Herns Marcelin, Marisa Hast, John Vertefeuille, Jean Wysler Domercant Background There have been estimates that over 150,000 Haitian children are living in servitude. Child domestic servants who perform unpaid labor are referred to as “restav
February 2018
Motivational capacities after prolonged interpersonal childhood trauma in institutional settings in a sample of Austrian adult survivors
Publication date: February 2018
Source:Child Abuse & Neglect, Volume 76 Author(s): Dina Weindl, Matthias Knefel, Tobias M. Gl
February 2018
Bullying and Social Anxiety in Chinese Children: Moderating Roles of Trait Resilience and Psychological Suzhi
Publication date: February 2018
Source:Child Abuse & Neglect, Volume 76 Author(s): Lili Wu, Dajun Zhang, Gang Cheng, Tianqiang Hu Research examining the relationship between bullying victimization and social anxiety has mainly been conducted in Western countries, and little is known about the mechanisms underlying this relationship. This study explores the correlation between bullying victimization and social anxiety in a Chinese context and determines the moderating roles of psychological suzhi (a mental quality characterized by being steady, essential and implicit that affects adaptive, developmental, and creative behavior) and trait resilience among victims of bullying. Data were obtained from a stratified sample of 1903 children in the fourth, fifth, and sixth grades. All participants completed measures of bullying victimization, social anxiety, trait resilience, and psychological suzhi. The results indicated that, after controlling for grade, residential area, and parental marital status, bullying victimization positively predicted children’s social anxiety. In addition, multi-group analysis suggested that the association in girls was stronger relative to that observed in boys. Regarding underlying processes, trait resilience moderated the effect of bullying victimization on social anxiety only in girls. Further assessment of the latent interaction effects indicated that the protective effect of trait resilience was stronger for girls experiencing high, relative to low, levels of bullying victimization, and psychological suzhi buffered against the detrimental effects of bullying on children’s social anxiety. Most notably, unlike the moderating effect of resilience, the buffering effect of psychological suzhi against social anxiety was most prominent when bullying victimization was low. Findings underscore the importance of enhancing trait resilience and psychological suzhi in interventions designed to reduce children’s social anxiety.
February 2018
Barriers to self-compassion for female survivors of childhood maltreatment: The roles of fear of self-compassion and psychological inflexibility
Publication date: February 2018
Source:Child Abuse & Neglect, Volume 76 Author(s): Derrecka M. Boykin, Sara J. Himmerich, Caitlin M. Pinciotti, Lindsay M. Miller, Lynsey R. Miron, Holly K. Orcutt Preliminary evidence has demonstrated the benefits of targeting self-compassion in the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, survivors of childhood maltreatment may present with unique challenges that compromise the effectiveness of these and other PTSD treatments. Specifically, childhood maltreatment victims often exhibit a marked fear and active resistance of self-kindness and warmth (i.e., fear of self-compassion). Victims may also attempt to control distressing internal experiences in a way that hinders engagement in value-based actions (i.e., psychological inflexibility). Research suggests that psychological inflexibility exacerbates the negative effects of fear of self-compassion. The present study expanded on previous research by examining the relations among childhood maltreatment, fear of self-compassion, psychological inflexibility, and PTSD symptom severity in 288 college women. As expected, moderate to severe levels of childhood maltreatment were associated with greater fear of self-compassion, psychological inflexibility, and PTSD symptom severity compared to minimal or no childhood maltreatment. A mediation analysis showed that childhood maltreatment had a significant indirect effect on PTSD symptom severity via fear of self-compassion, although a conditional process analysis did not support psychological inflexibility as a moderator of this indirect effect. A post hoc multiple mediator analysis showed a significant indirect effect of childhood maltreatment on PTSD symptom severity via psychological inflexibility, but not fear of self-compassion. These findings highlight the importance of addressing fear of self-compassion and psychological inflexibility as barriers to treatment for female survivors of childhood maltreatment.
February 2018
Online sexual solicitation by adults and peers – Results from a population based German sample
Publication date: February 2018
Source:Child Abuse & Neglect, Volume 76 Author(s): Halina Sklenarova, Anja Schulz, Petya Schuhmann, Michael Osterheider, Janina Neutze Prevalence of Internet use among adolescents is high, but little is known about the online sexual activities of German adolescents. This study aimed to describe the 12-month prevalence of German adolescents’ online sexual experiences with a focus on Online Sexual Solicitation (OSS, subjectively negative online sexual experiences with a peer or any sexual online experience, positive or negative, with an adult). A sample of male and female adolescents aged 14–17 (N =2238) was recruited using online survey panel. The sample was representative for gender and education. Subjects completed an online survey reporting their online sexual activities (i.e., sexual conversation, exchanging pictures, and cybersex) with peers (14–17y.) and/or adults (
February 2018
The impact of domestic violence exposure on South Asian children in the United States: Perspectives of domestic violence agency staff
Publication date: February 2018
Source:Child Abuse & Neglect, Volume 76 Author(s): Maya I. Ragavan, Tsion Fikre, Uma Millner, Megan Bair-Merritt The South Asian community is the fastest growing ethnic group in the United States, and past research suggests that South Asian domestic violence (DV) survivors may require culturally-specific resources. Similarly, South Asian children in the US exposed to DV may have unique responses and needs, but this has not been explored to date. The objective of this study was to examine the specific needs of South Asian children exposed to DV from the vantage point of staff from South Asian DV agencies across the United States. Thirty interviews were conducted, with data coded and consolidated into larger themes using thematic analysis. Participants described several factors important to understanding the impact of DV on South Asian children including the role of the extended family, identifying with two cultures, fear about what the South Asian community will think, gender differences, and the importance of projecting an image of perfection. Participants also discussed development of culturally-tailored resources. This study suggests the importance of framing South Asian children’s experiences within the context of interweaving South Asian and American cultural values, with careful attention paid to how potential culture clashes between parents and children may impact the way children process trauma. Further work should triangulate these themes with children, parents, and extended family, as well as collaborate with South Asian DV agencies to design child-focused programs.
February 2018
Promoting father involvement in early home visiting services for vulnerable families: Findings from a pilot study of “Dads matter”
Publication date: February 2018
Source:Child Abuse & Neglect, Volume 76 Author(s): Neil B. Guterman, Jennifer L. Bellamy, Aaron Banman Despite mounting evidence on the importance of fathers in children’s development, evidence-based perinatal home visitation programs have largely overlooked fathers in the design and delivery of services. This paper describes the design, development, and pilot testing of the “Dads Matter” enhancement to standard home visiting services. Dads Matter is a manualized intervention package designed to fully incorporate fathers into perinatal home visiting services. Twenty-four families were enrolled in a pilot study to assess the feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary outcomes of the intervention. Using a quasi-experimental time-lagged design, 12 families received standard home visiting services and completed baseline and four-month post-tests. Home visitor staff were then trained and supervised to implement the Dads Matter enhancement in addition to standard services. Twelve additional families were then enrolled and completed baseline and four-month post-tests. Implementation data indicated that Dads Matter was implemented as planned. Cohen’s d scores on outcome measures indicate positive trends associated with Dads Matter in the quality of the mother-father relationship, perceived stress reported by both parents, fathers’ involvement with the child, maltreatment indicators, and fathers’ verbalizations toward the infant. Effect sizes generally ranged from moderate to large in magnitude and were larger than overall effect sizes of home visitation services alone reported in prior meta-analyses. Dads Matter appears to be a feasible, acceptable, and promising approach to improving fathers’ engagement in home visiting services and promoting family and child well-being.
February 2018
Animal cruelty as an indicator of family trauma: Using adverse childhood experiences to look beyond child abuse and domestic violence
Publication date: February 2018
Source:Child Abuse & Neglect, Volume 76 Author(s): Melissa A. Bright, Mona Sayedul Huq, Terry Spencer, Jennifer W. Applebaum, Nancy Hardt Youth who engage in animal cruelty are known to be at increased risk of perpetrating violence on other people in their lives including peers, loved ones, and elder family members. These youths have often been exposed to family violence, including animal cruelty perpetrated on their beloved pets by violent adults. The current study utilizes a data set of 81,000 juvenile offenders whose adverse childhood experiences are known and includes 466 youth who self-report engaging in animal cruelty. Compared to the larger group of juvenile offenders, the children admitting to engaging in animal cruelty are younger at time of first arrest, more likely to be male, and more likely to be White. When looking at their reports of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), they are more likely than other juvenile offenders to have an array of adverse experiences beyond family violence and to have four or more ACEs. Although the youth who are cruel to animals are already troubled, the fact that they present to law enforcement at early ages provides early opportunities for intervention. Service providers outside the law enforcement field, such as teachers, physicians, veterinarians and animal control officers may be able to identify these vulnerable youth, and refer them to needed services before violence is visited on other humans.
February 2018
Examining the role of attachment in the relationship between childhood adversity, psychological distress and subjective well-being
Publication date: February 2018
Source:Child Abuse & Neglect, Volume 76 Author(s): Mark Corcoran, Muireann McNulty Childhood adversity is associated with a wide range of detrimental psychological consequences. This study examined the mediating role of relationship-specific attachment (avoidance and anxiety) in the associations between childhood adversity and both psychological distress and subjective well-being. University students (N =190) across the Republic of Ireland completed self-report measures including the Adverse Childhood Experiences scale, Experiences in Close Relationships
February 2018
Depression, anxiety and PTSD in sexually abused adolescents: Association with self-efficacy, coping and family support
Publication date: February 2018
Source:Child Abuse & Neglect, Volume 76 Author(s): Crist
February 2018
Risk of maltreatment for siblings: Factors associated with similar and different childhood experiences in a dyadic sample of adult siblings
Publication date: February 2018
Source:Child Abuse & Neglect, Volume 76 Author(s): Susanne Witte, J
February 2018
Commercially sexually exploited youths’ health care experiences, barriers, and recommendations: A qualitative analysis
Publication date: February 2018
Source:Child Abuse & Neglect, Volume 76 Author(s): Roya Ijadi-Maghsoodi, Eraka Bath, Mekeila Cook, Lauren Textor, Elizabeth Barnert The current study sought to understand commercially sexually exploited (CSE) youths’ health care experiences, barriers to care, and recommendations for improving health care services. We conducted focus groups (N=5) with 18 CSE youth from February 2015 through May 2016 at two group homes serving CSE youth in Southern California. We performed thematic content analysis to identify emergent themes about CSE youths’ perspectives on health care. Youth described facilitators to care, including availability of services such as screening for sexually transmitted infections, knowledge about sexual health, and a strong motivation to stay healthy. Barriers included feeling judged, concerns about confidentiality, fear, perceived low quality of services, and self-reliance. Overall, youth emphasized self-reliance and “street smarts” for survival and de-emphasized “victimhood,” which shaped their interactions with health care, and recommended that health providers develop increased understanding of CSE youth. Our findings suggest that providers and community agencies can play an essential role in raising awareness of the needs of CSE youth and meet their health needs through creating a non-judgmental environment in health care settings that validates the experiences of these youth.
February 2018
Exposure to school violence at school and mental health of victimized adolescents: The mediation role of social support
Publication date: February 2018
Source:Child Abuse & Neglect, Volume 76 Author(s): Erdinc Duru, Murat Balkis The purpose of the current study is to examine the mediation role of social support in the relationship between exposure to violence at school and mental health among adolescents within the framework of two structured models via structural equation model (SEM). The participants consist of a total of 1420 9th, 10th, and 11th grades high school students (54.5% girls and 45.5% boys). The students’ ages ranged from 14 to 18 years with a mean of 16.11 (SD=0.91) for total sample. 38 percent of the participants are in the 9th grade, 34.1 percent are in the 10th grade, and 28 percent are in the 11th grade. Findings from both models indicated that social support mediated the relationships between exposure to violence and mental health among adolescents. Additionally, both models showed that the associations between exposure to violence, social support and mental health varied by gender. Contributions and implications of the current findings are discussed in detail.
February 2018
Developmental trajectories and longitudinal mediation effects of self-esteem, peer attachment, child maltreatment and depression on early adolescents
Publication date: February 2018
Source:Child Abuse & Neglect, Volume 76 Author(s): Soyoung Ju, Yanghee Lee Objectives The purpose of this study is to identify the developmental trajectories of peer attachment, self-esteem, depression, and child maltreatment, and to understand the longitudinal mediation effects that peer attachment and self-esteem have on the influence of perceived abuse on early adolescent depression. Methods This study uses Year 1 to Year 5 data of the 4th grader panel of the Korea Youth Panel Survey (KYPS) and utilizes a multivariate latent growth model to analyze the main variables in the applicable data between 5th (i.e., Year 2) and 8th (i.e., Year 5) grades. Results The results indicate that from the 5th to the 8th grade, the degree of abuse and depression increases while self-esteem gradually decreases with slowly lowering peer attachment. A significant distribution of the initial values and the rate of change were present for all main variables of the study, confirming individual differences in time wise changes. Further, more exposure to abuse correlated with a decrease in self-esteem, while an increase in self-esteem greatly reduced depression. The initial value of self-esteem showed a partial mediation effect, whereas the rate of change indicated a full mediation effect with a significant longitudinal mediation effect. More experience of abuse during early adolescence indicated a lower degree of peer attachment, and a higher peer attachment was related to decreased depression. A significant partial mediation effect was present for both the initial value and the rate of change of peer attachment, and a longitudinal mediation effect was present. Practice implications This study confirmed that self-esteem in early adolescents is an important protective factor that can greatly reduce the degree of depression, and suggests continuous interventions conducted to increase self-esteem in adolescence. Furthermore, by determining that peer attachment decreases the degree of depression in children at risk, the study emphasizes the healing aspect of adolescent peer attachment.
February 2018
Abusive fracture incidence over three decades at a level 1 pediatric trauma center
Publication date: February 2018
Source:Child Abuse & Neglect, Volume 76 Author(s): Melinda S. Sharkey, Katherine E. Buesser, Julie R. Gaither, Victoria Tate, Daniel R. Cooperman, Rebecca L. Moles, Cicero T. Silva, Lauren J. Ehrlich, John M. Leventhal Few studies have examined the incidence of abusive fractures in children. Only one study to date, from a single pediatric trauma center,has reported on the incidence of abusive fractures over time. That study showed a decrease in abusive fractures over a 24-year period. Our objective for this current study was to compare these published data with recent data from this same trauma center, allowing for a detailed comparison of the incidence of abusive fractures over a 30-year period. We included children <36months of age who presented to the emergency department of a level 1 pediatric trauma center (2007–2010) with
February 2018
Maternal support following childhood sexual abuse: Relationships to child-reported
Publication date: February 2018
Source:Child Abuse & Neglect, Volume 76 Author(s): Rachel Wamser-Nanney Maternal support has been conceptualized as a key factor in predicting children’s functioning following sexual abuse; however, empirical evidence for this assumption is rather limited. Prior studies may have failed to find a relationship between maternal support and children’s outcomes due to the methodological weaknesses of the prior literature such as the use of maternal support measures without adequately reported psychometric properties. Moreover, relatively few studies have investigated whether maternal support corresponds with children’s own self-reported symptoms. The aim of the present study was to utilize the only published measure of maternal support with sufficient psychometrics, the Maternal Self-Report Support Questionnaire (MSSQ; Smith et al., 2010), to determine if levels of pre-treatment support are associated with children’s self-reported trauma-related symptoms among 165 treatment-seeking children (M =10.85, SD =3.09) and their non-offending mothers. Levels of maternal emotional support corresponded with few of children’s outcomes, and when relationships were observed, emotional support was related to higher levels of symptoms. Maternal levels of blame and doubt were only associated with dissociative symptoms. Maternal support therefore appears to be an ineffective predictor of children’s post-disclosure trajectories and raises the possibility that maternal support is linked with poorer functioning.
February 2018
Child protective services utilization of child abuse pediatricians: A mixed methods study
Publication date: February 2018
Source:Child Abuse & Neglect, Volume 76 Author(s): Rebecca Girardet, Kelly Bolton, Syed Hashmi, Emily Sedlock, Rachna Khatri, Nina Lahoti, James Lukefahr Several children’s hospitals and medical schools across Texas have child abuse pediatricians (CAPs) who work closely with child protection workers to help ensure accurate assessments of the likelihood of maltreatment in cases of suspected abuse and neglect. Since the state does not mandate which cases should be referred to a CAP center, we were interested in studying factors that may influence workers’ decisions to consult a CAP. We used a mixed methods study design consisting of a focus group followed by a survey. The focus group identified multiple factors that impact workers’ decision-making, including several that involve medical providers. Responses from 436 completed surveys were compared to employees’ number of years of employment and to the state region in which they worked. Focus group findings and survey responses revealed frustration among many workers when dealing with medical providers, and moderate levels of confidence in workers’ abilities to make accurate determinations in cases involving medical information. Workers were more likely to refer cases involving serious physical injury than other types of cases. Among workers who reported prior interactions with a CAP, experiences and attitudes regarding CAPs were typically positive. The survey also revealed significant variability in referral practices by state region. Our results suggest that standard guidelines regarding CAP referrals may help workers who deal with cases involving medical information. Future research and quality improvement efforts to improve transfers of information and to better understand the qualities that CPS workers appreciate in CAP teams should improve CAP-CPS coordination.
February 2018
Neighborhood crime undermines parenting: Violence in the vicinity of households as a predictor of aggressive discipline
Publication date: February 2018
Source:Child Abuse & Neglect, Volume 76 Author(s): Jorge Cuartas Child discipline is a central component of parent-child interactions. Evidence suggests corporal discipline impairs children’s physical, cognitive, and socioemotional development and compromises their future chances, especially since it is more frequently used against at-risk children. Using geocoded data for 1209 children under the age of five and their mothers, this study analyses the relation between the occurrence of crimes in close proximity to households in four major urban municipalities of Colombia and a particularly violent corporal discipline practice: hitting children with objects. Results indicate that exposure to violent crimes, such as homicides and personal injuries, predicts a higher probability of hitting children with objects, even after controlling for a set of individual, family, and neighborhood characteristics. Sensitivity analyses suggest violent crimes are not related to other discipline methods, and less threatening crimes, such as robbery and drug trafficking, are not associated with hitting children with objects. These findings suggest households’ walls are permeable, and outside threats may interfere with families’ dynamics and well-being. Future directions and implications are discussed.

Determinants of child maltreatment in Nepal: Results from the 2014 Nepal multiple indicator cluster survey (the 2014 NMICS)
Publication date: February 2018
Source:Child Abuse & Neglect, Volume 76 Author(s): Madhu Sudhan Atteraya, Nasser B. Ebrahim, Shreejana Gnawali We examined the prevalence of child maltreatment as measured by the level of physical (moderate to severe) and emotional abuse and child labor, and the associated household level determinants of child maltreatment in Nepal. We used a nationally representative data set from the fifth round of the Nepal Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (the 2014 NMICS). The main independent variables were household level characteristics. Dependent variables included child experience of moderate to severe physical abuse, emotional abuse, and child labor (domestic work and economic activities). Bivariate analyses and logistic regressions were used to examine the associations between independent and dependent variables. The results showed that nearly half of the children (49.8%) had experienced moderate physical abuse, 21.5% experienced severe physical abuse, and 77.3% experienced emotional abuse. About 27% of the children had engaged in domestic work and 46.7% in various economic activities. At bivariate level, educational level of household’s head and household wealth status had shown significant statistical association with child maltreatment (p<0.001). Results from multivariate logistic regressions showed that higher education levels and higher household wealth status protected children from moderate to severe physical abuse, emotional abuse and child labor. In general, child maltreatment is a neglected social issue in Nepal and the high rates of child maltreatment calls for mass awareness programs focusing on parents, and involving all stakeholders including governments, local, and international organizations.
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