Journal Sciences News
Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice
Available online 8 June 2018
Endoplasmic reticulum stress in autoimmune diseases: Can altered protein quality control and/or unfolded protein response contribute to autoimmunity? A critical review on Sj
Available online 7 June 2018
Autosomic dominant familial Beh
Available online 7 June 2018
Symptomatic polyautoimmunity at diagnosis of 1463 childhood-onset lupus: A Brazilian multicenter study
Publication date: Available online 7 June 2018
Source:Autoimmunity Reviews Author(s): Debora N. Setoue, Ana C. Pitta, Fernanda J. Fiorot, Mariana M. Nastri, Glaucia V. Novak, Beatriz C. Molinari, Juliana C. Oliveira, Natali W. Gormezano, Ana P. Sakamoto, Maria T. Terreri, Rosa M. Pereira, Claudia Saad-Magalh
Available online 6 June 2018
Polyautoimmunity - The missing ingredient
Publication date: Available online 7 June 2018
Source:Autoimmunity Reviews Author(s): Gabriel Samasca, Ramesh Ajay, Daniel Sur, Cornel Aldea, Lucia Sur, Emanuela Floca, Genel Sur, Iulia Lupan, Matthias Torsten, Lerner Aaron
Available online 6 June 2018
Polyautoimmunity: Risk factors for a unique clinical entity
Publication date: Available online 6 June 2018
Source:Autoimmunity Reviews Author(s): Oded Shamriz
Available online 6 June 2018
Primary antiphospholipid syndrome and antiphospholipid syndrome associated to systemic lupus: Are they different entities?
Publication date: Available online 6 June 2018
Source:Autoimmunity Reviews Author(s): Cristina Belizna, Ljudmila Stojanovitch, Jan Willem Cohen Tervaert, C
Available online 6 June 2018
Impact of obesity on autoimmune arthritis and its cardiovascular complications
Publication date: Available online 6 June 2018
Source:Autoimmunity Reviews Author(s): Katrien Van Raemdonck, Sadiq Umar, Zolt
Available online 6 June 2018
Immune checkpoint failures in inflammatory myopathies: An overview
Publication date: Available online 6 June 2018
Source:Autoimmunity Reviews Author(s): Sandrine Herbelet, Jan L. De Bleecker Dermatomyositis (DM), polymyositis (PM), inclusion bosy myositis (IBM), immune mediated necrotizing myopathy (IMNM) and overlap myositis (OM) are classified as inflammatory myopathies (IM) with involvement of autoimmune features such as autoreactive lymphocytes and autoantibodies. Autoimmunity can be defined as a loss in self-tolerance and attack of autoantigens by the immune system. Self-tolerance is achieved by a group of immune mechanisms occurring in central and periphal lymphoid organs and tissues, called immune checkpoints, that work in synergy to protect the body from harmful immune reactions. Autoimmune disorders appear when immune checkpoints fail. In this review, the different immune checkpoint failures are discussed in DM, PM, IBM and IMNM. Exploring research contribution in each of these immune checkpoints might help to highlight research perspectives in the field and obtain a more complete picture of IM disease pathology.
Available online 6 June 2018
The 2018 pipeline of targeted therapies under clinical development for Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: a systematic review of trials
Publication date: Available online 6 June 2018
Source:Autoimmunity Reviews Author(s): Renaud Felten, Elida Dervovic, Fran
Available online 6 June 2018
Intravenous Immunoglobulins as a new opportunity to treat discoid lupus erythematosus
Publication date: Available online 6 June 2018
Source:Autoimmunity Reviews Author(s): Sara Tenti, Marta Fabbroni, Virginia Mancini, Filomena Russo, Mauro Galeazzi, Antonella Fioravanti Discoid lupus erythematosus (DLE) is a chronic dermatological disease that can lead to scarring, alopecia and dyspigmentation, if not properly treated. Actually, no drugs are specifically approved for the treatment of CLE, although the first-line therapy usually consists of photoprotection associated to topical or oral steroids, topical calcineurin inhibitors and hydroxychloroquine (HCQ). In cases of DLE refractory to these medications, many other agents have been employed, such as dapsone, methotrexate, azathioprine, cyclophosphamide, biologic drugs and Intravenous Immunoglobulin (IVIG). We described the case of a DLE patient resistant to combination therapy with steroid and HCQ who was successfully treated with cyclical IVIG therapy. The treatment with IVIG resulted rapidly effective with persistent efficacy and low rates of relapses, although more cycles of IVIG are needed to achieve a stable clinical remission. We also discussed the beneficial and promising effects of IVIG in patients with Cutaneous Lupus reporting the previously published data.
Available online 6 June 2018
The use of interleukin 1 receptor antagonist (anakinra) in Kawasaki disease: A retrospective cases series
Publication date: Available online 6 June 2018
Source:Autoimmunity Reviews Author(s): Isabelle Kone-Paut, Rolando Cimaz, Jethro Herberg, Oliver Bates, Aurelia Carbasse, Jean Pierre Saulnier, Maria Cristina Maggio, Jordi Anton, Maryam Piram Objectives To identify the clinical characteristics, reasons for use and response to treatment with anakinra in a series of patients with Kawasaki Disease (KD). Study design A retrospective chart review of patients treated with anakinra for KD diagnosed according to the AHA criteria. We compared clinical, biological and echocardiographic characteristics of KD before and after anakinra use. We analysed reasons for use of anakinra, and compared treatment regimens used in 7 European KD referral centres. Results Eight boys and 3 girls with treatment-refractory KD, aged 4
Available online 6 June 2018
Antiphospholipid antibodies in epilepsy: A systematic review and meta-analysis
Publication date: Available online 6 June 2018
Source:Autoimmunity Reviews Author(s): Md. Asiful Islam, Fahmida Alam, Cinzia Cavestro, Cornelia Calcii, Teguh Haryo Sasongko, Roger A. Levy, Siew Hua Gan Background Autoimmunity is believed to play an important causative role in the pathogenesis of epilepsy. There are evidences for the presence of autoantibodies in patients with epilepsy. To date, many studies have assessed the presence of antiphospholipid antibodies (aPLs) in epilepsy patients, though the relationship has been inconclusive. Aims The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to evaluate the presence of aPLs in epileptic patients as compared to healthy controls. Methods Five electronic databases (PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, Scopus and Google Scholar) were searched systematically. Study-specific odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using random-effects model. Quality assessment was carried out by using the modified 9-star Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS). L'Abb
Available online 6 June 2018
Predictors of morbidity and mortality in early systemic sclerosis: Long-term follow-up data from a single-centre inception cohort
Publication date: Available online 6 June 2018
Source:Autoimmunity Reviews Author(s): Stylianos Panopoulos, Vasiliki-Kalliopi Bournia, George Konstantonis, Kalliopi Fragiadaki, Petros P. Sfikakis, Maria G. Tektonidou Objectives To determine predictors of morbidity and mortality in systemic sclerosis (SSc) in a long-term follow-up of an inception cohort of early SSc patients. Methods We evaluated clinical manifestations, laboratory and lung function tests at disease onset as predictors of morbidity and mortality in 3rd, 6th and 9th year in SSc patients recruited within 12
June 2018
Is laser speckle contrast analysis (LASCA) the new kid on the block in systemic sclerosis? A systematic literature review and pilot study to evaluate reliability of LASCA to measure peripheral blood perfusion in scleroderma patients
Publication date: Available online 6 June 2018
Source:Autoimmunity Reviews Author(s): Maurizio Cutolo, Amber Vanhaecke, Barbara Ruaro, Ellen Deschepper, Claudia Ickinger, Karin Melsens, Yves Piette, Amelia Chiara Trombetta, Filip De Keyser, Vanessa Smith Objectives A reliable tool to evaluate flow is paramount in systemic sclerosis (SSc). We describe herein on the one hand a systematic literature review on the reliability of laser speckle contrast analysis (LASCA) to measure the peripheral blood perfusion (PBP) in SSc and perform an additional pilot study, investigating the intra- and inter-rater reliability of LASCA. Methods A systematic search was performed in 3 electronic databases, according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. In the pilot study, 30 SSc patients and 30 healthy subjects (HS) underwent LASCA assessment. Intra-rater reliability was assessed by having a first anchor rater performing the measurements at 2 time-points and inter-rater reliability by having the anchor rater and a team of second raters performing the measurements in 15 SSc and 30 HS. The measurements were repeated with a second anchor rater in the other 15 SSc patients, as external validation. Results Only 1 of the 14 records of interest identified through the systematic search was included in the final analysis. In the additional pilot study: intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) for intra-rater reliability of the first anchor rater was 0.95 in SSc and 0.93 in HS, the ICC for inter-rater reliability was 0.97 in SSc and 0.93 in HS. Intra- and inter-rater reliability of the second anchor rater was 0.78 and 0.87. Conclusions The identified literature regarding the reliability of LASCA measurements reports good to excellent inter-rater agreement. This very pilot study could confirm the reliability of LASCA measurements with good to excellent inter-rater agreement and found additionally good to excellent intra-rater reliability. Furthermore, similar results were found in the external validation.
June 2018
Editorial Board
Publication date: June 2018
Source:Autoimmunity Reviews, Volume 17, Issue 6

June 2018
Solid phase assays versus automated indirect immunofluorescence for detection of antinuclear antibodies
Publication date: June 2018
Source:Autoimmunity Reviews, Volume 17, Issue 6 Author(s): Jolien Claessens, Thibaut Belmondo, Ellen De Langhe, Rene Westhovens, Koen Poesen, Sophie H
June 2018
The association of solid-phase assays to immunofluorescence increases the diagnostic accuracy for ANA screening in patients with autoimmune rheumatic diseases
Publication date: June 2018
Source:Autoimmunity Reviews, Volume 17, Issue 6 Author(s): Nicola Bizzaro, Ignazio Brusca, Giulia Previtali, Maria Grazia Alessio, Massimo Daves, Stefan Platzgummer, Luigi Cinquanta, Giusy Paura, Maria Infantino, Mariangela Manfredi, Raffaella Faricelli, Danila Bassetti, Maura Musso, Gaia Deleonardi, Maria Teresa Trevisan, Antonella Radice, Marco Liguori, Tiziana Imbastaro, Fiorenza Pesente, Martina Fabris, Elio Tonutti
June 2018
Antinuclear antibodies: Is the indirect immunofluorescence still the gold standard or should be replaced by solid phase assays?
Publication date: June 2018
Source:Autoimmunity Reviews, Volume 17, Issue 6 Author(s): Dolores P
June 2018
Genetic variation and systemic lupus erythematosus: A field synopsis and systematic meta-analysis
Publication date: June 2018
Source:Autoimmunity Reviews, Volume 17, Issue 6 Author(s): Dong Yeon Jeong, Sang Woo Lee, Young Ha Park, Ji Hoon Choi, Young Wook Kwon, Gabin Moon, Michael Eisenhut, Andreas Kronbichler, Jae Il Shin Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a multi-systemic severe autoimmune disease which results from the irreversible loss of self-tolerance and impaired molecular responses, especially an altered interferon signature. We synthesized all meta-analyses reporting a genetic association of SLE, and further investigated their validity to discover false positive results under Bayesian methods. We executed a PubMed search to extract the respective results regarding gene polymorphisms of SLE, published until June 30th 2017 and selected a single result per genetic variant among duplicates. Among 133 significant genotype comparisons, 45 (34%) were found noteworthy under both false positive report probability (FPRP) and Bayesian false discovery probability (BFDP). From the meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies (GWAS), we could confirm that all significant comparisons were noteworthy under both Bayesian approaches. Both approaches may be advantageous for determining whether the reported associations are genuine, especially for interpreting results from observational studies instead of GWAS whose significance was determined in a more strict manner. When determining results from GWAS with a p-value ranging between 0.05 and 5
June 2018
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June 2018
From HSV infection to erythema multiforme through autoimmune crossreactivity
Publication date: June 2018
Source:Autoimmunity Reviews, Volume 17, Issue 6 Author(s): Alberta Lucchese Scientific and clinical data indicate that human herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV1) and, at a lesser extent, human herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV2) are factor(s) implicated in the development of erythema multiforme (EM). With a focus on oral EM, the present structured review of proteomic and epitope databases searched for the molecular basis that might link HSV1 and HSV2 infections to EM. It was found that a high number of peptides are shared between the two HSVs and human proteins related to the oral mucosa. Moreover, a great number of the shared peptides are also present in epitopes that have been experimentally validated as immunopositive in the human host. The results suggest the involvement of HSV infections in the induction of oral EM via a mechanism of autoimmune cross-reactivity and, in particular, highlight a potential major role for 180kDa bullous pemphigoid antigen and HSV1 infection in the genesis of crossreactions potentially conducive to EM.
June 2018
Efficacy and safety of rituximab in systemic sclerosis: French retrospective study and literature review
Publication date: June 2018
Source:Autoimmunity Reviews, Volume 17, Issue 6 Author(s): Mathilde Thiebaut, David Launay, S
June 2018
Analysis of microRNA expression in the thymus of Myasthenia Gravis patients opens new research avenues
Publication date: June 2018
Source:Autoimmunity Reviews, Volume 17, Issue 6 Author(s): M
June 2018
Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Evidence for an autoimmune disease
Publication date: June 2018
Source:Autoimmunity Reviews, Volume 17, Issue 6 Author(s): Franziska Sotzny, Juli
June 2018
Autoimmune phenomena and disease in cancer patients treated with immune checkpoint inhibitors
Publication date: June 2018
Source:Autoimmunity Reviews, Volume 17, Issue 6 Author(s): Milena Tocut, Ronen Brenner, Gisele Zandman-Goddard The discovery and approved treatment with immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) for a variety of cancers has changed dramatically the morbidity and mortality rates for these patients. Despite the obvious benefits, their use is associated with unique immune-related adverse effects (irAEs), including autoimmune conditions such as: inflammatory arthritis, myositis, vasculitis and Sicca syndrome. The appearance of ICIs-induced autoimmune irAE requires from oncologists and rheumatologists a different approach to the identification and treatment of these conditions, which may differ from the classic and traditional approach to rheumatologic diseases. It should be taken into consideration that ICIs therapy in patients with preexisting autoimmunity could be possible, but with a cost of causing disease exacerbation. In this extensive review, we present the autoimmune irAEs, mostly as phenomena, but also as classic autoimmune diseases as well as therapeutic options for the side effects.
June 2018
The role of ophthalmic imaging in central nervous system degeneration in systemic lupus erythematosus
Publication date: June 2018
Source:Autoimmunity Reviews, Volume 17, Issue 6 Author(s): Arnaldo Dias-Santos, Rita Pinto Proen
June 2018
Systemic lupus erythematosus and systemic sclerosis: All roads lead to platelets
Publication date: June 2018
Source:Autoimmunity Reviews, Volume 17, Issue 6 Author(s): Marc Scherlinger, Vivien Guillotin, Marie-Elise Truchetet, C
Available online 3 May 2018
Should rheumatoid factor (RF) (and antinuclear antibodies (ANA)) become routinary screening test for morbidities in the general population?
Publication date: June 2018
Source:Autoimmunity Reviews, Volume 17, Issue 6 Author(s): Gianfranco Ferraccioli, Stefano Alivernini, Barbara Tolusso, Elisa Gremese
Available online 3 May 2018
NLRP3: A promising therapeutic target for autoimmune diseases
Publication date: Available online 3 May 2018
Source:Autoimmunity Reviews Author(s): Hui-Hui Shen, Yue-Xin Yang, Xiang Meng, Xiao-Yun Luo, Xiao-Mei Li, Zong-Wen Shuai, Dong-Qing Ye, Hai-Feng Pan NLRP3, a member of nucleotide-binding domain-(NOD) like receptor family, can be found in large varieties of immune and non-immune cells. Upon activation, the NLRP3, apoptosis-associated speck-like protein (ASC) and pro-caspase-1 would assemble into a multimeric protein, called the NLRP3 inflammasome. Then the inflammasome promotes inflammation (through specific cleavage and production of bioactive IL-1
Available online 3 May 2018
Positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging of macrophages in large vessel vasculitis: Current status and future prospects
Publication date: Available online 3 May 2018
Source:Autoimmunity Reviews Author(s): William Febry Jiemy, Peter Heeringa, Jan A.A.M. Kamps, Conny J. van der Laken, Riemer H.J.A. Slart, Elisabeth Brouwer Macrophages are key players in the pathogenesis of large-vessel vasculitis (LVV) and may serve as a target for diagnostic imaging of LVV. The radiotracer, 18F-FDG has proven to be useful in the diagnosis of giant cell arteritis (GCA), a form of LVV. Although uptake of 18F-FDG is high in activated macrophages, it is not a specific radiotracer as its uptake is high in any proliferating cell and other activated immune cells resulting in high non-specific background radioactivity especially in aging and atherosclerotic vessels which dramatically lowers the diagnostic accuracy. Evidence also exists that the sensitivity of 18F-FDG PET drops in patients upon glucocorticoid treatment. Therefore, there is a clinical need for more specific radiotracers in imaging GCA to improve diagnostic accuracy. Numerous clinically established and newly developed macrophage targeted radiotracers for oncological and inflammatory diseases can potentially be utilized for LVV imaging. These tracers are more target specific and therefore may provide lower background radioactivity, higher diagnostic accuracy and the ability to assess treatment effectiveness. However, current knowledge regarding macrophage subsets in LVV lesions is limited. Further understanding regarding macrophage subsets in vasculitis lesion is needed for better selection of tracers and new targets for tracer development. This review summarizes the development of macrophage targeted tracers in the last decade and the potential application of macrophage targeted tracers currently used in other inflammatory diseases in imaging LVV.
Available online 3 May 2018
Disease course and long-term outcome of juvenile localized scleroderma: Experience from a single pediatric rheumatology Centre and literature review
Publication date: Available online 3 May 2018
Source:Autoimmunity Reviews Author(s): Giorgia Martini, Gloria Fadanelli, Anna Agazzi, Fabio Vittadello, Alessandra Meneghel, Francesco Zulian Juvenile Localized Scleroderma (JLS) is a rare disorder that may cause severe aesthetic sequelae and functional disability. To date, data on natural history and long-term outcome are discordant and difficult to compare due to the heterogeneity of clinical subtypes, treatments and methods to evaluate activity and outcome in previous studies. A retrospective and cross-sectional study including 133 patients followed between January 1991 and December 2016 was conducted at our Pediatric Rheumatology Centre. Disease course was drawn by retrospective analysis of patients' clinical features, treatment, disease course and outcome at the last evaluation. Disease activity and severity of tissue damage were assessed by using parameters derived from the Localized Scleroderma Cutaneous Assessment Tool (LoSCAT) and thermography. Most patients achieved complete remission, as only 12.5%, all with the linear subtype, had still active disease after over 10
Available online 3 May 2018
Inflammation and atherosclerosis: Cardiovascular evaluation in patients with autoimmune diseases
Publication date: Available online 3 May 2018
Source:Autoimmunity Reviews Author(s): Ricardo O. Esc
Available online 3 May 2018
Mortality in systemic necrotizing vasculitides: A retrospective analysis of the French Vasculitis Study Group registry
Publication date: Available online 3 May 2018
Source:Autoimmunity Reviews Author(s): Sabine Jardel, Xavier Pu
Available online 3 May 2018
The SLAM family receptors: Potential therapeutic targets for inflammatory and autoimmune diseases
Publication date: Available online 3 May 2018
Source:Autoimmunity Reviews Author(s): Matthew A. Dragovich, Adam Mor The signaling lymphocytic activation molecule (SLAM) family is comprised of nine distinct receptors (SLAMF1 through SLAMF9) that are expressed on hematopoietic cells. All of these receptors, with the exception of SLAMF4, are homotypic by nature as downstream signaling occurs when hematopoietic cells that express the same SLAM receptor interact. The SLAM family receptor function is largely controlled via SLAM associated protein (SAP) family adaptors. The SAP family adaptors consist of SAP, Ewing sarcoma associated transcript (EAT)-2, and EAT-2-related transducer (ERT). These adaptors associate with the cytoplasmic domain of the SLAM family receptors through phosphorylated tyrosines. Defects in SLAM family members and SAP adaptors have been implicated in causing immune deficiencies. This is exemplified in patients with X-linked lymphoproliferative (XLP) disease, where SAP undergoes a loss of function mutation. Furthermore, evidence has been accumulating that SLAM family members are potential targets for inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. This review will discuss the structure and function of the SLAM family receptors and SAP family adaptors, their role in immune regulation, and potential approaches to target this family of receptors therapeutically.
Available online 3 May 2018
Emerging role of IL-35 in inflammatory autoimmune diseases
Publication date: Available online 3 May 2018
Source:Autoimmunity Reviews Author(s): Lin-Chong Su, Xiao-Yan Liu, An-Fang Huang, Wang-Dong Xu Interleukin 35 (IL-35) is the recently identified member of the IL-12 family of cytokines and provides the possibility to be a target for new therapies for autoimmune, inflammatory diseases. It is composed of an
Available online 3 May 2018
Cytokine markers of B lymphocytes in minor salivary gland infiltrates in Sj
Available online 2 May 2018
Hearing loss in autoimmune disorders: Prevalence and therapeutic options
Publication date: Available online 3 May 2018
Source:Autoimmunity Reviews Author(s): Patrizia Mancini, Francesca Atturo, Alessia Di Mario, Ginevra Portanova, Massimo Ralli, Armando De Virgilio, Marco de Vincentiis, Antonio Greco The objective of this study was to review our current knowledge relative to the correlation between sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) and autoimmune diseases, focusing on the prevalence of hearing loss in different pathologies and possible therapeutic approaches. A review of the literature on hearing loss in different forms of autoimmune disease has been carried out, with emphasis on incidence and prevalence of SNHL. Therapeutic protocols have been assessed including both conservative medical and rehabilitative methods. Cochlear implant outcomes have been investigated. The prevalence of hearing loss in autoimmune and immune-mediated inner ear diseases, as referred by case reports or single-center statistics, is widely variable. More difficult is the evaluation of severe/profound SNHL, usually reported in relation to cochlear implantation. Though these patients represent ideal candidates for cochlear implantation, as they become deaf after years of hearing; the associated systemic disease, the specific damage on inner ear structures and the medication taken may influence the result of cochlear implantation. The main problem is the cochlear fibrosis or ossification that has been found to affect 50% of implanted ears in patients suffering from autoimmune and immune-mediated SNHL. Hence, in the presence of severe/profound SNHL earlier implantation may be indicated before post-inflammatory obliterative changes to the cochlea.
Available online 2 May 2018
Animal studies are mandatory to investigate the poorly understood fate and effects of aluminum adjuvants administered to billions of humans and animals worldwide
Publication date: Available online 2 May 2018
Source:Autoimmunity Reviews Author(s): Romain K. Gherardi, Guillemette Cr
Available online 2 May 2018
Quality of life and neuropsychiatric disorders in patients with Graves' Orbitopathy: Current concepts
Publication date: Available online 2 May 2018
Source:Autoimmunity Reviews Author(s): Alice Bruscolini, Marta Sacchetti, Maurizio La Cava, Marcella Nebbioso, Angela Iannitelli, Adele Quartini, Alessandro Lambiase, Massimo Ralli, Armando de Virgilio, Antonio Greco Graves' disease (GD) is an autoimmune chronic thyroiditis frequently associated with development of Graves' orbitopathy (GO) characterized by proptosis, strabismus, impairment of visual function, ocular surface inflammation and dry eye. As consequence, patients with GO experience impairment of quality of life and social function and could develop a neurobehavioral syndrome, ranging from anxious to depressive or psychotic disorders. To date, the pathogenic mechanism underlying neuropsychiatric disorders in patients with GD has not been clearly understood. In fact, the development of neuropsychiatric disorders in patients with GO has been associated with both the detrimental effects of the altered circulating thyroid hormones on the nervous system, and with the psychological discomfort caused by poor quality of life, reduced social interactions and relapsing course of the disease. This paper summarizes current evidence on neuropsychiatric abnormalities in Graves' disease focusing on its impact on QoL and psychosocial function. We remark the importance of a multidisciplinary approach and we emphasize the potential benefit of neuropsychiatric approach on disease perception, patient compliance to medical and/or surgical treatment and clinical outcomes.
Available online 2 May 2018
Non-glucocorticoid drugs for the treatment of Takayasu's arteritis: A systematic review and meta-analysis
Publication date: Available online 2 May 2018
Source:Autoimmunity Reviews Author(s): Lillian Barra, Grace Yang, Christian Pagnoux Background Takayasu's Arteritis (TAK) affects mostly young women and causes significant morbidity. Most patients are refractory to glucocorticoids (GC) or relapse when GC doses are reduced. The objective of this study is to summarize the literature pertaining to the effectiveness of non-GC drugs for the treatment of TAK. Methods MEDLINE and Embase were searched for English-language studies of TAK patients with a sample size >5. Studies were included if the effectiveness of non-GC drugs for the treatment of TAK was reported. Random effects meta-analyses of various effect measures were performed. Results Of the 915 studies identified by the search, 14 of small molecule immunosuppressants (IS) and 25 of biologic therapies were included. Studies had a high risk of bias. Pooled remission rates were similar for both categories of non-GC drugs: 58% (95% CI: 4074%) and 64% (95% CI: 5672%), respectively. The relapse rate was 54% (95% CI: 3968%) for IS therapies and 31% (95% CI: 2241%) for biologics. Both significantly decreased GC doses and acute phase reactants. Observational studies suggested that anti-TNF agents were more effective than IS at maintaining remission. Randomized-controlled trials (RCTs) of biologics were of small sample size: abatacept was not effective and the trial of tocilizumab was underpowered to detect a difference in time to relapse versus placebo. Serious adverse events were uncommon. Conclusions Non-GC agents were moderately effective in inducing remission in TAK, but relapse rates were high. Larger, better designed studies are required to determine the optimal treatment regimen for TAK.
May 2018
New use for an old treatment: Hydroxychloroquine as a potential treatment for systemic vasculitis
Publication date: Available online 2 May 2018
Source:Autoimmunity Reviews Author(s): Alina Casian, Shirish R. Sangle, David P. D'Cruz Antimalarials have been an effective and safe treatment for autoimmune rheumatic diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus for more than a hundred years. There are surprisingly few reports of hydroxychloroquine use in the systemic vasculitides. Hydroxychloroquine has antithrombotic, cardiovascular, antimicrobial and antineoplastic effects, making it a potentially valuable treatment for patients with systemic vasculitis who are at risk of infections, malignancy and thrombotic events. We report the successful use of hydroxychloroquine in patients with ANCA vasculitis, Henoch Schonlein purpura/IgA vasculitis, Takayasu's arteritis and polyarteritis nodosa. We review the immunomodulatory mechanisms of action of hydroxychloroquine and the existing evidence for its use in the treatment of vasculitis, with a particular focus on ANCA subtypes.
May 2018
Editorial Board
Publication date: May 2018
Source:Autoimmunity Reviews, Volume 17, Issue 5

May 2018
Perspective: Scientific and ethical concerns pertaining to animal models of autoimmune/autoinflammatory syndrome induced by adjuvants (ASIA)
Publication date: May 2018
Source:Autoimmunity Reviews, Volume 17, Issue 5 Author(s): Rohan Ameratunga, Daman Langguth, David Hawkes The autoimmune/autoinflammatory syndrome induced by adjuvants (ASIA) was first described in 2011. The aluminium containing adjuvants of vaccines were stated to be one of the main causes of the condition. Other disorders associated with ASIA include siliconosis, Gulf war syndrome, sick building syndrome and the macrophagic myositis syndrome. We have recently reviewed ASIA as defined by its authors. We have shown that the definition of ASIA is imprecise and includes all patients with an autoimmune disorder as well as potentially the entire population. Application of the Bradford Hill criteria for causality does not support ASIA as an outcome of exposure to aluminium containing adjuvants in vaccines. The advocates of ASIA highlight animal models as evidence for the existence of the disorder. However, as this review will demonstrate, animal models purporting to support the existence of ASIA have methodological, analytical and ethical flaws which, in our view, refute the existence of the condition. Three publications by the advocates of ASIA were recently retracted from peer-reviewed journals. We call for an immediate moratorium on animal experiments of ASIA until an independent inquiry has been conducted to determine the existence of a clinically relevant syndrome, identifiable as ASIA in humans.
May 2018
The value of Autoimmune Syndrome Induced by Adjuvant (ASIA) - Shedding light on orphan diseases in autoimmunity
Publication date: May 2018
Source:Autoimmunity Reviews, Volume 17, Issue 5 Author(s): Yahel Segal, Shani Dahan, Kassem Sharif, Nicola Luigi Bragazzi, Abdulla Watad, Howard Amital Autoimmune Syndrome Induced by Adjuvant (ASIA) is a definition aimed to describe the common etiological process at the root of five clinical entities sharing similar symptomatology: macrophagic myofasciitis syndrome (MMF), Gulf War Syndrome (GWS), sick building syndrome (SBS), siliconosis, and post vaccination autoimmune phenomena. ASIA illustrates the role of environmental immune stimulating agents, or adjuvants, in the instigation of complex autoimmune reactions among individuals bearing a genetic preponderance for autoimmunity. The value of ASIA lies first in the acknowledgment it provides for patients suffering from these as yet ill-defined medical conditions. Equally important is the spotlight it sheds for further research of these poorly understood conditions sharing a common pathogenesis. In this article we elaborate on the significance of ASIA, review the current evidence in support of the syndrome, and address recent reservations raised regarding its validity.
May 2018
Association between allelic variants of the human glucocorticoid receptor gene and autoimmune diseases: A systematic review and meta-analysis
Publication date: May 2018
Source:Autoimmunity Reviews, Volume 17, Issue 5 Author(s): Cristian Herrera, Miguel Marcos, Cristina Carbonell, Jos
May 2018
Cryoglobulins: An update on detection, mechanisms and clinical contribution
Publication date: May 2018
Source:Autoimmunity Reviews, Volume 17, Issue 5 Author(s): Marie-Nathalie Kolopp-Sarda, Pierre Miossec Cryoglobulins are immunoglobulins precipitating in cold condition. They are classified in 3 types according to the Brouet classification and may lead to vasculitis of small and medium size vessels. Vasculitis is related to vessel obstruction by monoclonal cryoglobulin aggregates in type I cryoglobulins and immune complex deposition in type II and III mixed cryoglobulins. This phenomenon is favored by low temperature, especially in skin, joints, and peripheral nerves, or increased cryoglobulin concentration in kidneys. For their detection, collection and clotting at 37C are critical pre-analytical conditions. Cryoglobulin characterization and quantification are important to identify the underlying disease. Since detection and identification of cryoglobulins lack standardization, a protocol for such detection, characterization and quantification is proposed.
May 2018
The role of capillaroscopy and thermography in the assessment and management of Raynaud's phenomenon
Publication date: May 2018
Source:Autoimmunity Reviews, Volume 17, Issue 5 Author(s): Ariane L. Herrick, Andrea Murray Most patients with Raynaud's phenomenon (RP) have benign primary RP (PRP), but a minority have an underlying cause, for example a connective tissue disease such as systemic sclerosis (SSc). Secondary RP can be associated with structural as well as functional digital vascular changes and can be very severe, potentially progressing to digital ulceration or gangrene. The first step in management is to establish why the patient has RP. This short review discusses the role of nailfold capillaroscopy and thermography in the assessment of RP. Nailfold capillaroscopy examines microvascular structure, which is normal in PRP but abnormal in most patients with SSc: the inclusion of abnormal nailfold capillaries into the 2013 classification criteria for SSc behoves clinicians diagnosing connective tissue disease to be familiar with the technique. For those without access to the gold standard of high magnification videocapillaroscopy, a low magnification dermatoscope or USB microscope can be used. Thermography measures surface temperature and is therefore an indirect measure of blood blow, assessing digital vascular function (abnormal in both PRP and SSc). Until now, the use of thermography has been mainly confined to specialist centres and used mainly in research: this may change with development of mobile phone thermography.
May 2018
A methodological review of induced animal models of autoimmune diseases
Publication date: May 2018
Source:Autoimmunity Reviews, Volume 17, Issue 5 Author(s): Xinhua Yu, Frank Petersen Autoimmune disorders are characterized by a loss of immune tolerance and consequent autoimmunity-mediated disease manifestation. Experimental models are invaluable research tools helping us to understand disease pathogenesis and to search for novel therapeutics. Animal models of autoimmune diseases consist of two groups, spontaneous and induced models. In this review article, we focus on the induced models of autoimmune diseases. Due to the complex nature of autoimmune disorders, many strategies have been applied for the induction of corresponding experimental models in animals like monkeys, rabbits, rats, and mice. Methodologically, these strategies can be categorized into three categories, namely immunization with autoantigen, transfer of autoimmunity, and induction by environmental factors. In this review article, we aim to provide a comprehensive overview of the field of induced experimental autoimmune diseases. On the one hand, we describe and summarize the different strategies used for induction of experimental autoimmune disease. On the other hand, we discuss how to select a strategy for modeling human disease, including the choice of an appropriate species and method for such an approach.
May 2018
Optimizing conventional DMARD therapy for Sj

Clinical and experimental evidence for targeting CD6 in immune-based disorders
Publication date: May 2018
Source:Autoimmunity Reviews, Volume 17, Issue 5 Author(s): Marta Consuegra-Fern
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