Journal Sciences News
Urologic Clinics of North America
December 2011
Fine Mapping and Cloning of the Grain Number Per-Panicle Gene (Gnp4) on Chromosome 4 in Rice (Oryza sativa L.)
Publication date: December 2011
Source:Agricultural Sciences in China, Volume 10, Issue 12 Author(s): Zhan-ying ZHANG, Jin-jie LI, Guo-xin YAO, Hong-liang ZHANG, Hui-jing DOU, Hong-li SHI, Xing-ming SUN, Zi-chao LI Abstract Grain number per-panicle is one of the most important components for rice yield. Spikelets on the primary and secondary branches determine the grain number per-panicle in rice. In this study, we identified a natural mutant, gnp4, lack of lateral spikelet on the secondary branches in the field condition. In addition, the Gnp4 and Lax1-1 double mutant showed dramatically reduced secondary branches and spikelets in panicle at reproductive stage, and tillers at vegetative stage. By map-based cloning approach, and using four F2 segregating populations, the Gnp4 gene was finally mapped to a 10.7-kb region on the long arm of chromosome 4 in rice. In this region, only one gene was predicted, and genomic DNA sequencing of the 10.7-kb region showed no nucleotide differences between the mutant and wild type. Interestingly, we found that the methylation level of several cytosines in the promoter CpG islands region of the predicted gene in gnp4 were different from the wild type. Thus, we propose that the DNA methylation changes at these sites may induce to decrease expression level of Gnp4, consequently, resulting in phenotypic variation.
December 2011
Cloning and Characterization of a Novel Gene GmMF1 in Soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.)
Publication date: December 2011
Source:Agricultural Sciences in China, Volume 10, Issue 12 Author(s): Wei JIANG, Shou-ping YANG, De-yue YU, Jun-yi GAI Abstract Cytoplasmic male sterility plays an important role in utilization of crop heterosis. Screening of soybean for novel genes related to male sterility in soybean could provide a basis for studying the molecular mechanism of male sterility in plants. In this study, gene differential expressions between the cytoplasmic male-sterile line NJCMS1A and its maintainer line NJCMS1B in soybean were analyzed using cDNA-AFLP. A differentially expressed fragment, GmMF-T4A15, was isolated from large flower buds of NJCMS1B. By searching the soybean genomic library and PCR amplification, the cDNA full-length sequence of 1 311 bp was obtained and named GmMF1. The expression characteristics of GmMF1 were studied by semiquantitative real-time PCR and real-time quantitative PCR. The results showed that GmMF1 was expressed highly in flower buds of NJCMS1B. The deduced protein contains 436 amino acids and shows high similarity to members of the DUF620 protein family with unknown functions in other plant species. It is predicted that the protein encoded by GmMF1 is localized in the nucleus.
December 2011
Optimization of Two-Dimensional Gel Electrophoresis for Kenaf Leaf Proteins
Publication date: December 2011
Source:Agricultural Sciences in China, Volume 10, Issue 12 Author(s): Tao CHEN, Jian-min QI, Jian-tang XU, Pin-pin CHEN, Ai-fen TAO, Fu-cheng CHEN, Wei CHEN Abstract To establish a suitable and effective protocol of protein extraction for two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) analysis in kenaf leaf tissues, three extraction methods (trichloroacetic acid/acetone, urea/thiourea, and phenol extraction methods) were applied to the extraction of kenaf leaf protein. The results were compared in regard to protein extraction efficiency, sodiumdodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), and 2-DE gels. Furthermore, the 2-DE system was optimized for four aspects: the pH range of IPG (immobilized pH gradient) stripes, sampling methods, sample volumes, and concentration of polyacrylamide gels. The data presented showed that the phenol extraction method is the best method to perform 2-DE analysis of kenaf leaf protein. The protein extracted from phenol extraction method reached the purity of (26.400.859)%, showed (25.671.53) protein bands in one dimension SDS-PAGE gels, and (1 37454.44) protein spots on 2-DE gels. The research also indicates that kenaf leaf protein spots were distributed mainly within the pH range of 4-8. More clear background with a better distribution effect and many protein spots could be obtained on 2-DE gels under the conditions of active rehydration loading, 24 cm IPG strips (linear pH gradient of 4-7), 1.4 mg samples, and 12% SDS-PAGE gels.
December 2011
Cloning of a Calcium-Dependent Protein Kinase Gene NtCDPK12, and Its Induced Expression by High-Salt and Drought in Nicotiana tabacum
Publication date: December 2011
Source:Agricultural Sciences in China, Volume 10, Issue 12 Author(s): Shuai CHEN, Guan-shan LIU, Yuan-ying WANG, Yu-he SUN, Jia CHEN Abstract Calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs, EC 2.7.1.37) comprise a large family of Ser/Thr kinases in plants and play an important role in plant Ca2+ signal transduction. A full-length CDPK gene, NtCDPK12 (GenBank accession number GQ337420), was isolated from common tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) leaves by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). The NtCDPK12 cDNA is 1 816 bp length and contains an open reading frame (ORF) of 1 461 bp encoding 486 amino acids. Sequence alignments indicated that NtCDPK12 contains all conserved regions found in CDPKs and shows a high level of sequence similarity to many other plant CDPKs. The results of real-time quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR) showed that NtCDPK12 was highly expressed in stems and increased in roots treated with high-salt or subjected to drought stress, which indicates that NtCDPK12 was induced by high-salt and drought stresses.
December 2011
Cloning and Characterization of WOX4 Gene from Vitis vinifera L. Involved in Stem Cell Regulation
Publication date: December 2011
Source:Agricultural Sciences in China, Volume 10, Issue 12 Author(s): Ru DAI, Hai-peng JIN, Zeng WANG, Perl Avihai, Hai-ying XU, Wen ZHANG, Shang-wu CHEN, Hui-qin MA Abstract Wuschel-related homeobox (WOX) genes play essential, specific, and sometimes redundant roles in plant embryo development, shoot and root meristem maintenance, and plant development. Though much information was quickly gained with members of the WOX gene family of Arabidopsis, monocotyledonous crops, and gymnospermous conifers, little is known about perennial woody plants. In this study, we isolated the first WOX gene family member from grape (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Cabernet Sauvignon), and named it VvWOX4 based on its characteristic domains and phylogenetic analysis. The identity of VvWOX4 was validated by MALDI-TOF MS and Western blot with polyclonal antibody against Arabidopsis thaliana Wuschel. Functional analysis showed that VvWOX4 markedly increased shoot primordia structures when overexpressed under CaMV 35S promoter in tobacco. A different expression pattern was found for VvVOX4 compared with AtWUCHEL and its expression was detected in unique organs of grapevines. Besides the expression in the vegetative shoot apical meristem (SAM) of grape shoot tips, VvWOX4 is expressed in dormant winter buds, inflorescence, young leaves, and tendril tips, but not in root tips. In young leaves, the expression of VvWOX4 is strongly upregulated by wounding, and also by plant growth regulators such as 2 mg L
December 2011
Molecular Cloning and Characterization of Carnation EBF1 Gene During Flower Senescence and upon Ethylene Exposure and Sugar
Publication date: December 2011
Source:Agricultural Sciences in China, Volume 10, Issue 12 Author(s): Zhao-di FU, Hui-nan WANG, Juan-xu LIU, Hong-xue ZENG, Jiao ZHANG, Xiao-cong KUANG, Yi-xun YU Abstract A cDNA clone encoding a putative EBF-like protein (DCEBF1) was obtained from total RNA isolated from senescing carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) petals using reverse transcription PCR and rapid-amplification of cDNA ends techniques. The cDNA contained an open reading frame of 1 878 bp corresponding to 625 amino acids. Results of Northern blot indicated DCEBF1 expression was enhanced by endogenous and exogenous ethylene, and was inhibited by STS in petals and ovaries. Upon wounding treatment, DCEBF1 showed a quick increase in mRNA accumulation which was positively correlated with the increase in ethylene production. The levels of DCEBF1 mRNA increased in both petals and ovaries by sucrose treatment compared with the control.
December 2011
Effects of Photoperiod on Alternative Respiration Pathway in Nectarine Flower Buds During Dormancy Induction
Publication date: December 2011
Source:Agricultural Sciences in China, Volume 10, Issue 12 Author(s): Dong-mei LI, Yue TAN, Qin YU, Xiu-de CHEN, Ling LI, Hai-sen ZHANG, Dong-sheng GAO Abstract Characteristics of dormancy induction and alternative respiration pathway (also known as cyanide-resistant respiration) of nectarine flower buds in different photoperiods were studied to determine the function of photoperiod and alternative respiration pathway in dormancy induction. Oxygen-electrode system and respiratory inhibitors were used to measure total respiratory rates and rates of alternative respiration pathway. The results showed that total respiration rate (Vt) in flower buds showed to be double hump-shaped curves. Short day raised, brought the first-hump of Vt forward and delayed the second-hump, while long day delayed the whole curve. The capacity (Valt) and activity (
December 2011
The Responses of Morphological Trait, Leaf Ultrastructure, Photosynthetic and Biochemical Performance of Tomato to Differential Light Availabilities
Publication date: December 2011
Source:Agricultural Sciences in China, Volume 10, Issue 12 Author(s): Qiu-shi FU, Bing ZHAO, Xue-wen WANG, Yu-jue WANG, Shu-xin REN, Yang-dong GUO Abstract The whole-plant morphology, leaf ultrastructure, photosynthesis as well as enzyme activities of two tomato cultivars (Meifen-2 and Hongsheng) to differential light availabilities (450-500
December 2011
Identification and Molecular Tagging of Leaf Rust Resistance Gene (Lr24) in Wheat
Publication date: December 2011
Source:Agricultural Sciences in China, Volume 10, Issue 12 Author(s): Na ZHANG, Wen-xiang YANG, Da-qun LIU Abstract This research was aimed to develop AFLP markers co-segregated with gene Lr24 and validate the using for marker assisted selection (MAS). An F2 population developed from the cross between the resistant line TcLr24 and the susceptible line Thatcher was tested for resistance to the Puccinia triticina races BGQQ and SHRT using for genetic analysis and molecular marker. A total of 224 AFLP primer combinations were used to test the resistant and susceptible parents, as well as the resistant bulk and the susceptible bulk. Four AFLP markers, P-AGA/M-CTT289 bp, P-AGC/M-CAC188 bp, P-AGC/M-CAC162 bp and P-ACG/M-CGC239 bp were co-segregated with Lr24. The AFLP fragment from the primer combination P-ACG/M-CGC was cloned, sequenced and converted into a STS marker named as ASTS212. Thatcher backgrounded NILs and 115 varieties were examined by using this STS marker and the marker SCS1302607 developed by Gupta. 5R615, 5R616, 1R13, and 1R17 were identified and validated to contain gene Lr24. The marker is dominant and may be useful in identification the resistance gene Lr24 in wheat and wheat breeding programs.
December 2011
Activity of the Fungicide JS399-19 Against Fusarium Head Blight of Wheat and the Risk of Resistance
Publication date: December 2011
Source:Agricultural Sciences in China, Volume 10, Issue 12 Author(s): Yu CHEN, Wen-xiang WANG, Ai-fang ZHANG, Chun-yan GU, Ming-guo ZHOU, Tong-chun GAO Abstract This report reviews the characteristics of JS399-19, a novel cyanoacrylate fungicide. JS399-19 strongly inhibits the mycelial growth of the fungal plant pathogens of the genus Fusarium and exhibits great potential in controlling Fusarium head blight (FHB) on wheat and other cereals. The mode of action of JS399-19 is evidently different from that of benzimidazole (for example, carbendazim) and other sort of fungicides, making it a possible replacement for carbendazim in China to manage carbendazim-resistant subpopulations of Fusarium graminearum and F. asiaticum. JS399-19 has excellent protective and curative activity against these pathogens. Incorrect use of this fungicide, however, is likely to select for resistance. Among JS399-19-resistant mutants of F. asiaticum induced in the laboratory, the resistant level of mutants was high and the phenotype of resistance against JS399-19 was conferred by a major gene by genetic analysis. The fitness of laboratory-induced JS399-19-resistant mutants of F. asiaticum was nearly equal to that of their parents. JS399-19 lacks cross resistance with other sort fungicides. To control FHB with JS399-19 and to delay the development of the fungicide-resistance, farmers should use tank mixtures containing JS399-19 and carbendazim, metconazole, tebuconazole, or prothioconazole.
December 2011
Resistance Level and Metabolism of Barnyard-Grass (Echinochloa crusgalli (L.) Beauv.) Populations to Quizalofop-p-ethyl in Heilongjiang Province, China
Publication date: December 2011
Source:Agricultural Sciences in China, Volume 10, Issue 12 Author(s): Zhi-bo HUAN, Hong-jun ZHANG, Zhen HOU, Shao-yi ZHANG, Yang ZHANG, Wei-tang LIU, Ya-ling BI, Jin-xin WANG Abstract Eleven barnyardgrass populations were assayed. The highest resistant population was Geqiushan R with RI 125.45 resulted from the seed assay and 87.29 resulted from the whole plant bioassay followed by 853 R with RI 2.79 resulted from the seed assay and 6.04 resulted from the whole plant bioassay. The resistance level of other nine populations was low with RI 1.13-2.61 resulted from the seed assay and 1.48-3.63 resulted from the whole plant bioassay. The activity of an important metabolic enzyme glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) and three protective enzymes (SOD, POD, and CAT) were determined in vivo for Geqiushan R, 853 R, and Wudalianchi R. Compared with the S controls, the activities of POD in Geqiushan R, GSTs in 853 R, and Wudalianchi R were increased.
December 2011
Effects of the Spatial Coupling of Water and Fertilizer on the Chlorophyll Fluorescence Parameters of Winter Wheat Leaves
Publication date: December 2011
Source:Agricultural Sciences in China, Volume 10, Issue 12 Author(s): Yu-fang SHEN, Shi-qing LI Abstract Wheat is an important agricultural crop in the Loess region of China, where there is drought stress and low availability of soil nitrogen and phosphorus. Using a pulse modulation fluorometer, we studied the effects of water, nitrogen, and phosphorus on the kinetic parameters of chlorophyll fluorescence in winter wheat. The wheat was grown in layered columns of Eum-Orthic Anthrosol (Cinnamon soil), with the water content and nutrient composition of each layer controlled. The results showed that the kinetic parameters of chlorophyll fluorescence were sensitive to water stress. The basic fluorescence (F0) of leaves was higher in the dry treatment (0-30 cm layer at 40-45% of field capacity, 30-90 cm at 75-80% of field capacity) compared to the wet treatment (entire soil column at 75-80% of field capacity). The maximal fluorescence (Fm), the variable fluorescence (Fv), the photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm) and potential activites (Fv/F0) of photosystem 2 (PS2) were significantly lower in the dry treatment. Although drought stress impaired PS2 function, this effect was significantly ameliorated by applying P or NP fertilizer, but not N alone. P application increased Fv/Fm, both in well-watered and water stressed plants, especially when fertilizer was applied throughout the column or within the top 30 cm of soil. A combined fertilizer improved photosynthesis in well watered plants, with Fm and Fv/Fm being the highest when fertilizer was applied throughout the columns. For drought stressed, plants Fv/Fm was significantly greater when combined fertilizer was added within the top 30 cm of soil. We concluded that, when growing winter wheat in both arid and semi-arid parts of the Loess region of China, it is important to guarantee the nutrient supply in the top 30 cm of the soil.
December 2011
Effects of Long-Term Fertilization on the Distribution of Carbon, Nitrogen and Phosphorus in Water-Stable Aggregates in Paddy Soil
Publication date: December 2011
Source:Agricultural Sciences in China, Volume 10, Issue 12 Author(s): Wei WANG, Wei-cai CHEN, Kai-rong WANG, Xiao-li XIE, Chun-mei YIN, An-lei CHEN Abstract We investigated the size distribution of water-stable aggregates and the soil carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus concentration over aggregate size fractions based on a long-term (1990-2006) fertilization experiment in a reddish paddy soil. The results showed that the largest water-stable aggregate (WSA) (>5 mm) and the smallest WSA (<0.25 mm) took up the first largest proportion (38.3%) and the second largest proportion (23.3%), respectively. Application of organic materials increased the proportion of the large WSA (>2 mm) and decreased the proportion of the small WSA (<1 mm), resulting in an increase in the mean weight diameter of WSA, whereas application of chemical fertilizer had little effect. Application of organic materials, especially combined with chemical fertilizers, increased total carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations in all sizes of WSA, and total carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus were prone to concentrate in the large WSA. Further more, application of organic materials improved the supply effectiveness of available phosphorus, whereas had little influence on the labile carbon in WSA. Application of chemical fertilizers improved concentrations of total and available phosphorus in all sizes of WSA, whereas had little influence on total carbon and nitrogen contents. Economical fertilization model maintained the soil fertility when compared with full dose of chemical fertilizers, indicating that using organic materials could reduce chemical fertilizers by about one third.
December 2011
Effects of Chronic Stress of Cadmium and Lead on Anatomical Structure of Tobacco Roots
Publication date: December 2011
Source:Agricultural Sciences in China, Volume 10, Issue 12 Author(s): Zu-li YUAN, Shu-ping XIONG, Chun-ming LI, Xin-ming MA Abstract Cadmium (Cd2+) is one of the major widespread environmental pollutants, and can cause serious problems to all organisms. Lead (Pb2+) is another wide spread dangerous heavy metal. Tobacco is a popular growing economic crop in China. Most tobacco growing region soils contain excessive Cd2+ and Pb2+. To assess anatomic changes of tobacco roots under Cd2+, Pb2+, and Cd2++Pb2+ chronic stress, a pot experiment was carried out in field. The tobacco seedlings with 6 leaves were transplanted to pots in which soil was placed. The amounts of Cd2+ added to soil were 0, 3, 6, 10, 30, 60, and 100 mg kg
December 2011
Evaluation of Breeding Programs Combining Genomic Information in Chinese Holstein
Publication date: December 2011
Source:Agricultural Sciences in China, Volume 10, Issue 12 Author(s): Jun CHEN, Ya-chun WANG, Yi ZHANG, Dong-xiao SUN, Sheng-li ZHANG, Yuan ZHANG Abstract Current study adopted gene flow theory and selection index method to compare the breeding efficiency of three breeding plans in the Chinese Holstein cattle using ZPLAN software. Simulated conventional progeny-testing program (PT) and young sire program (YS) were compared with breeding program using genomic selection (GS) taking parameters derived from Chinese Holstein breeding system. The results showed that, GS shortened generation interval by 1.5-2.2 years, and increased the genetic progress by 30-50%, comparing to PT and YS, respectively. Economic analysis showed that GS could obtain a higher breeding efficiency, being 119 and 97% higher than that of PT and YS, respectively; and GS was also powerful in improving functional traits with a low heritability. Main factors affecting breeding efficiency in GS were further discussed, including selection intensity, accuracy and the cost of SNP genotyping. Our finding provided references for future designing and implementing GS in Chinese dairy population.
December 2011
Delivery of CatSper2 siRNA into Rat Sperms by Electroporation Repressed Ca2+ Influx During Sperm Hyperactivation
Publication date: December 2011
Source:Agricultural Sciences in China, Volume 10, Issue 12 Author(s): Zhen ZHANG, Xuan ZHOU, Hui-xia LI, Qun-wei CUI, Jing YU, Gen-lin WANG Abstract CatSper is a unique Ca2+ channel-like protein family exclusively expressed in the testis and sperm, and plays important roles in sperm motility, capacitation, acrosome reaction and sperm-egg interactions. Here we studied the mechanism of regulation of CatSper2-dependent Ca2+ influx, extracellular and intracellular Ca2+ on sperm hyperactivated motility. The siRNA duplexes were transfected into the sperm cells by electroporation (EP) to silence the expression of CatSper2. The results for targeted disruption of CatSper2 showed the highest silence efficiency 77.7% (P<0.05), the hyperactivated sperm rate calculated by computer-assisted semen analysis (CASA) analysis of interferenced sperm was significantly lower 11.1% than the control 99.2%. Flow cytometry (FCM) detection of the intracellular Ca2+ concentration of interferenced sperm was 50 nmol L
December 2011
Pharmacokinetics of Mequindox and Its Metabolites in Swine
Publication date: December 2011
Source:Agricultural Sciences in China, Volume 10, Issue 12 Author(s): Yi-ming LIU, Ying-chun LIU, Huan-zhong DING, Bing-hu FANG, Fan YANG, Qi SHAN, Zhen-ling ZENG Abstract The present study was carried out to investigate the pharmacokinetics of mequindox (MEQ), a new synthetic quinoxaline 1,4-dioxide derivative and its two main metabolites M1 [2-isoethanol mequinoox], M2 [2-isoethanol 1-desoxymequindox] in healthy swine. MEQ (10 mg kg
December 2011
Creatine Pyruvate Enhances Lipolysis and Protein Synthesis in Broiler Chicken
Publication date: December 2011
Source:Agricultural Sciences in China, Volume 10, Issue 12 Author(s): Juan CHEN, Hai-tian MA, Man WANG, Yi-li KONG, Si-xiang ZOU Abstract To assess the effects of creatine pyruvate (Cr-Pyr) on lipid and protein metabolism in broiler chickens, a total of 400 1-day-old male birds (Aconred) were randomly allocated to four groups, with each group replicating four times and each replicate involving 25 birds. The broilers were provided with a commercial diet supplemented with Cr-Pyr at 0, 1, 5, or 10% of the diet, respectively, for a period of 3 wk ad libitum (from 22 to 42 d). In the present study, body weight (BW) and average daily gain (ADG) of broilers decreased in 10% Cr-Pyr group (P<0.01), whereas the relative leg and pectoral muscle weights were significantly higher than they were in the control group (P<0.05). 5 or 10% Cr-Pyr of diets decreased the abdominal fat rate (AFR, abdominal fat/live weight) of the broilers. The serum or hepatic triglyceride (TG) concentrations were significantly lower in the 5 and 10% groups (P<0.01). In contrast, Cr-Pyr caused a marked increase in the serum non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and creatine kinase (CK) concentrations (P<0.01). Supplementation with Cr-Pyr (5 and 10%) in the diet also increased glucagons (GLU), insulin (INS) or leptin (LEP) contents (P<0.01). The expression of hepatic peroxisomal proliferators-activated receptor a (PPAR-a) and carnitine palmitoyl transferase-I (CPT-I), muscle insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) were significantly elevated and myostatin mRNA level was reduced in the 5 and 10% groups (P<0.05). It was found that supplementation with 5% Cr-Pyr improves both lipid and protein metabolism by regulating various metabolic parameters of broilers, while not adversely affects growth performance in broiler chickens.
December 2011
Application of Near-Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy to the Evaluation of D-chiro-lnositol, Vitexin, and Isovitexin Contents in Mung Bean
Publication date: December 2011
Source:Agricultural Sciences in China, Volume 10, Issue 12 Author(s): Yang YAO, Xu-zhen CHENG, Gui-xing REN Abstract Mung bean (Vigna radiata L.) is rich in D-chiro-inositol (DCI), vitexin, and isovitexin, which has beneficial effects on antidiabetic and inhibits the formation of advanced glycation end-products. In this study, near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) was used to predict the contents of DCI, vitexin, and isovitexin in mung bean. The spectra data were linearized with those determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The models for predicting the DCI, vitexin, and isovitexin contents in mung bean were developed using partial least-squares (PLS) algorithm. Cross-validation procedures indicated good correlations between HPLC data and NIRS predictions (R 2=0.90 for DCI, R 2=0.81 for vitexin, and R 2=0.90 for isovitexin). The predictive contents of DCI, vitexin, and isovitexin ranged from 2.082 to 3.084%, 1.277 to 1.307%, and 0.5998 to 0.6286%, respectively. The results showed that NIRS, a well-established and widely applied technique, could be applied to rapid detection of DCI, vitexin, and isovitexin contents in mung bean.
November 2011
Thermal Degradation Kinetics of Anthocyanins and Visual Color of Blood Orange Juice
Publication date: December 2011
Source:Agricultural Sciences in China, Volume 10, Issue 12 Author(s): Shao-qian CAO, Liang LIU, Si-yi PAN Abstract Thermal degradation kinetics of anthocyanins and visual color (Hunter a* value) of blood orange juice were studied at selected temperatures (70-90C). Results indicated that both the thermal degradation of anthocyanin and visual color all followed first-order reaction kinetics, and they could be expressed by Arrhenius equation. The activation energy values for the anthocyanins degradation and visual color degradation were 55.81 and 47.51 kJ mol
November 2011
Genetic Analysis on Characteristics to Measure Drought Resistance Using Dongxiang Wild Rice (Oryza rufupogon Griff.) and Its Derived Backcross Inbred Lines Population at Seedling Stage
Publication date: November 2011
Source:Agricultural Sciences in China, Volume 10, Issue 11 Author(s): Biao-lin HU, Xue-qin FU, Tao ZHANG, Yong WAN, Xia LI, Yun-hong HUANG, Liang-fang DAI, Xiang-dong LUO, Jian-kun XIE Abstract Drought stress is one of the major constraints to rice (Oryza sativa L.) production and yield stability especially in rainfed ecosystems and is getting worse as the climate changes worldwide. Dongxiang wild rice (DXWR) Oryza rufipogon Griff., contains drought resistant gene. Improving drought resistance of cultivars is crucial to increase and stabilize rice grain yield via transferring resistant gene from species related to rice. In this paper, four upland rice, sixty backcross inbred lines (BILs) derived from BC1F5 of R974//DXWR/R974, and their parents were employed to evaluate drought-resistance at seedling stage in the greenhouse. Nine traits were recorded for assessment of drought resistance, including maximum root length (MRL), number of roots (NR), shoot length (SL), dry root weight (DRW), fresh root weight (FRW), root relative water content (RRWC), leaf relative water content (LRWC), level for rolling leaf (LRL), and seedling survivability under repeat drought (SSRD). Using more than 88% of accumulative contribution resulted from the principal component analysis (PCA), the nine traits were classified into five independent principal components and the line 1949 showed the highest resistance. Analysis on the stepwise regression equation and correlation demonstrated that MRL, RN, FRW, and RRWC significantly influenced the drought resistance, thus could be used as comprehensive index for drought resistance at the seedling stage. Using the major gene plus polygene mixed inheritance model of quantitative traits, the inheritance of drought-resistance of BIL population at seedling stage was mostly controlled by two independent genes plus polygene. As a result, the DXWR could be precious resources for genetic improvement of drought resistance in cultivated rice.
November 2011
Identification of QTLs for Yield-Related Traits in the ecombinant Inbred Line Population Derived from the Cross Between a Synthetic Hexaploid Wheat-Derived Variety Chuanmai 42 and a Chinese Elite Variety Chuannong 16
Publication date: November 2011
Source:Agricultural Sciences in China, Volume 10, Issue 11 Author(s): Yong-lu TANG, Jun LI, Yuan-qi WU, Hui-ting WEI, Chao-su LI, Wu-yun YANG, Fang CHEN Abstract Synthetic hexaploid wheat (SHW) represents a valuable source of new resistances to a range of biotic and abiotic stresses. A recombinant inbred line (RIL) population with 127 recombinant inbred lines derived from a SHW-derived variety Chuanmai 42 crossing with a Chinese spring wheat variety Chuannong 16 was used to map QTLs for agronomic traits including grain yield, grains per square meter, thousand-kernel weight, spikes per square meter, grain number per spike, grains weight per spike, and biomass yield. The population was genotyped using 184 simple-sequence repeat (SSR) markers and 34 sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP) markers. Of 76 QTLs (LOD>2.5) identified, 42 were found to have a positive effect from Chuanmai 42. The QTL QGy.saas-4D.2 associated with grain yield on chromosome 4D was detected in four of the six environments and the combined analysis, and the mean yield, across six environments, of individuals carrying the Chuanmai 42 allele at this locus was 8.9% higher than that of those lines carrying the Chuannong 16 allele. Seven clusters of the yield-coincident QTLs were detected on 1A, 4A, 3B, 5B, 4D, and 7D.
November 2011
An Integrated Quantitative Trait Locus Map of Oil Content in Soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merr., Generated Using a Meta-Analysis Method for Mining Genes
Publication date: November 2011
Source:Agricultural Sciences in China, Volume 10, Issue 11 Author(s): Zhao-ming QI, Xue HAN, Ya-nan SUN, Qiong WU, Da-peng SHAN, Xiang-yu DU, Chun-yan LIU, Hong-wei JIANG, Guo-hua HU, Qing-shan CHEN Abstract Soybean is a major cash crop in the world, and its oil content was one of the very important traits. Therefore, the study of gene mapping for oil content in soybean is very important for breeding application. At present, at least 130 QTL loci for soybean oil content have been published; however, the mapping results of oil content were dispersed and a coalescent public map should be established to integrate the published QTLs, and to more efficiently mine genes based on the meta-analysis method of the bioinformatics tools. This study was to construct an integrated map of QTLs for soybean oil content and accelerate the application of bioinformation resource related to oil content improvement in the practice of soybean breeding. We collected information of 130 QTLs reported over the past 20 yr for soybean oil content and used the Software BioMercator 2.1 to project QTLs from their own maps onto a reference map, which was an early-integrated map constructed by Song (2004) for oil-content quantitative trait loci (QTLs) in soybean. Gene mining was performed based on the meta-analysis by running the local ver. GENSCAN and InterProScan. The confidence interval of QTLs was efficaciously narrowed using the meta-analysis method, and 25 consensus QTLs were mapped on the reference map. Using a local version of GENSCAN, 12 805 sequences in the consensus QTL intervals were predicted. With BLAST, these predicted sequences were aligned to gene sequences from the International Protein Index database using InterProScan locally. Thirteen predicted genes were in the class of the geme ontology (GO) accession (0006631), which were involved in the fatty acid metabolic process. These genes were analyzed using BLAST at the NCBI website to examine whether they were related to oil content. Six genes were found in the oil-synthesis pathway. Twenty-five consensus QTLs and six genes were found in the oil-synthesis pathway. These results would lay the foundation for marker-assisted selection and mapping QTL precisely, and these genes will facilitate the researches on the gene mining of oil synthesis and molecular breeding in soybean.
November 2011
Transformation of Cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata) with Bt cry1Ba3 Gene for Control of Diamondback Moth
Publication date: November 2011
Source:Agricultural Sciences in China, Volume 10, Issue 11 Author(s): Deng-xia YI, Lei CUI, Yu-mei LIU, Mu ZHUANG, Yang-yong ZHANG, Zhi-yuan FANG, Li-mei YANG Abstract To obtain transgenic cabbage line with broad insect resistance, a new synthetic Bacillus thuringiensis cry1Ba3 gene was introduced into white cabbage via Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation and 37 transformants were obtained. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Southern blot analyses confirmed that cry1Ba3 was successfully inserted into the genome of cabbage. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) demonstrated that cry1Ba3 was expressed. Western blot results confirmed the production of insecticidal protein encoded by cry1Ba3. Insect bioassays showed that transgenic cabbages effectively controlled both susceptible and Cry1Ac-resistant diamondback moth (DBM) larvae.
November 2011
Characterization of Growth and Light Utilization for Rice Genotypes with Different Tiller Angles
Publication date: November 2011
Source:Agricultural Sciences in China, Volume 10, Issue 11 Author(s): You-nan OUYANG, Fan-rong ZENG, Ling ZHAN, Guo-ping ZHANG Abstract Tiller angle is very important for plant architecture and canopy structure in rice (Oryza sativa L.). Physiological and ecological characteristics of three rice genotypes with different tiller angle habits were compared in the paper. DI508, a genotype with changing tiller angle during the growth, has semi-erect tillers at early tillering stage, similar to genotype M09, and had erect tillers at late stage, similar to genotype 9308. In terms of dry biomass per plant, DI508 was consistently higher than those of M09 and 9308 throughout the growth. It was also a distinct difference of leaf area per plant that DI508 was larger than two others. From booting stage, DI508 and 9308 maintained higher photosynthetic ability of the topmost three leaves, while M09 showed rapid decline in photosynthesis during grain filling. It may be concluded that the genotype DI508 with dynamic tiller angle habit has a comprehensive advantage of fast growth and high weed competition at early stage and slow decline in photosynthesis at late stage.
November 2011
Contents of D-chiro-Inositol, Vitexin, and Isovitexin in Various Varieties of Mung Bean and Its Products
Publication date: November 2011
Source:Agricultural Sciences in China, Volume 10, Issue 11 Author(s): Yang YAO, Xu-zhen CHENG, Gui-xing REN Abstract Mung bean (Vigna radiata L.) is rich in bioactive compounds including D-chiro-inositol (DCI), vitexin, and isovitexin, which have beneficial effects on patients with diabetes. To find a better source for these valuable chemicals, we have collected 110 varieties of mung bean seed samples and 8 mung bean products to determine the levels of these bioactive compounds. We also measured the DCI content in mung bean sprouts at different germination stages. Content of DCI, vitexin, and isovitexin in all mung bean varieties ranged from 0.43 to 5.79, 0.12 to 3.00, and 0.03 to 1.16 mg g
November 2011
The Yield and Water Use Efficiency to First Cutting Date of Siberian Wildrye in North China
Publication date: November 2011
Source:Agricultural Sciences in China, Volume 10, Issue 11 Author(s): Zi-zhong LI, Wei-hua ZHANG, Yuan-shi GONG Abstract A field experiment study was conducted in Bashang Plateau in North China in 2008 to determine the effect of three first cutting dates on the growth and water use efficiency (WUE) of Siberian wildrye (Elymus sibiricus L.) in the agropastoral ecotone of North China (APENC). The experiment was conducted in a split plot design with three replications with water supply regime as the main plot treatment and first cutting date as the subplot treatment. Two water supply regimes were used, which included rain-fed treatment as control (CK) and a single irrigation and straw mulch treatment (W). Three first cutting date treatments were conducted at early heading stage on July 1 (E), at late heading stage on July 12 (L), and at flowering stage on July 27 (F), respectively. The results showed that the forage yield and WUE were the lowest at early heading stage harvest, while the highest at flowering stage either in CK or W treatment. Under combined CK and W treatments, average forage yields of the F subplots were 2 900 and 6 703 kg ha
November 2011
Postulation of Seedlings Resistance Genes to Yellow Rust in Commercial Wheat Cultivars from Yunnan Province in China
Publication date: November 2011
Source:Agricultural Sciences in China, Volume 10, Issue 11 Author(s): Ming-ju LI, Jing FENG, Shi-qin CAO, Rui-ming LIN, Geng CHENG, Ya-xiong YU, Wan-quan CHEN, Shi-chang XU Abstract The objective of this study was to characterize yellow (stripe) rust resistance gene(s) in 52 commercial wheat cultivars from Yunnan Province in China, and to provide information for their rational deployment in field. Seedlings of wheat cultivars were inoculated with 25 differential isolates of Puccinia striiformis from foreign and home to postulate resistance genes to yellow rust, and then validated by pedigree. There were 10 probable resistance genes characterized in these cultivars, in which, Yr9 was most commonly postulated to be present in thirteen cultivars. Yr21, the second, was present in four cultivars. Yr8, the third, were present in three cultivars. Yr6, Yr17 and Yr26, the fourth, was present in two cultivars respectively. The other gene(s) such as, Yr2+YrA, Yr7 and Yr27, were only present in single cultivar(s); unknown gene(s) or gene(s) combination(s) were present in 22 cultivars. One cultivar (Yunmai 42) had no resistance gene tested in this study. Cultivars such as Yunmai 52, Mian 1971-98, Kunmai 4, and Yunmai 56 carried effective genes and can be popularized mainly; Yr9 should be planted with other Yr genes. In the meantime other effective genes should be introduced to realize gene diversity for controlling wheat yellow rust. Yunmai 42 should be reduced to avoid rust breakout. Unknown gene cultivars should be utilized and be researched deeply.
November 2011
TaRAR1 is Required for Lr24-Mediated Wheat Leaf Rust Resistance
Publication date: November 2011
Source:Agricultural Sciences in China, Volume 10, Issue 11 Author(s): Li-rong ZHANG, Wen-xiang YANG, Da-qun LIU Abstract Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) offers a rapid and high throughout technology platform for the analysis of gene function in plants. The barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV) VIGS system was optimized in studies silencing phytoene desaturase expression in wheat, and demonstrated that infection with BSMV construct carrying a 412 bp fragment of TaRAR1 caused conversion of incompatible to compatible interactions to Lr24-mediated resistance in wheat TcLr24 and cultivar 5R615 harboring Lr24 whereas infection with a control construct had no effect on resistance or susceptibility. RT-PCR analysis showed that BSMV-induced gene silencing could be detected at mRNA levels. These studies indicated that TaRAR1 was a required component for Lr24-mediated race-specific resistance and the BSMV-VIGS was a powerful tool for dissecting the genetic pathways of disease resistance in hexaploid wheat.
November 2011
The Influence of Transgenic cry1Ab/cry1Ac, cry1C and cry2A Rice on Non-Target Planthoppers and Their Main Predators Under Field Conditions
Publication date: November 2011
Source:Agricultural Sciences in China, Volume 10, Issue 11 Author(s): Yu HAN, Xue-liang XU, Wei-hua MA, Ben-qi YUAN, Hui WANG, Fang-zhou LIU, Man-qun WANG, Gang WU, Hong-xia HUA Abstract Transgenic Bt rice has been shown to be an effective means of controlling Lepidoptera pests of rice. However, the potential roles of transgenic rice on planthoppers and their predators need to be investigated before its commercialization. Population density, species dominance and population dynamics are important parameters of arthropods populations in field. So the impacts of three transgenic Bt rice strains expressing cry1Ab/cry1Ac, cry1C and cry2A on population density, species dominance and population dynamics of three species of planthoppers (Nilaparvata lugens, Sogatella furcifera and Laodelphax striatellus) and their three main predators (Cyrtorhinus lividipennis, Pirata subpiraticus and Theridium octomaculatum) were evaluated at three sites in Hubei Province, China, in the current study. The results showed that among three species of planthoppers, both in transgenic and non-transgenic rice field, the predominant species of planthoppers within phytophagous guild was S. furcifera at any site either growing season (4650%). Significantly higher population density of N. lugens was observed in T2A-1 field relative to Minghui 63 field at Wuxue in 2010. The species dominance of predator, P. subpiraticus, in TT51 field was significantly higher than that in T1C-19 and T2A-1 fields in 2009 at Xiaogan site. Sampling date significantly influenced six arthropods except for P. subpiraticus in 2010. The interaction between rice strain
November 2011
Long-Term Application of Organic Manure and Mineral Fertilizer on N2O and CO2 Emissions in a Red Soil from Cultivated Maize-Wheat Rotation in China
Publication date: November 2011
Source:Agricultural Sciences in China, Volume 10, Issue 11 Author(s): Li-mei ZHAI, Hong-bin LIU, Ji-zong ZHANG, Jing HUANG, Bo-ren WANG Abstract A long-term field experiment was established to determine the influence of mineral fertilizer and organic manure on soil fertility. A tract of red soil (Ferralic Cambisol) in Qiyang Red Soil Experimental Station (Qiyang County, Hunan Province, China) was fertilized beginning in 1990 and N2O and CO2 were examined during the maize and wheat growth season of 20072008. The study involved five treatments: organic manure (NPKM), fertilizer NPK (NPK), fertilizer NP (NP), fertilizer NK (NK), and control (CK). Manured soils had higher crop biomass, organic C, and pH than soils receiving the various mineralized fertilizers indicating that long-term application of manures could efficiently prevent red soil acidification and increase crop productivity. The application of manures and fertilizers at a rate of 300 kg N ha
November 2011
Effect of Intensive Inorganic Fertilizer Application on Microbial Properties in a Paddy Soil of Subtropical China
Publication date: November 2011
Source:Agricultural Sciences in China, Volume 10, Issue 11 Author(s): Ming LIU, Ekschmitt Klemens, Bin ZHANG, Stephanie IJ Holzhauer, Zhong-pei LI, Tao-lin ZHANG, Sabine Rauch Abstract A field experiment with rice-rice rotation was conducted since 2002 in southeast China for investigating the response of soil microbial properties to intensive nitrogen fertilizer application. The tested soil was a subtropical paddy soil derived from Quaternary red clay. Differences between treatments existed in different application rates of urea when the experiment was designed. Urea was applied in five rates, i.e., 0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, and 2 U, equivalent to 0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, and 2 times the local average amount of urea application (900 kg urea ha
November 2011
Effects of Age on Quality of Beef from Qinchuan Cattle Carcass
Publication date: November 2011
Source:Agricultural Sciences in China, Volume 10, Issue 11 Author(s): Lin-qiang LI, Wan-qiang TIAN, Lin-sen ZAN Abstract Qinchuan cattle are one of the top breeds in China. In the current study, cattle of different ages were used to investigate the effect of age on beef quality. With increasing age, shear force, protein content, hydroxyproline (Hyp) content, redness (a*), and muscle fiber diameter and density significantly increased (P<0.05). On the other hand, cooking loss, water content, lightness (L*), and muscle fiber gap markedly decreased (P<0.05). No significant differences were found in the contents of intramuscular fat, ash, amino acids (AA), mineral elements, and expression level of leptin and FAS (P>0.05). The C16:0 and C18:0 content increased significantly (P<0.05), in contrast to that of C18:1 and C18:2 (P<0.05). COLA1 mRNA was expressed at low levels at mon 3 and 9 but markedly increased at mon 12 and 15 (P<0.05). Taken together, these observations demonstrate excellent nutritional values of beef from cattle of different ages concordant with their chemical properties; on the other hand, their commercial value correlates more closely with their physical and sensory characteristics.
November 2011
Relationship Between Differential Expression of Bax and Bcl-2 Genes and Developmental Differences of Porcine Parthenotes Cultured in PZM-3 and NCSU-23
Publication date: November 2011
Source:Agricultural Sciences in China, Volume 10, Issue 11 Author(s): Mao-sheng CUI, Zhen-xing LIU, Xian-long WANG, Jing ZHANG, Yi WU, Guo-cai HAN, Shen-ming ZENG Abstract The developmental competence of porcine parthenotes cultured in porcine zygote medium-3 (PZM-3) and North Carolina State University-23 (NCSU-23) media was investigated. After in vitro maturation oocytes were electro-activated, and the subsequent developmental competence, rates of apoptotic, fragmented and arrested embryos from the two media were evaluated. Also, the ratio of mRNA expression of Bcl-2 and Bax gene was determined. Results demonstrated that cleavage, blastocyst, hatched blastocyst rates, and blastocyst cell numbers were significantly higher in PZM-3 than in NCSU-23. The rate of fragmented embryos in PZM-3 was lower than in NCSU-23 on d 1 and 3 (P<0.05) while the percentage of arrested embryo was lower in PZM-3 than in NCSU-23 on d 4 and 5 (P<0.05). TUNEL positive signals were higher in NCSU-23 than in PZM-3 from d 3 to 7 (P<0.05). The ratios of Bcl-2 and Bax mRNA expression in embryos were higher on d 5 than on d 3 and 1 in PZM-3 (P<0.05). In contrast, the ratios of Bcl-2 and Bax mRNA expression in embryos on d 1 were higher than on d 3 and 5 in NCSU-23 (P<0.05). Additionally, the ratios of Bcl-2 and Bax mRNA expression in embryos in PZM-3 were higher than in NCSU-23 on d 3 and 5 (P<0.05). In conclusion, lower apoptotic embryo rates and down-regulating Bax together with up-regulating expression of Bcl-2 transcripts may be responsible for the better developmental competence of porcine parthenotes in PZM-3.
November 2011
Generation and Immunogenicity of a Recombinant Adenovirus Co-Expressing the E2 Protein of Classical Swine Fever Virus and the GP5 Protein of Porcine Reproduction and Respiratory Syndrome Virus
Publication date: November 2011
Source:Agricultural Sciences in China, Volume 10, Issue 11 Author(s): Hong-yu LI, Yuan SUN, Xing-juan ZHANG, Tian-ming CHANG, Xiang-peng WANG, Fan HE, Jun-hua HUANG, Hua-ji QIU Abstract Classical swine fever (CSF) and porcine reproduction and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) are both economically important, highly contagious diseases of swine worldwide. To develop an effective vaccine to control these two diseases, we constructed a recombinant adenovirus rAdV-GP52AE2, using a replication-defective human adenovirus serotype 5 as a delivery vector, to co-express the GP5 protein of highly pathogenic porcine reproduction and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and the E2 protein of classical swine fever virus (CSFV). Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) 2A peptide was used as a linker between the GP5 and E2 proteins to allow automatic self-cleavage of the polyprotein. The GP5 and E2 genes were expressed as demonstrated by immunofluorescence assay and Western blotting. Immunization of mice resulted in a CSFV-neutralizing antibody titer of 1:128 and a PRRSV-neutralizing antibody titer of 1:16. The lymphoproliferative responses were detected by Cell Counting Kit-8 assay and the stimulation index of CFSV-specific and PRRSV-specific lymphocytes in the rAdV-GP52AE2 group was significantly higher than that in the negative control group. The results show that rAdV-GP52AE2 can induce both effective humoral and cell-mediated immune responses in mice. The protective efficacy of the recombinant virus against CSF was evaluated in immunized rabbits, which were protected from fever induced by challenge with C-strain. Our study provides supporting evidence for the use of FMDV 2A to develop a bivalent genetically-engineered vaccine.
November 2011
The Relationship Between Chinese Raw Dumpling Quality and Flour Characteristics of Shandong Winter Wheat Cultivars
Publication date: November 2011
Source:Agricultural Sciences in China, Volume 10, Issue 11 Author(s): Yan ZHANG, Yi-li YE, Jian-jun LIU, Yong-gui XIAO, Qi-xin SUN, Zhong-hu HE Abstract Dumpling is one of the most important traditional wheat products in China. Dumpling quality is determined by the characteristics of both flour and filling, thus improvement of flour quality plays an important role in improving dumpling quality. Thirty-nine Shandong winter wheat cultivars and advanced lines sown in Jinan, Shandong Province, China, in the 20082009 cropping season were used to determine genetic variation in Chinese raw dumpling quality and its relationship with flour characteristics. Large variations were observed for protein quality parameters in comparison with starch properties. Variation in color of the raw dumpling sheet was broader than that of sensory evaluation parameters of boiled dumpling among tested wheat cultivars, indicating the large influence of filling on dumpling color. Two cultivars, Jimai 20 and Zimai 12, were identified as possessing very good quality of raw dumpling, and 21 cultivars and advanced lines showed good quality. Protein and total starch content influenced the L* value of raw dumpling sheets. L* value at 0 and 2 h after sheeting were significantly influenced by protein content (r=
November 2011
The Effect of Soaking with Wooden Ash and Malting upon Some Nutritional Properties of Sorghum Flour Used for Impeke, a Traditional Burundian Malt-Based Sorghum Beverage
Publication date: November 2011
Source:Agricultural Sciences in China, Volume 10, Issue 11 Author(s): Irakoze Pierre Claver, Hui-ming ZHOU, Hai-hua ZHANG, Ke-xue ZHU, Qin LI, Nicole Murekatete Abstract The objective of the present work was to determine the effect of wooden ash extract on anti-nutritional factors and to assess the effect of soaking with malting on nutritional properties of sorghum flour used for impeke. The addition of wooden ash extract during 24 h of soaking resulted in significant decrease in tannin by 50.2% and the decrease was observed to be progressive as malting time increases. 5 d of malting resulted in significant decrease in tannin by 69.3% and in phytic acid by 66.4% with slight decrease in ash, lipid, fiber, and starch. Malting showed an increased percentage of protein, essential amino acids, and then in vitro protein digestibility were markedly improved with increasing malting time. Sugars analysis proved a significant increase in maltose, glucose, fructose, and structural analysis of sorghum starch displayed porosity on granule's surface susceptible to the amylolysis.
October 2011
Vertical Price Transmission in the China's Layer Industry Chain: an Application of FDL Approach
Publication date: November 2011
Source:Agricultural Sciences in China, Volume 10, Issue 11 Author(s): Shi-wei XU, Xiao-xia DONG, Zhe-min LI, Gan-qiong LI Abstract This paper examines the vertical price relationship between upstream and downstream products in China's layer industry chain by estimating elasticity coefficients of the price transmission. We use cointegration tests, error correction models and finite distributed lag models to analyze vertical price shifts between corn, layer feed, egg-laying chicken and egg prices. With monthly data from 1994 to 2010, our results show that various prices in China's layer industry chain are well integrated. In addition, our results indicate that both long-run and short-run price relationships between upstream and downstream products in layer industry chain exist and the long-run equilibrium, to a certain extent, may eliminate the short-run dynamics price deviation. We also found that the influence of corn and feed prices on egg prices is still more remarkable than egg-laying chicken prices. Our findings imply that governments should pay more attention to corn and layer feed prices in order to stabilize egg prices under the conditions of market integration.
October 2011
Cytological Behavior of Hybridization Barriers Between Oryza sativa and Oryza officinalis
Publication date: October 2011
Source:Agricultural Sciences in China, Volume 10, Issue 10 Author(s): FU Xue-lin, LU Yong-gen, Xiang-dong LIU, Jin-quan LI, Xing-juan ZHAO Abstract Oryza officinalis is one of the important wild species in the tertiary gene pool of Oryza sativa. It has a number of elite genes for rice breeding in resistance or tolerance. However, breeding barriers are so serious that the gene transfer is much difficult by sexual cross method between O. sativa and O. officinalis. Characteristics of the breeding barriers were systemically studied in this paper. When both the diploid (AA, 2n=2x=24) and autotetraploid (AAAA, 2n=4x=48) cultivated rice were crossed as maternal parents with O. officinalis (CC, 2n=2x=24), none Fj hybrid seeds were obtained. The young hybrid ovaries aborted at 13-16 d after pollinations (DAP). By rescuing hybrid embryos, in vitro Fj plantlets were obtained in 2x
October 2011
Mapping of Mutant Gene prbs Controlling Poly-Row-and-Branched Spike in Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)
Publication date: October 2011
Source:Agricultural Sciences in China, Volume 10, Issue 10 Author(s): Bi-guang HUANG, Wei-ren WU Abstract A row-type mutant of barley named poly-row-and-branched spike (prbs) was previously obtained from a two-rowed cultivar Pudamai-2 after treated by inflorescence soaking in maize total DNA solution. The mutant produces branched spikes with irregular multiple rows. Genetic analysis indicated that the mutant phenotype was caused by a recessive gene prbs, and the PRBS locus had a recessive epistatic effect on an independent locus (denoted as Vrsx) conferring the variation of two-rowed spike vs. six-rowed spike. This study aimed to map PRBS as well as Vrsx using simple sequence repeats (SSR) markers. We developed an F2 population from a cross between the prbs mutant and a six-rowed cultivar Putianwudu for the gene mapping. As the two target loci interacted to result in a segregation ratio of two-rowed type:six-rowed type:prbs=9:3:4 in the population, we adopted a special strategy to map the two loci. PRBS was mapped between SSR markers HvLTPPB and Bmag0508A on the short arm of chromosome 3H, with distances of 24.7 and 14.3 cM to the two markers, respectively. Vrsx was mapped between SSR markers Bmag0125 and Bmag0378 on chromosome 2H, with distances of 6.9 and 15.3 cM to the two markers, respectively. This suggests that Vrsx should be the known locus Vrsl, which predominantly controls row-type variation in barley cultivars, and PRBS is a new locus related to the row type of spikes in barley.
October 2011
Identification, Genetic Analysis and Mapping of Resistance to Phytophthora sojae of Pm28 in Soybean
Publication date: October 2011
Source:Agricultural Sciences in China, Volume 10, Issue 10 Author(s): Xiao-ling WU, Bao-qiang ZHANG, Shi SUN, Jin-ming ZHAO, Feng YANG, Na GUO, Jun-yi GAI, Han XING Abstract Phytophthora sojae Kanfman and Gerdemann (P. sojae) is one of the most prevalent pathogens and causes Phytophthora root rot, which limits soybean production worldwide. Development of resistant cultivars is a cost-effective approach to controlling this disease. In this study, 127 soybean germplasm were evaluated for their responses to Phytophthora sojae strain Pm28 using the hypocotyl inoculation technique, and 49 were found resistant to the strain. The hypocotyl of Pj, P2, Fj, and F23 of two crosses of Ludou 4 (resistant)
October 2011
Specific Expression of a Novel Nodulin GmN479 Gene in the Infected Cells of Soybean (Glycine max) Nodules
Publication date: October 2011
Source:Agricultural Sciences in China, Volume 10, Issue 10 Author(s): Xian-guo CHENG, Li WANG, He WANG, Guo-hong YU, You-lu BAI, Meng-meng LIU Abstract A novel nodulin gene, GmN479 genomic clone composing of 3 630 nucleotides was isolated from mature soybean nodules using GmN479 cDNA as a probe by subtractive hybridization procedure. GmN479 encodes 170 amino acids with 2.09 kb nucleotides promoter region, and contains two important upstream promoter elements, one is a conserved s-acting sequence motif 5
October 2011
Analysis of Genetic Effects for Heterosis of ErucicAcid and Glucosinolate Contents in Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.)
Publication date: October 2011
Source:Agricultural Sciences in China, Volume 10, Issue 10 Author(s): Hai-zhen ZHANG, Chun-hai SHI, Jian-guo WU Abstract The embryo, cytoplasmic, and maternal heterosis for erucic acid content (EAC) and glucosinolate content (GLS) of rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) were studied by using the genetic models for quantitative traits of seeds in diploid crops. Eight parents were included in a diallel mating design in two years. It was found that the heterosis of EAC and GLS was simultaneously controlled by genetic main effects and genotypexenvironment (GE) interaction effects. The general heterosis of most crosses for EAC was significantly positive, while it was not for GLS. The general heterosis was more important for two quality traits of rapeseed because of the low GE interaction heterosis in both years, especially for GLS. Among different genetic systems, significant positive embryo general heterosis and the negative maternal general heterosis were found for EAC and GLS in most hybrid crosses. Some hybrids with significant negative interaction heterosis were detected for either of EAC or GLS. In general, maternal general and interaction heterosis was more important for reducing EAC and GLS of rapeseed.
October 2011
Analysis of SSRs Information in Capsicum spp. from EST Database
Publication date: October 2011
Source:Agricultural Sciences in China, Volume 10, Issue 10 Author(s): Huan-huan HUANG, Zhong-hua ZHANG, Zheng-hai ZHANG, Sheng-li MAO, Li-hao WANG, Bao-xi ZHANG Abstract SSR markers are useful in pepper linkage mapping and gene location. 446 SSR markers have been reported, but they are insufficient. It is costly to develop SSR markers from DNA library, whereas it seems much easy to find in EST sequences in the GenBank of pepper through internet. In this study, attempts have been made to develop SSR markers in the EST sequences by using bioinformatics. EST sequences were trimmed by est-trimmer.pr software, while 116915EST sequences were obtained without poly A or poly T, ranged between 100 and 700 bp. Using e-PCR and del.pl softwares, SSR sequences were identified. 2 508 micro satellite loci (larger than 20 repeats) were established and 755 SSR primers were designed using SSR finder software and Primer 3 software. There were 498 (0.43%) mono-, 1 026 (0.89%) di-, 518 (0.45%) tn-, 245 (0.21%) tetra-, 114 (0.10%) penta-, and 107 (0.09%) hexa-nucleotide SSRs. The estimated frequency of SSRs was approximately 1/25.12 kb. According to the distribution of SSRs in pepper, the mean length of pepper SSRs was 22.68 bp and the adenine rich repeats such as A/T, AG, AT, AAG, AAAT, and AAAC were predominant in each type of SSRs (mono-, di-, tri-, tetra-, penta-, and hexa-), whereas the C/G, CG, CCG repeats were less abundant. 210 primers were tested in 8 pepper cultivars and the PCR result revealed the existence of polymorphism among 127 (60.48%) SSR primers within 8 pepper cultivars. It is confirmed that pepper EST database could be efficiently exploited for availability of SSR markers.
October 2011
Relationship Between Grain Yield and Yield Components in Super Hybrid Rice
Publication date: October 2011
Source:Agricultural Sciences in China, Volume 10, Issue 10 Author(s): Min HUANG, Ying-bin ZOU, Peng JIANG, Bing XIA, Ibrahim Md, He-jun AO Abstract Chinese super hybrid rice breeding project has developed many new varieties with great yield potential. It is controversial which yield component should be emphasized in super hybrid rice production. The present study was conducted to compare super hybrid rice with common hybrid and super inbred rice and analyze contributions of yield components to grain yield of super hybrid rice under experimental conditions, and evaluate relationships between grain yield and yield components of super hybrid rice in farmer's paddy fields. Field experiments were done in Changsha, Guidong, and Nanxian, Hunan Province, China, from 2007 to 2009. Eight super hybrid varieties, one common hybrid variety, and one super inbred variety were grown in each location and year. Rice production investigation was undertaken in high-yielding (Guidong), moderate-yielding (Nanxian), and low-yielding (Ningxiang) regions of Hunan Province, China, in 2009. Grain yield and yield components were measured in both the field experiments and rice production investigation. Super hybrid rice varieties outyielded common hybrid and super inbred varieties across three locations and years. Yield potential has been increased by 11.4% in super hybrid rice varieties compared with common and super inbred varieties. The higher yield of super hybrid varieties was attributed to improvement in panicle size. Panicles per m2 had the highest positive contribution to grain yield with the exception under yield level of 10.0 to 12.0 t ha-1, and was positively related to grain yield in farmers field at all of the high-, moderate-, and low-yielding regions. Our study suggests that panicle per m2 ought to be emphasized in super hybrid rice production.
October 2011
Negative Effects of Oxytetracycline on Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Growth, Root Activity, Photosynthesis, and Chlorophyll Contents
Publication date: October 2011
Source:Agricultural Sciences in China, Volume 10, Issue 10 Author(s): Zhao-jun LI, Xiao-yu XIE, Shu-qing ZHANG, Yong-chao LIANG Abstract A solution culture experiment was performed to investigate the effects of oxytetracycline (OTC) on wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) growth, chlorophyll contents, and photosynthesis at five levels of 0, 10, 20, 40, and 80 mmol L-1 OTC. OTC is toxic to wheat. The wheat growth, especially wheat root was significantly decreased. Further OTC also significantly decreased root activity, chlorophyll contents, and photosynthetic parameters except for intercellular C02 concentrations. The different responses of indicators such as root number, root activity and so on to OTC were also observed. The IC50 values for the tested indicators to OTC ranged from 7.1 to 113.4 mmol L-1 OTC. The order of indicator sensitivity to OTC was root number > stomatal conductance > chlorophyll a > total chlorophyll >photosynthetic rates > total surface area > transpiration rate >chlorophyll b>fresh weight of root>dry weight of root>total length>dry weight of shoot = fresh weight of shoot>total volume. The root number was more sensitive than other indicators with the IC50 value of 7.1 mmol L-1 OTC, and could be taken as the sensitive indicator to predict the hazards of OTC to wheat.
October 2011
Effect of Plant Density on Wild Oat Competition with Competitive and Non-Competitive Wheat Cultivars
Publication date: October 2011
Source:Agricultural Sciences in China, Volume 10, Issue 10 Author(s): Mohammad Armin, Mohammed Asghripour Abstract Wild oat (Avena ludoviciana) is one of the worst weeds in wheat fields. The effect of wheat density on wild oat competition with more or less competitive wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum) was investigated at the Experimental Farm of Plant Pests and Diseases Research Institute, Karaj, Iran. The experiment was established as a factorial combination of wheat varieties Roshan as non-competitive and Niknejad as competitive; three wheat densities (recommended density, recommended+25%, and recommended+50%, corresponding respectively with 300, 375, and 450 plants m-2 for Roshan and 400, 500, and 600 plants nr2 for Niknejad) and four wild oat densities (0, 25, 50, and 75 plants nr2) were selected for this experiment. Hyperbolic equations were used to describe relationship between yield and weed density. Increase in wheat density reduced wild oat biomass. Maximum wild oat biomass was achieved at the highest density of the wild oat together with the lowest wheat density. The results showed that higher densities of wheat are able to suppress wild oat dry matter production. Inter-specific competition in Niknejad was 1.7 times more than that in Roshan. Maximum yields of Niknejad and Roshan in the presence of wild oat were obtained at recommended density+25% and recommended density, respectively. Increase in wheat density leads to a decrease in wheat yield due to an increase in intra-specific competition. Increase in wild oat density results in the reduction of wheat yield through decrease in fertile tiller per plant and spike nr2.
October 2011
Infection Behaviour of Melampsora larici-populina on the Leaf Surface of Populus purdomii
Publication date: October 2011
Source:Agricultural Sciences in China, Volume 10, Issue 10 Author(s): Zhong-dong YU, Shao-bing PENG, Zheng-zheng REN, Dong-mei WANG, Zhi-min CAO Abstract Behaviours of urediospore germtube in Melampsora larici-populina on the leaf surface of Populus purdomii were studied by light microscope, scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), and fluorescence microscope. Crab-like fusion cells on leaf surface, intercellular hyphal cells in leaf tissues, as well as nucleus states, were observed and counted up in this study. Under unsaturated humidity, 32% of germinated tubes fused into a distinguishable swollen crab-shaped cell at the merging site, and 10.5% of observed crab-like cells had more than three nuclei. Wedge-shaped mycelia developed and then penetrated the leaf surface directly, or indirectly through stomata. Tips of germtube passed through the intercellular cells of poplar leaves directly were found in TEM. Aniline blue dyeing also showed that the infecting hyphae could invade into the cuticle and epidemic cell wall directly. For the case of infection through stomata, there were two different situations. Short branches and wedge hyphae usually penetrated the leaf surface via opened stomata, whereas, some germtube branches and wedge hyphae penetrated leaves through the guard cell walls or stoma lips. In the latter case, the stomata were always closed. The samples from wild forestlands had the same fused cells and wedge hyphae, but the occurrence rate was much higher than that in the chamber. Even under the saturated air humidity, germtubes could roll back and formed fusion structure, or merged together with their tips. The fusion cells might centralize the plasma of merged germtubes and have a strong survival capacity to protect germtubes from dying under arid circumstances, and provide a chance of genetic variation as well.
October 2011
Expression and Characterization of a Sigma-Class Glutathione S-transferase of the Oriental Migratory Locust, Locusta migratoria manilensis (Meyen)
Publication date: October 2011
Source:Agricultural Sciences in China, Volume 10, Issue 10 Author(s): Mao JIA, Guo-hua QIN, Ting LIU, Jian-zhen ZHANG, Xue-yao ZHANG, Kun-yani ZHU, GUO Ya-ping, MA En-bo Abstract A cDNA encoding a sigma-class glutathione S-transferase of the locust, Locusta migratoria manilensis (LmGSTsl), was cloned by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. The 830 bp-long cDNA encoded a 615 bp open reading frame (204 amino acid polypeptide), which exhibited the structural motif and domain organization characteristic of GST sigma-class. It revealed 59, 57, 57, and 56% identities to sigma-class GSTs from Blattella germanica, Gryllotalpa orientalis, Nasonia vitripennis, and Pediculus humanus corporis, respectively. A recombinant protein (LmGSTsl) was functionally expressed in Escherichia coli cells in a soluble form and purified to homogeneity. LmGSTsl was able to catalyze the biotranslation of glutathione with l-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene, a model substrate for GSTs, as well as with/?-nitro-benzyl chloride. Its optimal activity was observed at pH 8.0 and at 30C. Incubation for 30 min at temperatures below 50C scarcely affected the activity. The I50 of reactive blue (RB) was 18.5 umol L-1. In the presence of 0.05 mmol L-1 ethacrynic acid (ECA), LmGSTsl showed (813)% of the original activities.

Physiological Responses of Two Wheat Cultivars to Nitrogen Starvation
Publication date: October 2011
Source:Agricultural Sciences in China, Volume 10, Issue 10 Author(s): Xiao-li WANG, Yu-hua SHAN, Su-hua WANG, Yan DU, Ke FENG Abstract Plants need to be efficient in nutrient management, especially when they face the temporal nutrient defficiencies. Understanding how crops respond to nitrogen (N) starvation would help in the selection of crop cultivars more tolerant to N deficiency. In the present work, the physiological responses of two wheat cultivars, Yannong 19 (YN) and Qinmai 11 (QM), to N starvation conditions were investigated. The two cultivars differed in biomass and N rearrangement between shoots and roots during N starvation. QM allocated more N to roots and exhibited higher root/shoot biomass ratio than YN. However, tissue measurement indicated that both cultivars had similar nitrate content in leaves and roots and similar remobilization rate in roots. Microelectrode measurement showed that vacuolar nitrate activity (concentration) in roots of QM was lower than that in roots of YN, especially in epidermal cells. Nitrate remobilization rates from root vacuoles of two cultivars were also identical. Moreover, vacuolar nitrate remobilization rate was proportional to vacuolar nitrate activity. During N starvation, nitrate reductase activity (NRA) was decreased but there were no significant differences between the two cultivars. Nitrate efflux from roots reduced after external N removal and QM seemed to have higher nitrate efflux rate.
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