Journal Sciences News
Veterinary Clinics of North America: Exotic Animal Practice
31 August 2018
Dual-function ethyl 4,4,4-trifluorobutyrate additive for high-performance Ni-rich cathodes and stable graphite anodes
Publication date: 31 August 2018
Source:Journal of Power Sources, Volume 396 Author(s): Koeun Kim, Yeonkyoung Kim, Sewon Park, Hyun Ji Yang, Sung Ji Park, Kyomin Shin, Jung-Je Woo, Saheum Kim, Sung You Hong, Nam-Soon Choi An ethyl 4,4,4-trifluorobutyrate (ETFB) additive, with ester and partially fluorinated alkyl moieties, is employed to stabilize the interface structure of Ni-rich layered LiNi0.7Co0.15Mn0.15O2 (NCM) cathodes and graphite anodes. The analysis of the surface chemistry of the electrodes shows that ETFB serves as a bifunctional additive for constructing protective layers on both electrodes in a full cell. Cycling tests reveal that the addition of 1% ETFB leads to excellent capacity retention (84.8%) for the NCM/graphite full cell, which also delivers a superior discharge capacity of 167
31 August 2018
Recent progress of advanced binders for Li-S batteries
Publication date: 31 August 2018
Source:Journal of Power Sources, Volume 396 Author(s): Jie Liu, Qian Zhang, Yang-Kook Sun Lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries are considered as one of the most promising energy storage systems. However, the commercial application of Li-S batteries with practical loading levels (>7
31 August 2018
Effects of methylene blue and methyl red mediators on performance of yeast based microbial fuel cells adopting polyethylenimine coated carbon felt as anode
Publication date: 31 August 2018
Source:Journal of Power Sources, Volume 396 Author(s): Marcelinus Christwardana, Domenico Frattini, Grazia Accardo, Sung Pil Yoon, Yongchai Kwon The electron transfer mechanisms of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae employing two different mediators, methylene blue (MB) and methyl red (MR), are suggested. The effects of the mediators on Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) performances are investigated when yeast and glucose are the biocatalyst and the substrate, respectively. Yeast tends to stand as floating cell rather than attached to supporting electrode. Therefore, to combine direct and mediated electron transfer mechanisms of yeast, two mediators and carbon felt modified with polyethyleneimine (PEI) (CF-PEI) are adopted and their roles are evaluated. As a result, CF-PEI surface is functionalized with amino groups that can attract and entrap more yeast cells. The cyclic voltammetry (CV) curves representing the mechanisms demonstrate that electron transfer rate constant of MB (0.44 s
31 August 2018
Internal resistance mapping preparation to optimize electrode thickness and density using symmetric cell for high-performance lithium-ion batteries and capacitors
Publication date: 31 August 2018
Source:Journal of Power Sources, Volume 396 Author(s): Kazuaki Kisu, Shintaro Aoyagi, Haruka Nagatomo, Etsuro Iwama, McMahon Thomas Homer Reid, Wako Naoi, Katsuhiko Naoi Methods for characterizing and optimizing the internal resistance of electrodes are crucial for achieving the simultaneous goals of high energy density and high power density in lithium-ion batteries. In this study we propose—and confirm the efficacy of—a method for electrode design optimization based on the construction of an internal resistance map, a visualization tool for minimizing electrode resistance. The construction of the map proceeds by identifying the three primary components of the electrode resistance—charge-transfer resistance, ionic resistance, and contact resistance—and elucidating the dependence of each component on electrode density and thickness. We fabricate electrode sheets of various densities and thicknesses and conduct electrode impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements to measure the dependence of internal resistance on density and thickness, which we characterize via empirical formulas incorporated into our internal resistance map. Using our map, we predict that the resistance per unit area of a nickel-cobalt- manganese (NCM) electrode attains its minimum value at thickness 70
31 August 2018
Composite cathode prepared by argyrodite precursor solution assisted by dispersant agents for bulk-type all-solid-state batteries
Publication date: 31 August 2018
Source:Journal of Power Sources, Volume 396 Author(s): Nataly Carolina Rosero-Navarro, Akira Miura, Kiyoharu Tadanaga All-solid-state lithium batteries based on sulfide solid electrolytes are potential candidates for large-scale energy storage applications. Here, composite cathode with high content of an active material was prepared by a liquid phase process assisted by a dispersant agent to produce a better electrode and electrolyte interface. Li6PS5Cl sulfide electrolyte derived from a solution containing dispersant showed an argyrodite crystal phase with a better distribution of particle size and higher conductivity compared with those without dispersant. Regular distribution of Li6PS5Cl particles in nanometric scale with a spherical shape below 500
31 August 2018
A hybrid sodium-ion capacitor with polyimide as anode and polyimide-derived carbon as cathode
Publication date: 31 August 2018
Source:Journal of Power Sources, Volume 396 Author(s): Qinglan Zhao, Dongfang Yang, Andrew K. Whittaker, X.S. Zhao In this work, pyromellitic dianhydride-based polyimide was hydrothermally synthesised and further thermally treated to prepare porous carbon materials. The porous structure of the polyimide-derived carbon can be controlled by varying the reactant concentrations during the hydrothermal reaction and KOH activation to achieve a highly accessible specific surface area of 1302
31 August 2018
Novel P2-type concentration-gradient Na0.67Ni0.167Co0.167Mn0.67O2 modified by Mn-rich surface as cathode material for sodium ion batteries
Publication date: 31 August 2018
Source:Journal of Power Sources, Volume 396 Author(s): Shuo Bao, Shao-hua Luo, Zhi-yuan Wang, Sheng-xue Yan, Qing Wang, Jia-yu Li Developing rechargeable sodium ion batteries with high capacity and long cycle life is still a big challenge. Herein, we present P2-type concentration-gradient material with average composition of Na0.67Ni0.167Co0.167Mn0.67O2, which exhibits relatively high discharge capacity and excellent stability. The material delivers higher discharge capacity and better rate performance than that of the concentration-constant Na0.67Ni0.167Co0.167Mn0.67O2 during cycling. Also, the material exhibits excellent capacity retention of
31 August 2018
Scalable synthesis of hierarchical porous Ge/rGO microspheres with an ultra-long cycling life for lithium storage
Publication date: 31 August 2018
Source:Journal of Power Sources, Volume 396 Author(s): Bangrun Wang, Jun Jin, Kun Rui, Chenxi Zhu, Zhaoyin Wen The hierarchical porous germanium/reduced graphene oxide (Ge/rGO) microspheres are synthesized through an industrially scalable spray drying technique using commercial germanium dioxide (GeO2) as raw material. The Ge/rGO microspheres architecture with Ge nanoparticles homogeneously embedded in the three-dimensional (3D) interconnected conductive rGO network. When employed as anode for lithium ion batteries (LIBs), the as-obtained Ge/rGO microspheres exhibit excellent electrochemical performance with a high reversible capacity (811
31 August 2018
Effects of electrolyte, loading rate and location of indentation on mechanical integrity of li-ion pouch cells
Publication date: 31 August 2018
Source:Journal of Power Sources, Volume 396 Author(s): Brandy Dixon, Amber Mason, Elham Sahraei The safety of lithium-ion batteries under mechanical abuse conditions is an essential feature where these cells are used in mobile applications such as electric vehicles. In recent publications, punch testing has been used as a benchmark to study the mechanical abuse tolerance of the cells. What has not been studied in depth is how various test conditions such as the loading rate or the location of indentation affect the response of the cell. This paper quantifies the effects of four important test variables on the results of mechanical indentation tests. The first factor studied was to what degree tests on dry dummy cells without electrolyte can predict the response of a production cell. Then the effects of loading location, center versus on the edge, was evaluated. The speed of the test, at quasi-static rates, was the third variable. The last test characteristic studied was the repeatability of punch loading experiments. After completing the test program, a finite element model was developed to simulate the response of all studied cases. The model showed good predictability of load-displacement response and the onset of short circuit under all loading scenarios studied in this research.
31 August 2018
Photosensitization of zinc phthalocyanine bearing 15-crown-5 ether moieties on carbon nitride for H2 production: Effect of co-existing alkali metal ions
Publication date: 31 August 2018
Source:Journal of Power Sources, Volume 396 Author(s): Qingwei Liu, Jinming Wang, Dong Liu, Renjie Li, Tianyou Peng A zinc phthalocyanine derivative (ZnPc) with one carboxyl group and three 15-crown-5 ether moieties has been synthesized and used as photosensitizer of Pt-loaded graphitic carbon nitride (Pt/g-C3N4) for visible-light-driven H2 production. By adding alkali metal ions (Li+, Na+, or K+) in the ZnPc solution before the dye-sensitization process, the photosensitization for H2 production on Pt/g-C3N4 can be improved with an increasing sequence of Li+
31 August 2018
Electrochemical fabrication of ultra-low loading Pt decorated porous nickel frameworks as efficient catalysts for methanol electrooxidation in alkaline medium
Publication date: 31 August 2018
Source:Journal of Power Sources, Volume 396 Author(s): X.T. Li, H. Lei, C. Yang, Q.B. Zhang Developing highly active and durable methanol electrooxidation reaction electrocatalysts for direct methanol fuel cells is crucial to achieve their practical application in future energy storage and conversion. Herein, we demonstrate that a nickel supported Pt-decorated electrode with an ultralow mass loading (1.50
31 August 2018
Effect of oxygen contents in graphene like graphite anodes on their capacity for lithium ion battery
Publication date: 31 August 2018
Source:Journal of Power Sources, Volume 396 Author(s): Yoshiaki Matsuo, Junichi Taninaka, Katsuki Hashiguchi, Toshiyuki Sasaki, Qian Cheng, Yasuharu Okamoto, Noriyuki Tamura Graphene like graphite (GLG) samples containing various amounts of oxygen are prepared from the thermal reduction of graphite oxide (GO) and are used as anodes of lithium ion battery. The oxygen/carbon (O/C) ratios in GLG varied from 0 to 0.08, depending on the thermal reduction temperature, oxygen gas pressure during heat treatment and degree of oxidation of the starting GO. The cell voltage during discharge almost linearly increases below 1
31 August 2018
High-energy, fast-charging, long-life lithium-ion batteries using TiNb2O7 anodes for automotive applications
Publication date: 31 August 2018
Source:Journal of Power Sources, Volume 396 Author(s): Norio Takami, Kazuki Ise, Yasuhiro Harada, Takuya Iwasaki, Takashi Kishi, Keigo Hoshina Electrochemical properties of TiNb2O7 (TNO) electrodes during lithium storage have been studied in order to develop an alternative anode with high-capacity, fast-charging, and long-life to Li4Ti5O12 (LTO) in lithium-ion batteries. High-density TNO (HD-TNO) composite electrode consisting of micro-size spherical TNO secondary particles coated with carbon exhibited high-rate capability, long cycle-life, and a high volumetric capacity of more than twice that of LTO composite anodes. Large-size lithium-ion batteries using the HD-TNO anode and a LiNi0.6Co0.2Mn0.2O2 (NCM) cathode with a capacity of 49
31 August 2018
Improving thermal stability of nanoporous platinum cathode at platinum/yttria-stabilized zirconia interface by oxygen plasma treatment
Publication date: 31 August 2018
Source:Journal of Power Sources, Volume 396 Author(s): Kang-Yu Liu, Jong Dae Baek, Chee Seng Ng, Pei-Chen Su A short oxygen plasma treatment applied on yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolyte of a solid oxide fuel cell has effectively improved the adhesion between the nanoporous Pt thin film cathode and the YSZ electrolyte, which stabilizes the electrochemically active nanoscale features of Pt at YSZ contact interface. After operating at 450
31 August 2018
One-step preparation of one dimensional nickel ferrites/graphene composites for supercapacitor electrode with excellent cycling stability
Publication date: 31 August 2018
Source:Journal of Power Sources, Volume 396 Author(s): Min Fu, Wei Chen, Xixi Zhu, Qingyun Liu The one dimensional nickel ferrites/graphene composites are synthesized by one-step hydrothermal strategy. Uniform claviform nickel ferrites with a diameter of 40
31 August 2018
One-pot hydrothermal synthesis of NaxV2O5·nH2O/KB nanocomposite as a sodium-ion battery cathode for improved reversible capacity and rate performance
Publication date: 31 August 2018
Source:Journal of Power Sources, Volume 396 Author(s): Jingjie Feng, Zhenming Xiong, Long Zhao, Chunmao Huang, Huatao Liu, Siyuan Chen, Zhen Wang, Quan Kuang, Youzhong Dong, Qinghua Fan, Yanming Zhao Na-containing bilayer vanadium oxides offer outstanding storage capabilities for lithium and sodium batteries, but a multistep process for chemical pre-intercalation of Na-ion exposes a limitation for the application. Herein, we propose a facile one-pot hydrothermal approach to synthesize well crystallized bilayer Na x V2O5·nH2O with ketjen black as conductive dense-network. As a cathode in sodium-ion batteries, the resultant NaxV2O5·nH2O/ketjen black nanocomposite exhibits a high specific capacity of 239
31 August 2018
New perfluorinated ionomer with improved oxygen permeability for application in cathode polymeric electrolyte membrane fuel cell
Publication date: 31 August 2018
Source:Journal of Power Sources, Volume 396 Author(s): Andrea Rolfi, Claudio Oldani, Luca Merlo, Daniele Facchi, Riccardo Ruffo Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells (PEM-FC) are considered an alternative to the internal combustion engine for transportation. Despite the existence of relevant demonstrations and few commercial fleets, there are still a series of issues such as the durability of the materials and the cost of platinum which limit a wider application in this field. To this regard, better utilization and consequently loading reduction of Pt in electrodes is of outstanding importance. Herein we report the synthesis, characterization and application of an ionomer in the cathode catalyst layer; thanks to its higher oxygen permeability the quantity of Pt may be minimized. This ionomer is a modification of commercial Aquivion® PFSA obtained by incorporation of a third monomer (2,2,4-trifluoro-5-trifluoromethoxy-1,3-dioxole, MDO). Results on cast membrane demonstrate a 20% higher oxygen permeability of the new ionomer compared to Aquivion PFSA E87-05S and Nafion NR212 at 100% RH. Furthermore, an improvement of the performance of a PEM-FC in automotive conditions (RH
31 August 2018
The multiple effects of potassium doping on LiVPO4F/C composite cathode material for lithium ion batteries
Publication date: 31 August 2018
Source:Journal of Power Sources, Volume 396 Author(s): Jiebing Wu, Youlong Xu, Xiaofei Sun, Chao Wang, Baofeng Zhang, Jing Zhao The intermediate product VPO4/C is synthesized via sol-gel method, then it is mixed with other raw materials and calcined to prepare Li1-xKxVPO4F/C (x
31 August 2018
Lithium ion battery separator with high performance and high safety enabled by tri-layered SiO2@PI/m-PE/SiO2@PI nanofiber composite membrane
Publication date: 31 August 2018
Source:Journal of Power Sources, Volume 396 Author(s): Jian Liu, Yanbo Liu, Wenxiu Yang, Qian Ren, Fangying Li, Zheng Huang In the current study, a novel needleless electro-spinneret based on the Von Koch curve of Fractal Theory is developed to prepare electrospun membrane. A sandwich-like composite separator is elaborately designed with two layers of SiO2 nanoparticles doped polyimide membranes being the sheath layers and a single layer of ethylcellulose modified PE membrane being core layer towards its application for separators in high-performance lithium-ion batteries. This tri-layered composite separator combines both thermal shutdown function at low temperature and thermal runaway function at high temperature, where ethylcellulose is used to enhance the interfacial affinity and strength between commercial polyethylene separator and the electrospun polyimide membrane. The two sheath layers of electrospun membrane prepared by SiO2 nanoparticles doped polyimide impart the separator with high thermal stability and high-temperature runaway function at, and the single core layer of ethylcellulose modified polyethylene membrane provides high mechanical property and low-temperature shutdown function. The resultant tri-layered composite membrane is of high potential as lithium-ion battery separators for electrically powered vehicles.

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31 August 2018
Improving the performance of low-temperature planar perovskite solar cells by adding functional fullerene end-capped polyethylene glycol derivatives
Publication date: 31 August 2018
Source:Journal of Power Sources, Volume 396 Author(s): Qiqi Qin, Zongbao Zhang, Yangyang Cai, Yang Zhou, Hui Liu, Xubing Lu, Xingsen Gao, Lingling Shui, Sujuan Wu, Junming Liu Functional fullerene derivatives play an important role in improving the performance of perovskite solar cells (PSCs) by promoting charge transfer and passivating trap states in perovskite film. In this work, the planar PSCs with the structure of FTO/TiO2/modified CH3NH3PbI3/Spiro-OMeTAD/Ag are fabricated by one-step method. Fullerene end-capped polyethylene glycol derivative (PCBPEG) is synthesized by a simple process and added into the perovskite precursor solution to improve microstructure and photoelectric properties of PSCs. At the optimum concentrations of PCBPEG additives and the annealing time of perovskite film, PSCs with PCBPEG additives yield the average efficiency of over 17.3%, being much higher than 15.28% of the reference PSC. Moreover, the unencapsulated PSCs with PCBPEG additives prepared at the optimal process demonstrate the enhanced stability. Compared to the reference perovskite film, the modified perovskite films demonstrate larger grain size, improved electric properties at nanoscale level and reduced electron trap state density, which will contribute to the favorable photovoltaic performance. The improved performance of the modified PSCs is primarily attributed to the promoted carrier transfer and suppressed charge recombination. These results provide a facile and feasible method to fabricate functional fullerene for high performance PSCs.
31 August 2018
Ion transport limitations in all-solid-state lithium battery electrodes containing a sulfide-based electrolyte
Publication date: 31 August 2018
Source:Journal of Power Sources, Volume 396 Author(s): N. Kaiser, S. Spannenberger, M. Schmitt, M. Cronau, Y. Kato, B. Roling We study ion transport limitations in composite electrodes for all-solid-state lithium batteries. These electrodes are composed of variable volume fractions of active material particles (Li4Ti5O12) and of a sulfide-based solid electrolyte, while the volume fraction of carbon black acting as conductive additive is held constant. The ion transport limitations are characterized by impedance spectroscopic measurements on different types of symmetrical solid-state cells. Ion transport resistances are calculated either based on a transmission line model or from the Li+ ion current under electron-blocking conditions. In addition, we demonstrate a cell setup, for which both types of measurements can be carried out on the same composite electrodes. Effective ion transport tortuosities
31 August 2018
A pressurized ammonia-fueled anode-supported solid oxide fuel cell: Power performance and electrochemical impedance measurements
Publication date: 31 August 2018
Source:Journal of Power Sources, Volume 396 Author(s): S.S. Shy, S.C. Hsieh, H.Y. Chang Ammonia is recognized as a useful fuel for high-temperature solid oxide fuel cell with advantages over hydrogen. The challenge of ammonia solid oxide fuel cell is its performance durability especially at elevated operating pressure, which motivates this work to measure power and impedance of a pressurized anode-supported solid oxide fuel cell (530-
31 August 2018
Comparative studies of zirconium doping and coating on LiNi0.6Co0.2Mn0.2O2 cathode material at elevated temperatures
Publication date: 31 August 2018
Source:Journal of Power Sources, Volume 396 Author(s): Siyang Liu, Zhiyan Dang, Da Liu, Congcong Zhang, Tao Huang, Aishui Yu Layered LiNi0.6Co0.2Mn0.2O2 (NMC) is a promising cathode material for lithium-ion batteries, but structural instability and rapid capacity decay at high voltages and elevated temperatures preclude its large-scale commercialization. Lattice doping and surface coating can address these problems, but the different mechanisms between them are still unclear. Herein, two kinds of cathode materials (Zr-doped NMC and ZrO2-coated NMC) are synthesized and the effects of doping and coating on the structural stability and electrochemical performance of NMC are systematically investigated. Zr-doped NMC exhibits superior electrochemical performance with 98% capacity retention after 50 cycles between 3.0 and 4.5
31 August 2018
Constructing T-Nb2O5@Carbon hollow core-shell nanostructures for high-rate hybrid supercapacitor
Publication date: 31 August 2018
Source:Journal of Power Sources, Volume 396 Author(s): Songmin Zhang, Jiawen Wu, Jitong Wang, Wenming Qiao, Donghui Long, Licheng Ling Orthorhombic (T-) Nb2O5 is an intercalation pseudocapacitive material that possesses fast Li+ diffusion pathways in its bulk crystalline structure. Herein, hollow core-shell nanostructures made up of T-Nb2O5 nanoparticles confined within porous carbon shells are constructed for further boosting its high-rate Li-insertion/extraction capability. By using different silica template precursors, carbon shells with mesoporous channels or relatively dense structure could be created, both of the T-Nb2O5@carbon hollow core-shell nanostructures demonstrate significant improvement on the rate capability compared to the T-Nb2O5 nanoparticles. Furthermore, it is found that the carbon shells with accessible mesopores of
31 August 2018
Remedies of capacity fading in room-temperature sodium-sulfur batteries
Publication date: 31 August 2018
Source:Journal of Power Sources, Volume 396 Author(s): Y.X. Ren, H.R. Jiang, T.S. Zhao, L. Zeng, C. Xiong Liquid-electrolyte sodium-sulfur battery operated at room temperature is encountering challenges brought by the complex sulfur redox reactions, including (i) the dissolved polysulfide intermediates trigger serious side reactions on Na anode surface; (ii) the short-chain sulfide precipitation exhibits sluggish kinetics and the sulfur utilization is generally below 50% with unclear reasons. In this work, employing an ion selective polybenzimidazole-based separator we successfully suppress the polysulfide corrosion on the Na anode, which allows the investigation of the precipitation reaction. Combining DFT calculation and characterization techniques, we determine Na2S2 particles as the final discharge product and reveal that Na2S2 passivation is the predominant attributes of large polarization and capacity fading. To address these issues, we present the use of a bifunctional NaI-P2S5 based electrolyte additive, which (i) improves the Na2S2 precipitation kinetics by forming soluble Na2S2-P2S5 complex and (ii) promotes the dissolution of Na2S2 by the chemical mediation of I
31 August 2018
Fabrication of high-energy hybrid capacitors by using carbon-sulfur composite as promising cathodes
Publication date: 31 August 2018
Source:Journal of Power Sources, Volume 396 Author(s): Bin He, An-Hui Lu, Fei Cheng, Xiao-Fei Yu, Dong Yan, Wen-Cui Li The full realization of the high energy density concept in current hybrid capacitors is still a challenge due to the huge difference in specific capacity and reaction kinetics of the commonly used cathode and anode materials. Herein, for the first time, the carbon-sulfur composite is proposed as the high-capacity cathode for hybrid capacitors to achieve a high energy density. The as-prepared carbon-sulfur composite delivers a high specific capacity of 212.2
31 August 2018
Demonstration of high current densities and extended cycling in the garnet Li7La3Zr2O12 solid electrolyte
Publication date: 31 August 2018
Source:Journal of Power Sources, Volume 396 Author(s): Nathan J. Taylor, Sandra Stangeland-Molo, Catherine G. Haslam, Asma Sharafi, Travis Thompson, Michael Wang, Regina Garcia-Mendez, Jeff Sakamoto Replacing state-of-the-art graphite with metallic Li anodes could dramatically increase the energy density of Li-ion technology. However, efforts to achieve uniform Li plating and stripping in conventional liquid electrolytes have had limited success. An alternative approach is to use a solid electrolyte to stabilize the Li interface during cycling. One of the most promising solid electrolytes is Li7La3Zr2O12, which has high ionic conductivity at room temperature, high shear modulus and chemical and electrochemical stability against Li. Despite these properties, Li filament propagation has been observed through LLZO at current densities below what is practical. By combining recent achievements in reducing interface resistance and optimizing microstructure, we demonstrate Li cycling at current densities competitive with Li-ion. Li|LLZO|Li cells are capable of cycling at up to 0.9
31 August 2018
Phosphorus-doped TiO2-B nanowire arrays boosting robust pseudocapacitive properties for lithium storage
Publication date: 31 August 2018
Source:Journal of Power Sources, Volume 396 Author(s): Minglei Cao, Leiming Tao, Xiaowei Lv, Yi Bu, Man Li, Hong Yin, Mingqiang Zhu, Zhicheng Zhong, Yan Shen, Mingkui Wang TiO2-B has received increasing interest as a possible anode for lithium-ion batteries, but its properties are restricted by the intrinsically low electronic conductivity. Herein, we first demonstrate that phosphorus doping can be an efficient approach to boost the pseudocapacitive properties of TiO2-B nanowire arrays. The phosphorus doping not only promotes electronic conductivity of TiO2-B nanowire arrays by modifying their electronic structure, but also significantly enhances the electrochemical surface reactivity. Density functional theory calculations further reveal that the phosphorus doping could improve the surface lithium affinity of TiO2-B nanowire arrays. Consequently the phosphorus-doped TiO2-B nanowire arrays simultaneously exhibit high reversible capacity (350.9
31 August 2018
Numerical modeling of visco-elasto-plastic hygro-thermal stresses and the effects of operating conditions on the mechanical degradation of PEFC membranes
Publication date: 31 August 2018
Source:Journal of Power Sources, Volume 396 Author(s): Mehdi Mehrtash, Ilker Tari, Serhat Yesilyurt Durability of membranes is one of the concerns for widespread commercialization of polymer electrolyte fuel cells. Effects of membrane swelling on the durability pose important challenges for the fabrication of the catalyst-coated membrane. This study provides insight into vulnerable locations of the membrane under hygro-thermal loading, mechanical loading due to clamping and realistic conditions where a combination of both of these loadings are imposed. With a half rib-channel model, we simulate a polymer electrolyte fuel cell that operates under varying loads and clamping pressure. Model considers anisotropic diffusion in the gas diffusion layer as well as complex interactions of water transport dynamics between gas diffusion layers and the membrane. Mechanical responses of the membrane subject to conjugate hygro-thermo-mechanical loadings during typical scenarios of fuel cell operation reveal the effects of operating parameters as well as individual contributing factors on the development of local stresses in the membrane.
31 August 2018
The influence of void space on ion transport in a composite cathode for all-solid-state batteries
Publication date: 31 August 2018
Source:Journal of Power Sources, Volume 396 Author(s): Dzmitry Hlushkou, Arved E. Reising, Nico Kaiser, Stefan Spannenberger, Sabine Schlabach, Yuki Kato, Bernhard Roling, Ulrich Tallarek Electrodes in high-energy all-solid-state lithium batteries are typically composites, consisting of mixtures of a Li storage material and a solid electrolyte. Ion transport in such composite electrodes plays an important role for battery performance. A key parameter characterizing effectiveness of ion transport is the tortuosity. While the tortuosity of separators and porous electrodes used in liquid-electrolyte batteries has been already investigated, there is a lack of data for electrodes of all-solid-state batteries. In this work, we present results for the tortuosity of a typical composite cathode, consisting of LiCoO2 active material particles and a sulfide-based solid electrolyte. To get values for tortuosity, two different approaches were followed. The first one is based on impedance spectroscopic measurements of the stationary Li+ current across the composite. The second approach combines three-dimensional reconstruction of the electrode structure based on focused ion-beam scanning electron microscopy with numerical simulations of ion transport in the reconstructed electrode. The presented results demonstrate a significant effect of residual voids in the composite electrode on the ion transport tortuosity. Careful attention should therefore be paid to the actual amount of void space formed during the preparation of composite electrodes as key component of all-solid-state batteries.

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31 August 2018
Towards enhanced energy density of graphene-based supercapacitors: Current status, approaches, and future directions
Publication date: 31 August 2018
Source:Journal of Power Sources, Volume 396 Author(s): Shao Ing Wong, Jaka Sunarso, Basil T. Wong, Han Lin, Aimin Yu, Baohua Jia Despite high power density, fast charging/discharging rate, and long operational lifetime, large-scale application of supercapacitor (SC) is limited by its intrinsically low energy densities (of 5–8
31 August 2018
Self-templated fabrication of micro/nano structured iron fluoride for high-performance lithium-ion batteries
Publication date: 31 August 2018
Source:Journal of Power Sources, Volume 396 Author(s): Jingru Zhai, Zhengyu Lei, David Rooney, Huaguo Wang, Kening Sun Hexagonal-tungsten-bronze-type (abbreviated as HTB) FeF3·0.33H2O has been recognized as a promising high-rate cathode material for lithium-ion batteries. However, rational engineering of advanced structures is highly desirable yet challenging to activate the insulating FeF3·0.33H2O in practical application. For the first time, a facile and economical solvothermal strategy is demonstrated to synthesize micro/nanostructured FeF3·0.33H2O through the self-templated morphology evolution and topotactic phase transformation of commercial FeF3·3H2O precursor. Benefiting from the hierarchical structure, the as-prepared FeF3·0.33H2O exhibits enhanced rate capability and cycle stability compared with the bulk FeF3·0.33H2O obtained through traditional heat treatment of FeF3·3H2O. More interestingly, simple adjustment of the synthesis solvent or temperature enables the fabrication of several iron-based fluorides with uniquely hierarchical morphology, which are still hard to be synthesized under the existing methods.

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31 August 2018
Metal organic framework-derived Co3O4/NiCo2O4 double-shelled nanocage modified activated carbon air-cathode for improving power generation in microbial fuel cell
Publication date: 31 August 2018
Source:Journal of Power Sources, Volume 396 Author(s): Song Zhang, Wei Su, Kexun Li, Di Liu, Junjie Wang, Pei Tian To improve the power generation of the microbial fuel cell, activated carbon is modified by the Co3O4/NiCo2O4 double-shelled nanocage, which prepared via a metal-organic framework method. When tested as cathodic material, the mesoporous Co3O4/NiCo2O4 double-shelled nanocage with a large surface (112.9
31 August 2018
In operando optical study of active three phase boundary of nickel-yttria stabilized zirconia solid-oxide fuel cell anode under polarization
Publication date: 31 August 2018
Source:Journal of Power Sources, Volume 396 Author(s): Zhenjun Jiao, Naoki Shikazono Degradation of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) anode always takes place during long-term high temperature operation because of the decrease in three phase boundary (TPB) density and loss of nickel (Ni) network percolation due to Ni coarsening. In the present study, for the first time, an in operando observation technology using optical laser microscope is developed to demonstrate the real-time local morphological change of Ni at active TPB under polarization conditions. The local morphological change, which is determined by the competition between the mechanisms of enhanced Ni wettability on yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) surface and thin Ni-film break up caused by Ni coarsening are observed. In operando observation reveals the reason of rapid performance degradation of SOFC anode under sever operation conditions. It is expected that the in operando observation of Ni morphological change can largely enrich our understanding of the SOFC anode microstructure change, which may further supply precious opportunities to investigate sever degradation mechanisms.
31 August 2018
Self-supported Na0.7CoO2 nanosheet arrays as cathodes for high performance sodium ion batteries
Publication date: 31 August 2018
Source:Journal of Power Sources, Volume 396 Author(s): Lin Gao, Si Chen, Lulu Zhang, Xuelin Yang For the first time, we successfully synthesize a self-supported Na0.7CoO2 nanosheet arrays via the facile “sodiation and post-calcination” method. Different from the traditional high temperature solid-state technique, this facile strategy can easily maintain the novel construction of the precursor. A mass loading as high as 8
31 August 2018
Electrochemically synthesized nanostructured iron carbide/carbon composite as a low-cost counter electrode for dye-sensitized solar cells
Publication date: 31 August 2018
Source:Journal of Power Sources, Volume 396 Author(s): Jin Kim, Jin Soo Kang, Juwon Jeong, Yoon Jun Son, Myeong Jae Lee, Jiho Kang, Ahyoun Lim, Hyun S. Park, Yung-Eun Sung Owing to the rapid increase in global energy consumption, which is currently based on fossil fuel combustion, the importance of renewable energy has become increasingly apparent. Solar energy is one of the most promising candidates to replace conventional energy sources, and various types of photovoltaic devices, including dye-sensitized solar cells, are being intensively investigated as a means for the efficient utilization of sunlight. However, the use of Pt in the counter electrodes of dye-sensitized solar cells limits their economic feasibility for practical and industrial applications. In the present study, to develop an active and economical material to replace Pt in dye-sensitized solar cells, we prepare a nanostructured iron carbide/carbon composite by electrochemical anodization of Fe foil followed by heat treatment in carbon-bearing gas atmosphere, which lead to the formation of conformal carbon shell on the surface of crystalline Fe3C. The superior catalytic properties of the iron carbide/carbon composite in the cobalt bipyridine redox electrolyte to those of Pt are confirmed by various electrochemical characterization methods. When used as the counter electrode in a dye-sensitized solar cell, the superior properties of the composite provide an 8.0% increase in power conversion efficiency compared to that achieved with a Pt counter electrode.

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31 August 2018
Highly active PtxPdy/SnO2/C catalyst for dimethyl ether oxidation in fuel cells
Publication date: 31 August 2018
Source:Journal of Power Sources, Volume 396 Author(s): Diwakar Kashyap, Hanan Teller, Alex Schechter Dimethyl ether (DME) is a nontoxic gas that is considered a potential fuel for direct-feed proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). DME has several advantages over other fuels, including high energy density, pumpless fuel delivery, liquefied storage, low toxicity and minimal crossover through Nafion® membranes in PEMFC. However, the low activity of the state-of-the-art catalyst (Pt50Ru50) for DME oxidation is the main hurdle in the development of efficient fuel cell devices. In this work, fine layers of SnO2 on high surface-area carbon (PtxPdy/SnO2/C) catalysts were synthesized by ethylene glycol-assisted reduction and characterized by X-ray diffraction, TEM, EDX, XPS, and ICP-OES. The electro-oxidation of DME was systematically studied in a conventional three-electrode cell and a laboratory prototype direct DME fuel cell (DDMEFC) operating at 70
31 August 2018
Activation and degradation of electrospun LiFePO4 battery cathodes
Publication date: 31 August 2018
Source:Journal of Power Sources, Volume 396 Author(s): Krystyna Bachtin, Dominik Kramer, V.S.Kiran Chakravadhanula, Xiaoke Mu, Vanessa Trouillet, Maximilian Kaus, Sylvio Indris, Helmut Ehrenberg, Christina Roth Electrodes prepared by electrospinning often exhibit an activation behavior, i. e. they are reaching their full capacity only after numerous charge and discharge cycles. The activation mechanism can be explained by the improvement of the accessibility of Li+ ions to the active particles of the cathode, which increases with the number of cycles. It is assumed that, as an effect of cycling, the dense, impermeable carbon layer which covers the active material due to the carbonization step during processing cracks and delaminates, allowing this way the Li+ ions to access the active material and to intercalate into it. This has been confirmed by scanning and transmission electron microscopy performed in correlation with the electrochemical performance of electrospun electrodes. However, with even further cycling a decrease in capacity is observed. The microscopic results suggest that this is partly caused by cracks at the carbon-LiFePO4 interfaces. Thus, the cracking responsible for the activation of the electrospun electrodes at the beginning of cycling seems also to cause a part of their degradation at the end of their life. Another slow degradation mechanism confirmed by scanning electron microscopy and by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy is the ongoing formation of a cathode electrolyte interphase.

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31 August 2018
Surface engineering by a novel electrochemical activation method for the synthesis of Co3+ enriched Co(OH)2/CoOOH heterostructure for water oxidation
Publication date: 31 August 2018
Source:Journal of Power Sources, Volume 396 Author(s): Lu Liu, Yingqing Ou, Di Gao, Lin Yang, Hongmei Dong, Peng Xiao, Yunhuai Zhang The large-scale application of oxygen evolution reaction electrocatalysts is limited by many challenges such as sluggish kinetics, low conductivity, and instability. Remarkably, Co3+ plays a vital role in oxygen evolution catalytic process because Co3+ ions are regarded as active sites. Developing catalysts with high Co3+ content is highly promising to improve the efficiency of water oxidation. In this study, we report a novel design method through controlling pH value and potential guided by Pourbaix diagram to synthesize surface Co3+-rich catalyst. The as-prepared catalyst possesses enhanced electrode-electrolyte contact area and lower diffusion resistance. In alkaline media, this catalyst exhibits promising oxygen evolution performance, with lower onset overpotential, satisfactory overpotential, and high value of turnover frequency (TOF).
31 August 2018
Interface strength analysis of the corrugated anode-electrolyte interface in solid oxide fuel cell characterized by peel force
Publication date: 31 August 2018
Source:Journal of Power Sources, Volume 396 Author(s): Jiamiao Xie, Wenqian Hao, Fenghui Wang The interface delamination will directly lead to mechanical failure of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), so improving interface strength is essential to ensure the stability of cell. A novel fundamental theoretical model for half-cell of corrugated SOFC is employed to analyze the interface strength of corrugated anode-electrolyte interface of which interfacial morphology is characterized by parabolic function. Based on potential energy principle and first variation theory of half-cell system, the analytical solution of peel force under different peel angles is derived and agrees well with the previous research result. The results show that introducing the corrugated interface can improve the interface strength. The extreme values of peel force described by parabolic function are compared with that by sinusoidal function under different peel angles. The ultimate peel strength and allowable peel strength corresponding to two shape functions are preferable in different ranges of amplitude-wavelength ratio. In addition, the corresponding peel angle and amplitude-wavelength ratio are also determined and discussed for when peel angle is less than inclination angle of corrugated film. The research provides guidance for optimizing the interfacial morphology and enhancing the interface strength.

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31 August 2018
A novel approach for the quantification of inhomogeneous 3D current distribution in fuel cell electrodes
Publication date: 31 August 2018
Source:Journal of Power Sources, Volume 396 Author(s): A. Bertei, V. Yufit, F. Tariq, N.P. Brandon The electrode microstructural properties significantly influence the efficiency and durability of many electrochemical devices including solid oxide fuel cells. Despite the possibility of simulating the electrochemical phenomena within real three-dimensional microstructures, the potential of such 3D microstructural information has not yet been fully exploited. We introduce here a completely new methodology for the advanced characterization of inhomogeneous current distribution based on a statistical analysis of the current of each particle within the microstructure. We quantify the large variation in local current distribution and link it to the particle size dispersion, indicating how particle coarsening can trigger further degradation. We identify two classes of particles: those transferring more current than average, which show 10–40% more particle-particle contacts, and those producing more current than average, characterized by
31 August 2018
A rejuvenation process to enhance the durability of low Pt loaded polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells
Publication date: 31 August 2018
Source:Journal of Power Sources, Volume 396 Author(s): David A. Langlois, Albert S. Lee, Natalia Macauley, Sandip Maurya, Marilyn E. Hawley, Sung Dae Yim, Yu Seung Kim An effective method to enhance the durability of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) is reported. PEMFC performance loss is mitigated by exposing the electrodes of fuel cells to dry nitrogen gas periodically at high temperature. This method extends the lifetime of fuel cells significantly compared to their non-treated counterparts. The impact of treatment temperature and exposure time on PEMFC durability is reported, using potential cycling accelerated stress tests. The enhanced durability is attributed to the suppression of “ionomer relaxation” that occurs under the nearly water saturated operating conditions of a PEMFC cathode.

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31 August 2018
Improving intermediate temperature performance of Ni-YSZ cermet anodes for solid oxide fuel cells by liquid infiltration of nickel nanoparticles
Publication date: 31 August 2018
Source:Journal of Power Sources, Volume 396 Author(s): Yanchen Lu, Paul Gasper, Uday B. Pal, Srikanth Gopalan, Soumendra N. Basu Liquid infiltration of NiO followed by reduction to form Ni nanoparticle catalysts in solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) can produce a high density of electrochemical reaction sites. In recent years, electrode architectures utilizing porous oxide substrates with ionic conductivity or mixed ionic-electronic conductivity and connected networks of nickel produced by liquid infiltration have become a popular approach to improve SOFC anode catalytic performance, especially for operating temperatures less than 800
31 August 2018
Dynamic charge-discharge phase transitions in Li3V2(PO4)3 cathodes
Publication date: 31 August 2018
Source:Journal of Power Sources, Volume 396 Author(s): Daniel Risskov S
31 August 2018
Effect of Ru crystal phase on the catalytic activity of hydrolytic dehydrogenation of ammonia borane
Publication date: 31 August 2018
Source:Journal of Power Sources, Volume 396 Author(s): Guozhu Chen, Ruyue Wang, Wei Zhao, Baotao Kang, Daowei Gao, Cuncheng Li, Jin Yong Lee Ruthenium (Ru) is one of the most attractive catalysts in the hydrolytic dehygrogenation of ammonia borane. So far, the employed Ru-based catalysts are mainly focusing on hexagonal close packed structured Ru. In this work, we study the crystal phase effect of Ru on the hydrolytic dehygrogenation of ammonia borane, using face-centered cubic structured and hexagonal close packed structured Ru nanoparticles supported on
31 August 2018
Temperature-dependent cycling performance and ageing mechanisms of C6/LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 batteries
Publication date: 31 August 2018
Source:Journal of Power Sources, Volume 396 Author(s): Dongjiang Li, Hu Li, Dmitri Danilov, Lu Gao, Jiang Zhou, R
31 August 2018
Low-cost and sustainable corn starch as a high-performance aqueous binder in silicon anodes via in situ cross-linking
Publication date: 31 August 2018
Source:Journal of Power Sources, Volume 396 Author(s): Rupesh Rohan, Tsung-Chieh Kuo, Chun-Yu Chiou, Yu-Lung Chang, Chia-Chen Li, Jyh-Tsung Lee In situ cross-linked corn starch is used as a binder in silicon (Si) composite anodes for enhancing the cycling stability of lithium-ion batteries. The corn starch binder is in situ cross-linked by maleic anhydride during the fabrication of Si anodes. The cross-linking reaction of corn starch is investigated by infrared spectroscopy, solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and thermal gravimetric analysis. The results show that the hydroxy groups of corn starch react with maleic anhydride to form ester linkages, which eventually form a three-dimensional network structure. The cross-linked corn starch binder significantly enhances the adhesion of the Si/conductive carbon composite on the copper current collector. Peeling test experiments show that the adhesion force of the cross-linked corn starch binder is 4.9 times higher than that of the corn starch binder without cross-linking. Moreover, the cell performance tests show that the Si composite cathode with the cross-linked corn starch binder exhibits a high specific capacity of 3720
31 August 2018
Interconnected mesoporous Na2FeSiO4 nanospheres supported on carbon nanotubes as a highly stable and efficient cathode material for sodium-ion battery
Publication date: 31 August 2018
Source:Journal of Power Sources, Volume 396 Author(s): Basit Ali, Ata ur-Rehman, Fouzia Ghafoor, Muhammad Imran Shahzad, Said Karim Shah, Syed Mustansar Abbas Nanostructured sodium metal orthosilicates hold a lot of promise as next-generation cathodes but their practical application is hindered by the complex crystal structure and electrochemical behaviour. Herein, cubic polymorphs of Na2FeSiO4 with F-43

Ultrasound-assisted synthesis of sodium powder as electrode additive to improve cycling performance of sodium-ion batteries
Publication date: 31 August 2018
Source:Journal of Power Sources, Volume 396 Author(s): Jialiang Tang, Daniel Kyungbin Kye, Vilas G. Pol Excessive solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) buildup in the formation cycles or later cycles consumes electrolyte, depletes alkaline ion availability, and increases cell polarization; the reduction in the amount of available alkaline ions upon cycling often causes low capacity and poor capacity retention in full cells. To compensate the Na loss from SEI formation, we have developed a sodium-powder based pre-sodiation technique that could potentially be applied to both anode and cathode materials with minimal modification to conventional battery making process. The synthesis of sodium powder is accomplished via ultrasonic dispersion of molten sodium metal in mineral oil. When suspended in hexane, the sodium powder can be easily applied onto electrodes as pre-sodiation additive. In the half cell study with glucose derived carbon (GC1100), pre-sodiation decreases the initial open circuit cell potential (
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