Journal Sciences News
Veterinary Clinics of North America: Exotic Animal Practice
1 March 2018
Sodium storage mechanisms of bismuth in sodium ion batteries: An operando X-ray diffraction study
Publication date: 1 March 2018
Source:Journal of Power Sources, Volume 379 Author(s): Hui Gao, Wensheng Ma, Wanfeng Yang, Jiawei Wang, Jiazheng Niu, Fakui Luo, Zhangquan Peng, Zhonghua Zhang Understanding the sodium (Na) chemistry is crucial for development of high-performance sodium ion batteries (SIBs). Nanostructured bismuth (Bi) has shown great potentials as an anode in SIBs, however, the Na storage mechanisms of Bi are still unclear. Herein, the operando X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique was utilized to probe the Na storage mechanisms of three Bi anodes (sputtered Bi film, nanoporous Bi and commercial Bi). Despite different morphologies and sizes, all the Bi anodes follow the same two-step reversible alloying/dealloying mechanisms (Bi
1 March 2018
A flexible 3D nitrogen-doped carbon foam@CNTs hybrid hosting TiO2 nanoparticles as free-standing electrode for ultra-long cycling lithium-ion batteries
Publication date: 1 March 2018
Source:Journal of Power Sources, Volume 379 Author(s): Wei Yuan, Boya Wang, Hao Wu, Mingwu Xiang, Qiong Wang, Heng Liu, Yun Zhang, Huakun Liu, Shixue Dou Free-standing electrodes have stood out from the electrode pack, owing to their advantage of abandoning the conventional polymeric binder and conductive agent, thus increasing the specific capacity of lithium-ion batteries. Nevertheless, their practical application is hampered by inferior electrical conductivity and complex manufacturing process. To this end, we report here a facile approach to fabricate a flexible 3D N-doped carbon foam/carbon nanotubes (NCF@CNTs) hybrid to act as the current collector and host scaffold for TiO2 particles, which are integrated into a lightweight free-standing electrode (NCF@CNTs-TiO2). In the resulting architecture, ultra-fine TiO2 nanoparticles are homogeneously anchored in situ into the N-doped NCF@CNTs framework with macro- and meso-porous structure, wrapped by a dense CNT layer, cooperatively enhances the electrode flexibility and forms an interconnected conductive network for electron/ion transport. As a result, the as-prepared NCF@CNTs-TiO2 electrode exhibits excellent lithium storage performance with high specific capacity of 241 mAh g
1 March 2018
Synthesis of Si nanosheets by using Sodium Chloride as template for high-performance lithium-ion battery anode material
Publication date: 1 March 2018
Source:Journal of Power Sources, Volume 379 Author(s): P.P. Wang, Y.X. Zhang, X.Y. Fan, J.X. Zhong, K. Huang Due to the shorter path length and more channels for lithium ion diffusion and insertion, the two-dimensional (2D) Si nanosheets exhibit superior electrochemical performances in the field of electrochemical energy storage and conversion. Recently, various efforts have been focused on how to synthesize 2D Si nanosheets. However, there are many difficulties to achieve the larger area, high purity of 2D Si nanosheets. Herein, we developed a facile and scalable synthesis strategy to fabricate 2D Si nanosheets, utilizing the unique combination of the water-soluble NaCl particles as the sacrificial template and the hydrolyzed tetraethyl orthosilicate as the silica source, and assisting with the magnesium reduction method. Importantly, the obtained Si nanosheets have a larger area up to 10
1 March 2018
Flexible polyimides through one-pot synthesis as water-soluble binders for silicon anodes in lithium ion batteries
Publication date: 1 March 2018
Source:Journal of Power Sources, Volume 379 Author(s): Dahua Yao, Yu Yang, Yonghong Deng, Chaoyang Wang A series of polyimides, which contain polyethylene glycol (PEG) segments with different molecular weight in the polymer chains, are synthesized through a facile one-pot method and characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and hydrogen nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The main part of polyimides is originated from trimellitic anhydride chloride (TMAC) and 4,4
28 February 2018
Crosslinked wholly aromatic polyether membranes based on quinoline derivatives and their application in high temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells
Publication date: 1 March 2018
Source:Journal of Power Sources, Volume 379 Author(s): K.J. Kallitsis, R. Nannou, A.K. Andreopoulou, M.K. Daletou, D. Papaioannou, S.G. Neophytides, J.K. Kallitsis An AB type difunctional quinoline based monomer bearing a pentafluorophenyl unit combined with a phenol functionality is being synthesized and homopolymerized to create linear aromatic polyethers as polymer electrolytes for HT-PEM FCs applications. Several conditions are tested for the optimized synthesis of the monomer and homopolymer. Additionally, covalent crosslinking through aromatic polyether bond formation enables the creation of wholly aromatic crosslinked polymeric electrolyte membranes. More specifically, the perfluorophenyl units are crosslinked with other hydroxyl end functionalized moieties, providing membranes with enhanced chemical and mechanical properties that are moreover easily doped with phosphoric acid even at ambient temperatures. All membranes are evaluated for their structural and thermal characteristics and their doping ability with phosphoric acid. Selected crosslinked membranes are further tested in terms of their single cell performance at the temperature range 160
28 February 2018
Enhanced capacity of chemically bonded phosphorus/carbon composite as an anode material for potassium-ion batteries
Publication date: 28 February 2018
Source:Journal of Power Sources, Volume 378 Author(s): Xuan Wu, Wei Zhao, Hong Wang, Xiujun Qi, Zheng Xing, Quanchao Zhuang, Zhicheng Ju Potassium-ion batteries are attracting great attention as a promising alternative to lithium-ion batteries due to the abundance and low price of potassium. Herein, the phosphorus/carbon composite, obtained by a simple ball-milling of 20
28 February 2018
Developing porous carbon with dihydrogen phosphate groups as sulfur host for high performance lithium sulfur batteries
Publication date: 28 February 2018
Source:Journal of Power Sources, Volume 378 Author(s): Yanhui Cui, Qi Zhang, Junwei Wu, Xiao Liang, Andrew P. Baker, Deyang Qu, Hui Zhang, Huayu Zhang, Xinhe Zhang Carbon matrix (CM) derived from biomass is low cost and easily mass produced, showing great potential as sulfur host for lithium sulfur batteries. In this paper we report on a dihydrogen phosphate modified CM (PCM-650) prepared from luffa sponge (luffa acutangula) by phosphoric acid treatment. The phosphoric acid not only increases the surface area of the PCM-650, but also introduces dihydrogen phosphate onto PCM-650 (2.28 at% P). Sulfur impregnated (63.6 wt%) PCM-650/S, in comparison with samples with less dihydrogen phosphate LPCM-650/S, shows a significant performance improvement. XPS analysis is conducted for sulfur at different stages, including sulfur (undischarged), polysulfides (discharge to 2.1 V) and short chain sulfides (discharge to 1.7 V). The results consistently show chemical shifts for S2p in PCM-650, suggesting an enhanced adsorption effect. Furthermore, density functional theory (DFT) calculations is used to clarify the molecular binding: carbon/sulfur (0.86 eV), carbon/Li2S (0.3 eV), CH3-O-PO3H2/sulfur (1.24 eV), and CH3-O-PO3H2/Li2S (1.81 eV). It shows that dihydrogen phosphate group can significantly enhance the binding with sulfur and sulfide, consistent with XPS results. Consequently a CM functionalised with dihydrogen phosphate shows great potential as the sulfur host in a Li-S battery.

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28 February 2018
In-situ sulfuration synthesis of sandwiched spherical tin sulfide/sulfur-doped graphene composite with ultra-low sulfur content
Publication date: 28 February 2018
Source:Journal of Power Sources, Volume 378 Author(s): Bing Zhao, Yaqing Yang, Zhixuan Wang, Shoushuang Huang, Yanyan Wang, Shanshan Wang, Zhiwen Chen, Yong Jiang SnS is widely studied as anode materials since of its superior structural stability and physicochemical property comparing with other Sn-based composites. Nevertheless, the inconvenience of phase morphology control and excessive consumption of sulfur sources during synthesis hinder the scalable application of SnS nanocomposites. Herein, we report a facile in-situ sulfuration strategy to synthesize sandwiched spherical SnS/sulfur-doped graphene (SnS/S-SG) composite. An ultra-low sulfur content with approximately stoichiometric ratio of Sn:S can effectively promote the sulfuration reaction of SnO2 to SnS and simultaneous sulfur-doping of graphene. The as-prepared SnS/S-SG composite shows a three-dimensional interconnected spherical structure as a whole, in which SnS nanoparticles are sandwiched between the multilayers of graphene sheets forming a hollow sphere. The sandwiched sphere structure and high S doping amount can improve the binding force between SnS and graphene, as well as the structural stability and electrical conductivity of the composite. Thus, a high reversibility of conversion reaction, promising specific capacity (772 mAh g
28 February 2018
Strain distribution and failure mode of polymer separators for Li-ion batteries under biaxial loading
Publication date: 28 February 2018
Source:Journal of Power Sources, Volume 378 Author(s): Sergiy Kalnaus, Abhishek Kumar, Yanli Wang, Jianlin Li, Srdjan Simunovic, John A. Turner, Phillip Gorney Deformation of polymer separators for Li-ion batteries has been studied under biaxial tension by using a dome test setup. This deformation mode provides characterization of separator strength under more complex loading conditions, closer representing deformation of an electric vehicle battery during crash event, compared to uniaxial tension or compression. Two polymer separators, Celgard 2325 and Celgard 2075 were investigated by deformation with spheres of three different diameters. Strains in separators were measured in situ by using Digital Image Correlation (DIC) technique. The results show consistent rupture of separators along the machine direction coinciding with areas of high strain accumulation. The critical first principal strain for failure was independent of the sphere diameter and was determined to be approximately 34% and 43% for Celgard 2325 and Celgard 2075 respectively. These values can be taken as a criterion for internal short circuit in a battery following an out-of-plane impact. A Finite Element (FE) model was built with the anisotropic description of separator behavior, derived from tensile tests in orthogonal directions. The results of simulations predicted the response of separator rather well when compared to experimental results for various sizes of rigid sphere.
28 February 2018
A review of safety-focused mechanical modeling of commercial lithium-ion batteries
Publication date: 28 February 2018
Source:Journal of Power Sources, Volume 378 Author(s): Juner Zhu, Tomasz Wierzbicki, Wei Li We are rapidly approaching an inflection point in the adoption of electric vehicles on the roads. All major automotive companies are having well-funded plans for mass market affordable branded EV product line models, which can open the floodgates. A rapid growth of battery energy density, accompanied by an aggressive progress of reduction of costs of lithium-ion batteries, brings safety concerns. While more energy stored in the battery pack of an EV translates to a longer range, the downside is that accidents will be more violent due to battery inevitable explosion. With today's technology, severe crashes involving intrusion into the battery pack will potentially result in a thermal runaway, fire, and explosion. Most of research on lithium-ion batteries have been concerned with the electrochemistry of cells. However, in most cases failure and thermal runaway is caused by mechanical loading due to crash events. There is a growing need to summarize the already published results on mechanical loading and response of batteries and offer a critical evaluation of work in progress. The objective of this paper is to present such review with a discussion of many outstanding issues and outline of a roadmap for future research.

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28 February 2018
Electrochemical-mechanical coupled modeling and parameterization of swelling and ionic transport in lithium-ion batteries
Publication date: 28 February 2018
Source:Journal of Power Sources, Volume 378 Author(s): Daniel Sauerteig, Nina Hanselmann, Arno Arzberger, Holger Reinshagen, Svetlozar Ivanov, Andreas Bund The intercalation and aging induced volume changes of lithium-ion battery electrodes lead to significant mechanical pressure or volume changes on cell and module level. As the correlation between electrochemical and mechanical performance of lithium ion batteries at nano and macro scale requires a comprehensive and multidisciplinary approach, physical modeling accounting for chemical and mechanical phenomena during operation is very useful for the battery design. Since the introduced fully-coupled physical model requires proper parameterization, this work also focuses on identifying appropriate mathematical representation of compressibility as well as the ionic transport in the porous electrodes and the separator. The ionic transport is characterized by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) using symmetric pouch cells comprising LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 (NMC) cathode, graphite anode and polyethylene separator. The EIS measurements are carried out at various mechanical loads. The observed decrease of the ionic conductivity reveals a significant transport limitation at high pressures. The experimentally obtained data are applied as input to the electrochemical-mechanical model of a prismatic 10 Ah cell. Our computational approach accounts intercalation induced electrode expansion, stress generation caused by mechanical boundaries, compression of the electrodes and the separator, outer expansion of the cell and finally the influence of the ionic transport within the electrolyte.
28 February 2018
Electric vehicles batteries thermal management systems employing phase change materials
Publication date: 28 February 2018
Source:Journal of Power Sources, Volume 378 Author(s): Lucia Ianniciello, Pascal Henry Biwol
28 February 2018
Novel flame synthesis of nanostructured
28 February 2018
Application of a mixed culture of adapted acidophilic bacteria in two-step bioleaching of spent lithium-ion laptop batteries
Publication date: 28 February 2018
Source:Journal of Power Sources, Volume 378 Author(s): Ahmad Heydarian, Seyyed Mohammad Mousavi, Farzane Vakilchap, Mahsa Baniasadi The rapid increase in the production of electrical and electronic equipment, along with higher consumption of these products, has caused defective and obsolete equipment to accumulate in the environment. In this research, bioleaching of spent lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) used in laptops is carried out under two-step condition based on the bacterial activities of a mixture of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans and Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans. First, the best inoculum ratio of two acidophilic bacteria for the mixed culture is obtained. Next, adaptation is carried out successfully and the solid-to-liquid ratio reaches 40 g L
28 February 2018
Layered oxides-LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 as anode electrode for symmetric rechargeable lithium-ion batteries
Publication date: 28 February 2018
Source:Journal of Power Sources, Volume 378 Author(s): Yuesheng Wang, Zimin Feng, Shi-Ze Yang, Catherine Gagnon, Vincent Gari
28 February 2018
Microwave-assisted reactive sintering and lithium ion conductivity of Li1.3Al0.3Ti1.7(PO4)3 solid electrolyte
Publication date: 28 February 2018
Source:Journal of Power Sources, Volume 378 Author(s): Leopold Hallopeau, Damien Bregiroux, Gwena
28 February 2018
Nano-TiO2 decorated carbon coating on the separator to physically and chemically suppress the shuttle effect for lithium-sulfur battery
Publication date: 28 February 2018
Source:Journal of Power Sources, Volume 378 Author(s): Hongyuan Shao, Weikun Wang, Hao Zhang, Anbang Wang, Xiaonong Chen, Yaqin Huang Despite recent progress in designing modified separators for lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries, detail in optimizing the synergistic effect between chemical and physical immobilization for lithium polysulfides (LiPS) in modified separator hasn't been investigated totally. Here, a nano-TiO2 decorated carbon layer (T-DCL) has been successfully applied to modify separator for the Li-S battery. The results indicate that appropriate weight percentage of nano-TiO2 uniformly distributed in conductive carbon layer is effective to chemically and physically immobilize for LiPS, and promote the electron transfer during discharge/charge process. The performance of the modified Li-S battery with T-DCL separator are significantly enhanced, with a specific capacity of 883
28 February 2018
Commercial expanded graphite as a low–cost, long-cycling life anode for potassium–ion batteries with conventional carbonate electrolyte
Publication date: 28 February 2018
Source:Journal of Power Sources, Volume 378 Author(s): Yongling An, Huifang Fei, Guifang Zeng, Lijie Ci, Baojuan Xi, Shenglin Xiong, Jinkui Feng Design and synthesis of capable anode materials that can store the large size K+ is the key of development for potassium–ion batteries. The low–cost and commercial expanded graphite with large particles is a graphite–derived material with good conductivity and enlarged interlayer spaces to boost the potassium ion diffusion coefficient during charge/discharge process. Thus, we achieve excellent anode performance for potassium–ion batteries based on an expanded graphite. It can deliver a capacity of 263
28 February 2018
In-situ preparation and unique electrochemical behavior of pore-embedding CoO/Co3O4 intermixed composite for Li+ rechargeable battery electrodes
Publication date: 28 February 2018
Source:Journal of Power Sources, Volume 378 Author(s): Jin Kyu Kim, Ji Young Ju, Seul Ki Choi, Sanjith Unithrattil, Sun Sook Lee, Yongku Kang, Yongseon Kim, Won Bin Im, Sungho Choi Electrochemically active CoO/Co3O4 co-existing microspheres with morphology-inherited porous particles is successfully synthesized via a simple solvothermal method. The as-prepared intermixed composite undergoes a monoxide CoO-preferred conversion reaction with an extremely enhanced capacity retention,
28 February 2018
Biomass derived Ni(OH)2@porous carbon/sulfur composites synthesized by a novel sulfur impregnation strategy based on supercritical CO2 technology for advanced Li-S batteries
Publication date: 28 February 2018
Source:Journal of Power Sources, Volume 378 Author(s): Yang Xia, Haoyue Zhong, Ruyi Fang, Chu Liang, Zhen Xiao, Hui Huang, Yongping Gan, Jun Zhang, Xinyong Tao, Wenkui Zhang The rational design and controllable synthesis of sulfur cathode with high sulfur content, superior structural stability and fascinating electrochemical properties is a vital step to realize the large-scale application of rechargeable lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries. However, the electric insulation of elemental sulfur and the high solubility of lithium polysulfides are two intractable obstacles to hinder the success of Li-S batteries. In order to overcome aforementioned issues, a novel strategy combined supercritical CO2 fluid technology and biotemplating method is developed to fabricate Ni(OH)2 modified porous carbon microspheres as sulfur hosts to ameliorate the electronic conductive of sulfur and enhance simultaneously the physical and chemical absorptions of polysulfides. This elaborately designed Ni(OH)2@PYC/S composite cathode exhibits high reversible discharge capacity (1335 mAh g
28 February 2018
Modeling and analysis of solvent removal during Li-ion battery electrode drying
Publication date: 28 February 2018
Source:Journal of Power Sources, Volume 378 Author(s): Naresh Susarla, Shabbir Ahmed, Dennis W. Dees In this work, we study the design aspects and process dynamics of solvent removal from Lithium-ion battery electrode coatings. For this, we use a continuum level mathematical model to describe the physical phenomenon of cathode drying involving coupled simultaneous heat and mass transfer with phase change. Our results indicate that around 90% of solvent is removed in less than half of the overall drying time. We study the effect of varying temperature and air velocity on the drying process. We show that the overall drying energy can be reduced by at least 50% by using a multi-zone drying process. Also, the peak solvent flux can be reduced by at least 40%. We further present the effect of using an aqueous solvent instead of N-Methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) in electrode drying. Our results indicate that Water dries nearly 4.5 times faster as compared to NMP and requires nearly 10 times less overall drying energy per kg of solvent.
28 February 2018
A confined “microreactor” synthesis strategy to three dimensional nitrogen-doped graphene for high-performance sodium ion battery anodes
Publication date: 28 February 2018
Source:Journal of Power Sources, Volume 378 Author(s): Jiajie Li, Yumin Zhang, Tangling Gao, Jiecai Han, Xianjie Wang, Benjamin Hultman, Ping Xu, Zhihua Zhang, Gang Wu, Bo Song In virtue of abundant sodium resources, sodium ion batteries (SIBs) have been regarded as one of the most promising alternatives for large-scale energy storage applications. However, the absence of a suitable anode material makes it difficult to realize these applications. Here, we demonstrate an effective synthesis strategy of using a “microreactor” consisting of melamine fiber (inside) and graphene oxide (GO, outside) to fabricate three dimensional (3D) nitrogen doped (N-doped) graphene as high-performance anode materials for sodium ion batteries. Through a controlled pyrolysis, the inside melamine fiber and the outside GO layer has been converted into N-doped graphene and reduced graphene oxide (r-GO) respectively, and thus the “microreactor” is transformed into interconnected 3D N-doped graphene structures. Such highly desired 3D graphene structures show reversible sodium storage capacities up to
28 February 2018
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28 February 2018
The existence of optimal molecular weight for poly(acrylic acid) binders in silicon/graphite composite anode for lithium-ion batteries
Publication date: 28 February 2018
Source:Journal of Power Sources, Volume 378 Author(s): Bin Hu, Ilya A. Shkrob, Shuo Zhang, Linghong Zhang, Jingjing Zhang, Yan Li, Chen Liao, Zhengcheng Zhang, Wenquan Lu, Lu Zhang Poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) based binders have been widely used for the high capacity silicon anodes of lithium-ion batteries. While numerous promising progress has been reported, there is no general guideline for choosing the right PAA binders for optimized cycling performance. In this report, aiming to optimize the cycling performance of the Si/graphite composite anodes (15
28 February 2018
Ether modified poly(ether ether ketone) nonwoven membrane with excellent wettability and stability as a lithium ion battery separator
Publication date: 28 February 2018
Source:Journal of Power Sources, Volume 378 Author(s): Zhen Li, Wenqiang Wang, Yu Han, Lei Zhang, Shuangshou Li, Bin Tang, Shengming Xu, Zhenghe Xu In this study, poly(ether ether ketone) is first chloromethylated to improve the solubility and is later used for nonwoven membrane fabrication by electrospinning. Finally, the chloromethyl group was converted to the ethyl ether group and dibenzyl ether group in a hot alkaline solution. The abundant polar groups endow the membrane with excellent wettability, reducing the contact angle to 0°. The polymer matrix is crosslinked by dibenzyl ether group, endowing the membrane with excellent stability (insolubility in many solvents, and ultra-low swelling in the electrolyte at 80
28 February 2018
Effect of operating temperature on local structure during first discharge of 0.4Li2MnO3-0.6LiMn1/3Ni1/3Co1/3O2 electrodes
Publication date: 28 February 2018
Source:Journal of Power Sources, Volume 378 Author(s): Yasushi Idemoto, Takuya Hiranuma, Naoya Ishida, Naoto Kitamura The present study investigated the temperature dependence of the local structure of 0.4Li2MnO3-0.6LiMn1/3Ni1/3Co1/3O2 electrodes during the first discharge cycle, using neutron and synchrotron X-ray diffraction. It was found that at 60
28 February 2018
Mesostructured niobium-doped titanium oxide-carbon (Nb-TiO2-C) composite as an anode for high-performance lithium-ion batteries
Publication date: 28 February 2018
Source:Journal of Power Sources, Volume 378 Author(s): Keebum Hwang, Hiesang Sohn, Songhun Yoon Mesostructured niobium (Nb)-doped TiO2-carbon (Nb-TiO2-C) composites are synthesized by a hydrothermal process for application as anode materials in Li-ion batteries. The composites have a hierarchical porous structure with the Nb-TiO2 nanoparticles homogenously distributed throughout the porous carbon matrix. The Nb content is controlled (0–10
28 February 2018
Dual overcharge protection and solid electrolyte interphase-improving action in Li-ion cells containing a bis-annulated dialkoxyarene electrolyte additive
Publication date: 28 February 2018
Source:Journal of Power Sources, Volume 378 Author(s): Jingjing Zhang, Ilya A. Shkrob, Rajeev S. Assary, Shuo Zhang, Bin Hu, Chen Liao, Zhengcheng Zhang, Lu Zhang 1,4-Dialkoxybenzene additives are commonly used as redox active shuttles in lithium-ion batteries in order to prevent runaway oxidation of electrolyte when overcharge conditions set in. During this action the shuttle molecule goes through a futile cycle, becoming oxidized at the cathode and reduced at the anode. Minimizing parasitic reactions in all states of charge is paramount for sustained protective action. Here we demonstrate that recently developed bis-annulated 9,10-bis(2-methoxyethoxy)-1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8-octahydro-1,4:5,8-dimethano-anthracene shuttle molecule (that yields exceptionally stable radical cations) survives over 120 cycles of overcharge abuse with 100% overcharge ratio at C/5 rate. Equally remarkably, in the presence of this additive the cell impedance becomes significantly lower compared to the control cells without the additive; this decrease is observed during the formation, normal cycling, and even under overcharge conditions. This unusual dual action has not been observed in other redox shuttle systems, and it presents considerable practical interest.
28 February 2018
Advancement of technology towards developing Na-ion batteries
Publication date: 28 February 2018
Source:Journal of Power Sources, Volume 378 Author(s): Mohammed Ibrahim Jamesh, A.S. Prakash The Na-ion-batteries are considered much attention for the next-generation power-sources due to the high abundance of Na resources that lower the cost and become the alternative for the state of the art Li-ion batteries in future. In this review, the recently reported potential cathode and anode candidates for Na-ion-batteries are identified in-light-of-their high-performance for the development of Na-ion-full-cells. Further, the recent-progress on the Na-ion full-cells including the strategies used to improve the high cycling-performance (stable even up-to 50000 cycles), operating voltage (even
28 February 2018
Synthesis and electrochemical properties of Na-rich Prussian blue analogues containing Mn, Fe, Co, and Fe for Na-ion batteries
Publication date: 28 February 2018
Source:Journal of Power Sources, Volume 378 Author(s): Xiaofei Bie, Kei Kubota, Tomooki Hosaka, Kuniko Chihara, Shinichi Komaba Electrochemical performance of Prussian blue analogues (PBAs) as positive electrode materials for non-aqueous Na-ion batteries is known to be highly dependent on their synthesis conditions according to the previous researches. Na-rich PBAs, Na x M[Fe(CN)6nH2O where M
28 February 2018
High capacity hard carbon derived from lotus stem as anode for sodium ion batteries
Publication date: 28 February 2018
Source:Journal of Power Sources, Volume 378 Author(s): Nan Zhang, Qing Liu, Weilun Chen, Min Wan, Xiaocheng Li, Lili Wang, Lihong Xue, Wuxing Zhang Porous hard carbons are synthesized via carbonizing lotus stems with naturally hierarchical structures. The hard carbon carbonized at 1400
28 February 2018
Enhanced electrochemical properties of F-doped Li2MnSiO4/C for lithium ion batteries
Publication date: 28 February 2018
Source:Journal of Power Sources, Volume 378 Author(s): Chao Wang, Youlong Xu, Xiaofei Sun, Baofeng Zhang, Yanjun Chen, Shengnan He The Li2MnSiO4 as a novel cathode material for lithium ion batteries, performs high specific capacity, high thermal stability, low cost and etc. However, it suffers from relatively low electronic conductivity and lithium ion diffusion rate. Herein, we successfully introduce fluorine to Li2MnSiO4 (Li2MnSiO4-xFx, x = 0.00, 0.01, 0.03 and 0.05) to overcome these obstacles. The results show that F doping not only enlarges the lattice parameters but also decreases the particle size, synergistically improving the lithium ion diffusion of Li2MnSiO4. Moreover, F doping increase electronic conductivity of Li2MnSiO4/C by inhibiting the formation of C-O bonds in the carbon layers. Meanwhile, F doping improves the crystallinity and stabilizes the crystal structure of Li2MnSiO4. Finally, the Li2MnSiO3.97F0.03/C with the best electrochemical performances delivers the initial specific discharge capacity of 279 mA h g
28 February 2018
A new binder-free and conductive-additive-free TiO2/WO3-W integrative anode material produced by laser ablation
Publication date: 28 February 2018
Source:Journal of Power Sources, Volume 378 Author(s): Yibo Su, Hongjun Zhang, Peng Liang, Kai Liu, Mingyong Cai, Zeya Huang, Chang-An Wang, Minlin Zhong Although transition metal oxides anodes have attracted lots of attention, there are still many problems to be resolved. Complicated fabrication process, high cost and poor electrochemical performances are the most important ones, together hindering transition metal oxides anodes for practical use. Herein, we provide a new approach to fabricate a binder-free and conductive-additive-free TiO2/WO3-W integrative anode material through the nanosecond laser ablation and dip-coating technology, which simplifies the entire anode preparation process with no need for a conventional tape-casting procedure. Using this method, great time cost, machine cost and labor cost related to mixing and tape-casting process can be saved on the basis of good electrochemical performances. The prepared TiO2/WO3-W integrative anode realizes a first Coulombic efficiency of 75.6% and attains to a stable capacity within the first five cycles. It can still maintain a capacity of 600 mAh g
28 February 2018
First-principles study of mixed eldfellite compounds Nax(Fe1/2M1/2)(SO4)2 (x=0–2, M = Mn, Co, Ni): A new family of high electrode potential cathodes for the sodium-ion battery
Publication date: 28 February 2018
Source:Journal of Power Sources, Volume 378 Author(s): Gum-Chol Ri, Song-Hyok Choe, Chol-Jun Yu Natural abundance of sodium and its similar behavior to lithium triggered recent extensive studies of cost-effective sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) for large-scale energy storage systems. A challenge is to develop electrode materials with a high electrode potential, specific capacity and a good rate capability. In this work we propose mixed eldfellite compounds $Na x ( Fe 1 / 2 M 1 / 2 ) ( SO 4 ) 2$ (x
28 February 2018
Preventing structural degradation from Na3V2(PO4)3 to V2(PO4)3: F-doped Na3V2(PO4)3/C cathode composite with stable lifetime for sodium ion batteries
Publication date: 28 February 2018
Source:Journal of Power Sources, Volume 378 Author(s): Yanjun Chen, Youlong Xu, Xiaofei Sun, Baofeng Zhang, Shengnan He, Long Li, Chao Wang A prospective NASICON-type F-doped Na3V2(PO4)2.93F0.07/C (F-0.07-NVP/C) composite is synthesized by a solid-state reaction method. F-doping can restrain the structural degradation from Na3V2(PO4)3 to V2(PO4)3 and enhance the structural stability. Meanwhile, it can decrease the particle size to diminish the pathway of Na+ diffusion, which can increase ionic conductivity efficiently. The kinetic behavior is significantly improved and it is beneficial to reinforcing the electrochemical performance of F-doping composites. Compared with Undoped-NVP/C sample, F-0.07-NVP/C composite delivers a 113
28 February 2018
Validating and improving a zero-dimensional stack voltage model of the Vanadium Redox Flow Battery
Publication date: 28 February 2018
Source:Journal of Power Sources, Volume 378 Author(s): S. K
28 February 2018
Competing forces in liquid metal electrodes and batteries
Publication date: 28 February 2018
Source:Journal of Power Sources, Volume 378 Author(s): Rakan F. Ashour, Douglas H. Kelley, Alejandro Salas, Marco Starace, Norbert Weber, Tom Weier Liquid metal batteries are proposed for low-cost grid scale energy storage. During their operation, solid intermetallic phases often form in the cathode and are known to limit the capacity of the cell. Fluid flow in the liquid electrodes can enhance mass transfer and reduce the formation of localized intermetallics, and fluid flow can be promoted by careful choice of the locations and topology of a battery's electrical connections. In this context we study four phenomena that drive flow: Rayleigh-B
28 February 2018
New insights into pre-lithiation kinetics of graphite anodes via nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy
Publication date: 28 February 2018
Source:Journal of Power Sources, Volume 378 Author(s): Florian Holtstiege, Richard Schmuch, Martin Winter, Gunther Brunklaus, Tobias Placke Pre-lithiation of anode materials can be an effective method to compensate active lithium loss which mainly occurs in the first few cycles of a lithium ion battery (LIB), due to electrolyte decomposition and solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) formation at the surface of the anode. There are many different pre-lithiation methods, whereas pre-lithiation using metallic lithium constitutes the most convenient and widely utilized lab procedure in literature. In this work, for the first time, solid state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) is applied to monitor the reaction kinetics of the pre-lithiation process of graphite with lithium. Based on static 7Li NMR, we can directly observe both the dissolution of lithium metal and parallel formation of LiCx species in the obtained NMR spectra with time. It is also shown that the degree of pre-lithiation as well as distribution of lithium metal on the electrode surface have a strong impact on the reaction kinetics of the pre-lithiation process and on the remaining amount of lithium metal. Overall, our findings are highly important for further optimization of pre-lithiation methods for LIB anode materials, both in terms of optimized pre-lithiation time and appropriate amounts of lithium metal.

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28 February 2018
New battery model considering thermal transport and partial charge stationary effects in photovoltaic off-grid applications
Publication date: 28 February 2018
Source:Journal of Power Sources, Volume 378 Author(s): Iv
28 February 2018
Probing the heat sources during thermal runaway process by thermal analysis of different battery chemistries
Publication date: 28 February 2018
Source:Journal of Power Sources, Volume 378 Author(s): Siqi Zheng, Li Wang, Xuning Feng, Xiangming He Safety issue is very important for the lithium ion battery used in electric vehicle or other applications. This paper probes the heat sources in the thermal runaway processes of lithium ion batteries composed of different chemistries using accelerating rate calorimetry (ARC) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The adiabatic thermal runaway features for the 4 types of commercial lithium ion batteries are tested using ARC, whereas the reaction characteristics of the component materials, including the cathode, the anode and the separator, inside the 4 types of batteries are measured using DSC. The peaks and valleys of the critical component reactions measured by DSC can match the fluctuations in the temperature rise rate measured by ARC, therefore the relevance between the DSC curves and the ARC curves is utilized to probe the heat source in the thermal runaway process and reveal the thermal runaway mechanisms. The results and analysis indicate that internal short circuit is not the only way to thermal runaway, but can lead to extra electrical heat, which is comparable with the heat released by chemical reactions. The analytical approach of the thermal runaway mechanisms in this paper can guide the safety design of commercial lithium ion batteries.
28 February 2018
Crosslinked anion exchange membranes prepared from poly(phenylene oxide) (PPO) for non-aqueous redox flow batteries
Publication date: 28 February 2018
Source:Journal of Power Sources, Volume 378 Author(s): Yun Li, Jeroen Sniekers, Jo
28 February 2018
Elimination of active species crossover in a room temperature, neutral pH, aqueous flow battery using a ceramic NaSICON membrane
Publication date: 28 February 2018
Source:Journal of Power Sources, Volume 378 Author(s): Eric Allcorn, Ganesan Nagasubramanian, Harry D. Pratt, Erik Spoerke, David Ingersoll Flow batteries are an attractive technology for energy storage of grid-scale renewables. However, performance issues related to ion-exchange membrane (IEM) fouling and crossover of species have limited the success of flow batteries. In this work we propose the use of the solid-state sodium-ion conductor NaSICON as an IEM to fully eliminate active species crossover in room temperature, aqueous, neutral pH flow batteries. We measure the room temperature conductivity of NaSICON at 2.83–4.67
28 February 2018
A multi-electron redox mediator for redox-targeting lithium-sulfur flow batteries
Publication date: 28 February 2018
Source:Journal of Power Sources, Volume 378 Author(s): Guochun Li, Liuqing Yang, Xi Jiang, Tianran Zhang, Haibin Lin, Qiaofeng Yao, Jim Yang Lee The lithium-sulfur flow battery (LSFB) is a new addition to the rechargeable lithium flow batteries (LFBs) where sulfur or a sulfur compound is used as the cathode material against the lithium anode. We report here our evaluation of an organic sulfide - dimethyl trisulfide (DMTS), as 1) a catholyte of a LFB and 2) a multi-electron redox mediator for discharging and charging a solid sulfur cathode without any conductive additives. The latter configuration is also known as the redox-targeting lithium-sulfur flow battery (RTLSFB). The LFB provides an initial discharge capacity of 131.5
28 February 2018
Electrospun-sodiumtetrafluoroborate-polyethylene oxide membranes for solvent-free sodium ion transport in solid state sodium ion batteries
Publication date: 28 February 2018
Source:Journal of Power Sources, Volume 378 Author(s): K.M. Freitag, P. Walke, T. Nilges, H. Kirchhain, R.J. Spranger, L. van W
28 February 2018
Activated carbon derived from chitosan as air cathode catalyst for high performance in microbial fuel cells
Publication date: 28 February 2018
Source:Journal of Power Sources, Volume 378 Author(s): Yi Liu, Yong Zhao, Kexun Li, Zhong Wang, Pei Tian, Di Liu, Tingting Yang, Junjie Wang Chitosan with rich of nitrogen is used as carbon precursor to synthesis activated carbon through directly heating method in this study. The obtained carbon is activated by different amount of KOH at different temperatures, and then prepared as air cathodes for microbial fuel cells. Carbon sample treated with double amount of KOH at 850 °C exhibits maximum power density (1435 ± 46 mW m
28 February 2018
High capacity and stability of Nb-doped Li3VO4 as an anode material for lithium ion batteries
Publication date: 28 February 2018
Source:Journal of Power Sources, Volume 378 Author(s): Long Zhao, He Duan, Yanming Zhao, Quan Kuang, Qinghua Fan, Lei Chen, Youzhong Dong To improve the electrochemical performance of Li3VO4, a series of Li3Nb x V1-x O4 compounds are prepared via sol-gel method. The similar ionic radii of Nb5+ and V5+ in octahedral coordination make it possible to form single-phased Li3Nb x V1-x O4 (0
28 February 2018
Pectin assisted one-pot synthesis of three dimensional porous NiO/graphene composite for enhanced bioelectrocatalysis in microbial fuel cells
Publication date: 28 February 2018
Source:Journal of Power Sources, Volume 378 Author(s): Xiaoshuai Wu, Zhuanzhuan Shi, Long Zou, Chang Ming Li, Yan Qiao A three dimensional (3D) porous nickel oxide (NiO)/graphene composite is developed through one-pot hydrothermal synthesis with a biopolymer-pectin for tailoring the porous structure. The introduction of pectin makes the NiO grow into nanoflakes-assembled micro spheres that insert in the graphene layers rather than just deposit on the surface of graphene nanosheets as nanoparticles. As the increase of pectin ratio, the size and the amount of NiO micro spheres are both increased, which resulting a 3D hierarchical porous structure. With the optimized pectin concentration, the obtained NiO/graphene nanocomposite anode possesses good electrocatalytic capability and delivers maximum power density of 3.632
28 February 2018
Power generation in microbial fuel cells using platinum group metal-free cathode catalyst: Effect of the catalyst loading on performance and costs
Publication date: 28 February 2018
Source:Journal of Power Sources, Volume 378 Author(s): Carlo Santoro, Mounika Kodali, Sergio Herrera, Alexey Serov, Ioannis Ieropoulos, Plamen Atanassov Platinum group metal-free (PGM-free) catalyst with different loadings was investigated in air breathing electrodes microbial fuel cells (MFCs). Firstly, the electrocatalytic activity towards oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) of the catalyst was investigated by rotating ring disk electrode (RRDE) setup with different catalyst loadings. The results showed that higher loading led to an increased in the half wave potential and the limiting current and to a further decrease in the peroxide production. The electrons transferred also slightly increased with the catalyst loading up to the value of
28 February 2018
Uric acid-derived Fe3C-containing mesoporous Fe/N/C composite with high activity for oxygen reduction reaction in alkaline medium
Publication date: 28 February 2018
Source:Journal of Power Sources, Volume 378 Author(s): Jun Ma, Dejian Xiao, Chang Li Chen, Qiaomei Luo, Yue Yu, Junhao Zhou, Changding Guo, Kai Li, Jie Ma, Lirong Zheng, Xia Zuo In this work, a category of Fe3C-containing Fe/N/C mesoporous material has been fabricated by carbonizing the mixture of uric acid, Iron (

The effects of gas diffusion layers structure on water transportation using X-ray computed tomography based Lattice Boltzmann method
Publication date: 28 February 2018
Source:Journal of Power Sources, Volume 378 Author(s): Fontip Jinuntuya, Michael Whiteley, Rui Chen, Ashley Fly The Gas Diffusion Layer (GDL) of a Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) plays a crucial role in overall cell performance. It is responsible for the dissemination of reactant gasses from the gas supply channels to the reactant sites at the Catalyst Layer (CL), and the adequate removal of product water from reactant sites back to the gas channels. Existing research into water transport in GDLs has been simplified to 2D estimations of GDL structures or use virtual stochastic models. This work uses X-ray computed tomography (XCT) to reconstruct three types of GDL in a model. These models are then analysed via Lattice Boltzmann methods to understand the water transport behaviours under differing contact angles and pressure differences. In this study, the three GDL samples were tested over the contact angles of 60°, 80°, 90°, 100°, 120° and 140° under applied pressure differences of 5 kPa, 10 kPa and 15 kPa. By varying the contact angle and pressure difference, it was found that the transition between stable displacement and capillary fingering is not a gradual process. Hydrophilic contact angles in the region of 60°<
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