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August 2018
Thermal optimization of induction-heated pulling-down furnace for quartz glass rod fabrication
Publication date: August 2018
Source:Applied Thermal Engineering, Volume 141 Author(s): Qianli Ma, Zhongyi Liu, Yonghong Zhong, Yudong Lang, Xiaozhou Liu, Haisheng Fang Quartz glass rods are widely used in modern industries due to their remarkable properties. In this paper, a systematic study is conducted to analyze the induction-heated pulling-down furnace for quartz glass rod fabrication using simulation methods. The softening zone of quartz glass rod plays a significant role in its quality, which needs proper controlling. Numerical simulations are performed to explore the influences of furnace design, including coil pitch, coil position, length and thickness of the afterheater, and thickness of the bottom insulation, on the softening zone range. In quantitative analysis, the softening zone is described using the length parameters l 1 and l 2 and the relative length l r. Single-factor analysis reveals that under current study conditions, increasing coil pitch or afterheater thickness is beneficial to the softening zone, while the other three factors exert non-monotonic effects. To identify optimal conditions for quartz glass rod fabrication, an orthogonal test design is employed with a comprehensive consideration of the five aforementioned factors. Based on the results, the influence of afterheater thickness on the softening zone is the most significant, and coil position is the least. An optimal furnace design is proposed that could provide useful insight into the fabrication of high-quality quartz glass rods.
August 2018
Experimental comparison and optimization guidance of R1233zd(E) as a drop-in replacement to R245fa for organic Rankine cycle application
Publication date: August 2018
Source:Applied Thermal Engineering, Volume 141 Author(s): Jingye Yang, Ziyang Sun, Binbin Yu, Jiangping Chen The organic Rankine cycle is capable of converting the low-temperature waste heat into electricity. The commonly used working fluid R245fa will be phased out in the near future because of the significant impact to climate change. In that case, a new refrigerant R1233zd(E) with extremely low GWP is proposed as an environmental friendly substitute in this paper. The investigation is processed with four steps: firstly, a thermodynamic analysis was carried out for prior prediction of the applicability of R1233zd(E) as an alternative to R245fa; secondly, an experimental comparison between two refrigerants was implemented under a design of extensive operating conditions; Afterwards, experimental results were presented. Differences in expansion and evaporation procedure based on three non-dimensionless indicators were analyzed; Eventually, a multi-objective optimization guidance involved with aforementioned indicators was proposed. Comparing the maximum cycle thermal efficiency, R1233zd(E) leads to approximately 3.8% higher than R245fa. Comparing the maximum output electrical power, R1233zd(E) leads to 4.5% better than R245fa. R1233zd(E) is proven as an appropriate alternative to R245fa based on current study. Prediction precision of the volume ratio dependent curves of filling factor and isentropic effectiveness are within 1.2% and 2.7%, which can be used to model a certain expander in optimization procedure.
August 2018
Meter-scale multi-loop capillary heat pipe
Publication date: August 2018
Source:Applied Thermal Engineering, Volume 141 Author(s): Shun Okazaki, Hideyuki Fuke, Hiroyuki Ogawa, Yoshiro Miyazaki, Katsumasa Takahashi, Noboru Yamada In this study, a newly proposed heat pipe system was investigated to transfer heat from a vertical heated plate to a vertical cooled plate arranged in parallel. The heat pipe system comprises 32 loops connected in series and a reservoir. Each square-shaped loop (with a side length of 2
August 2018
Alkali metal transformation and ash deposition performance of high alkali content Zhundong coal and its gasification fly ash under circulating fluidized bed combustion
Publication date: August 2018
Source:Applied Thermal Engineering, Volume 141 Author(s): Shaobo Yang, Guoliang Song, Yongjie Na, Zhao Yang Alkali metal transformation and ash deposition during combustion of Zhundong (ZD) coal and its gasification fly ash (ZDf) were studied in a 0.4
August 2018
Knocking behavior and emission characteristics of a port fuel injected hydrogen enriched compressed natural gas fueled spark ignition engine
Publication date: August 2018
Source:Applied Thermal Engineering, Volume 141 Author(s): S.M.V. Sagar, Avinash Kumar Agarwal Natural gas has highest hydrogen-to-carbon ratio among hydrocarbon fuels, which helps in reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Blending natural gas with hydrogen decreases emissions even further because of superior combustion characteristics of hydrogen enriched compressed natural gas (HCNG) mixtures. This study focuses on measurement of carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxides, hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide and particulate emissions from HCNG mixtures and compare them with that of baseline compressed natural gas. Hydrogen enriched fuels are prone to higher knocking therefore, experiments were conducted on a single cylinder port fuel injected spark ignition engine prototype using variety of test fuels such as compressed natural gas, 10, 20, 30, 50, 70% HCNG mixtures and hydrogen for in-depth understanding of relative particulates and gaseous emissions, in addition to determining the engine’s knocking characteristics. Experimental results showed that hydrogen enrichment of natural gas reduced emissions of carbon dioxide, hydrocarbons, and carbon monoxide however emissions of nitrogen oxides increased. Lowest knock intensity was observed for 30HCNG mixture. HCNG mixtures improved the engine out emissions and reduced the knocking tendency experienced with hydrogen fueling in internal combustion (IC) engines. Hydrogen enrichment of natural gas also reduced the carbon intensity of fuels, which in-turn reduced greenhouse gas emissions.
August 2018
Performance characteristics and working fluid selection for low-temperature binary-flashing cycle
Publication date: August 2018
Source:Applied Thermal Engineering, Volume 141 Author(s): Xi Liu, Huashan Li, Xianbiao Bu, Lingbao Wang, Ning Xie, Jie Zeng In this paper, the performance characteristics of a low-temperature thermal energy driven binary-flashing cycle (BFC) for power generation have been investigated. Also, the potentials of nine working fluids, including R245fa, R1233zd(E), R1234yf, R1234ze, R1234ze(Z), R600, R600a, R601 and R601a used in the BFC are comparably examined. Results show that, there exists an optimum vapor generation temperature that makes the BFC obtain the best thermodynamic performance. Also, an optimum flashing temperature exists for maximum net power output, while an increase in the flashing temperature always leads to the thermal efficiency and second law efficiency increasing as well as the total exergy destruction rate and cooling water mass flow rate needed decreasing. With the BFC operating at optimum vapor generation temperature and flashing temperature, the heat source temperature always offers positive contribution on the BFC performance. Besides, the thermodynamic performance of the BFC as well as its optimum parameters has a strong connection with the critical temperature of working fluids in general. The higher the critical temperature of working fluids is, the better the BFC performance will be. Therefore, among the working fluids examined, R601 with the highest critical temperature should be recommended as working fluid for the BFC.
August 2018
Experimental investigation and theoretical analysis of the human comfort prediction model in a confined living space
Publication date: August 2018
Source:Applied Thermal Engineering, Volume 141 Author(s): Yan Du, Shu Wang, Long-zhe Jin, Sheng Wang, Wen-mei Gai We investigated the fitting point at which a reasonable level of comfort could be ensured for people in a refuge chamber as well as the longest amount of time they could comfortably be in the chamber before being rescued. Using theoretical analysis and experimental investigation, we developed human comfort prediction models, including a single environmental factor model and a multiple environmental factor model. The models considered four key factors: oxygen volume fraction, carbon dioxide volume fraction, environmental temperature, and humidity. We modified and applied the predicted mean vote grade method to analyze one group of data with 169 data points of human comfort with single and multiple environmental factors. A large number of human comfort experiments were implemented to obtain human comfort data and verify the results of our theoretical calculations. We analyzed and calculated the recommended tolerance limits of the four factors for the rescue subjects to survive to allocate the limited resources and reduce energy consumption to prolong the survival time of the subjects to wait for rescue. The living conditions in a refuge chamber should be controlled to the point at which the oxygen volume fraction is at 18–22.7%, the carbon dioxide volume fraction is less than 1%, the temperature is less than 35
August 2018
Effect of hydrothermal dewatering on the pyrolysis characteristics of Chinese low-rank coals
Publication date: August 2018
Source:Applied Thermal Engineering, Volume 141 Author(s): Lichao Ge, Hongcui Feng, Chang Xu, Yanwei Zhang, Zhihua Wang This paper describes the effect of the hydrothermal dewatering (HTD) on the pyrolysis characteristics of low-rank coals (LRCs). The effect of HTD on the characteristics of LRCs was explored based on scanning electronic microscopy and N2 adsorption analyses. The pyrolysis behaviors and gas products were determined using a TG-FTIR instrument. The results show that the crosslink structure and overall gel structure were broken. The pore structure expanded to the micropore region, and the surface area and total pore volume initially increased and then decreased as the treatment temperature increased. The TG-DTG results confirmed that the pyrolysis process moved towards the high-temperature and bituminous coal region. The characteristic parameters of pyrolysis indicated that the thermal stability of the coal structure was improved. According to the TG-FTIR results, the amount of released gas products from stable and saturated components (such as p-xylene, phenol and CH4) increased, whereas the amount of released gas products from unstable and unsaturated components (such as CO2, CO and formic acid) decreased. The unstable structure and components of the LRCs were decomposed and transformed, and a stable structure and phase were created. Moreover, pyrolysis activity declined, and thermal stability improved.
August 2018
Effect of the insulation level on the thermal response of a PCM-modified envelope of a dwelling in Chile
Publication date: August 2018
Source:Applied Thermal Engineering, Volume 141 Author(s): Tom
August 2018
Experimental investigation of injection strategies on particle emission characteristics of Partially-premixed low temperature combustion mode
Publication date: August 2018
Source:Applied Thermal Engineering, Volume 141 Author(s): Bei Liu, Xiaobei Cheng, Jialu Liu, Han Pu Compared with the traditional combustion mode, Partially-premixed combustion (PPC) mode can reduce the particulate emissions. However, the particulate emission characteristics of this strategy do not have a clear conclusion. Based on a 4-cylinder turbocharged diesel engine, this paper aims at studying the influence of the fuel injection timing, injection pressure and the pilot injection to the engine combustion and emission characteristics under the condition of single-injection and split-injection PPC mode respectively. The results show that the early-injection PPC under single-injection strategy can reduce the number, mass and GMD of particles obviously. Increasing the injection pressure reduces the number concentration of particulates of the accumulation mode, but increases the number concentration of the nucleation mode. The total number and mass concentration reach up to the peak with the pilot injection timing is
August 2018
Fast algorithms for generating thermal boundary conditions in combustion chambers
Publication date: August 2018
Source:Applied Thermal Engineering, Volume 141 Author(s): Peter H
August 2018
Investigation on the combustion performance enhancement of the premixed methane/air in a two-step micro combustor
Publication date: August 2018
Source:Applied Thermal Engineering, Volume 141 Author(s): Jiaqiang E, Haojie Liu, Xiaohuan Zhao, Dandan Han, Qingguo Peng, Wei Zuo, Tian Meng, Runzhi Qiu After a two-step global reaction mechanism is used to compute the chemical reactions of the reacting flows, a premixed methane/air combustion model of a two-step micro combustor is established based on some effect factors such as step angle, wall materials and inlet velocity. Moreover, the three or four kinds of the micro two-step combustors are used to investigate the effect of flame shape in the micro-channel, temperature characteristic, velocity field on the premixed methane combustion and field synergetic degree of the premixed methane/air combustion. It’s shown that a suitable step angle and inlet velocity are very useful for enhancing the stability of methane premixed combustion of the two-step micro combustor, and the methane premixed combustion of the two-step micro combustor is also influenced by the wall matericals. Average temperatures of the outlet and combustion efficiencies of the two-step micro combustor at different inlet velocities are verified by the measurement results. It’s shown that there are good comprehensive performance and higher synergy degree of the two-step micro combustor at the inlet velocities of 2
August 2018
Numerical investigation of ballistic-diffusive heat transfer through a constriction with the Boltzmann transport equation
Publication date: August 2018
Source:Applied Thermal Engineering, Volume 141 Author(s): Saeid Zahiri, Jiaqi Zuo, Yongxing Shen, Hua Bao Thermal constriction resistance plays an important role in the study of thermal contact resistance. It also helps with better understanding and tuning the thermal properties of nano porous structures. For investigating the size effect on thermal constriction resistance, the phonon Boltzmann transport equation (BTE) can be adopted as it can cover the ballistic to diffusive regime. In this research, by incorporating phonon dispersion and polarization, the nongray phonon BTE is adopted to reveal details of thermal transport through a constriction. The numerical scheme is implemented over different ranges of the Knudsen numbers and the constriction ratios. The results of the gray, two- and five-band nongray BTE simulations for different constriction widths are compared. Under the gray assumption, it is found that with the same geometry a more diffusive case will result in smaller resistance. In the ballistic limit, with the same total contact area, the number of contact points does not affect the constriction resistance. In the diffusive limit, more contact points will lead to smaller resistance. For the nongray cases, the contribution of each band is analyzed. It is shown that in the ballistic limit, the gray approximation results reasonably agree with the nongray results. There is larger difference between the gray and the nongray results for a larger constriction width. While the conductance for larger constriction width increases for all bands, the percentage contribution of the conductance of each band can be increased or decreased according to its mean free path.
August 2018
Theoretical and experimental investigations of isosteric heats for water adsorption on silica gel surfaces
Publication date: August 2018
Source:Applied Thermal Engineering, Volume 141 Author(s): Wu Fan, Anutosh Chakraborty, Kai Choong Leong The knowledge of the isosteric heats ( Q st o ) is essential to design porous adsorbents for calculating the performances of adsorption-assisted cooling, separation and gas storage systems. This paper presents a thermodynamic framework to calculate the interaction potentials and isosteric heats for water adsorption on SiO2 structures. Here both Lennard Jones (LJ) and electrostatic potentials are considered. It is found that (i) Q st o varies from 1.37
August 2018
Nucleate pool boiling heat transfer of SES36 fluid on nanoporous surfaces obtained by electrophoretic deposition of Al2O3
Publication date: August 2018
Source:Applied Thermal Engineering, Volume 141 Author(s): Gu Song, Philip A. Davies, Jie Wen, Guoqiang Xu, Yongkai Quan With the aim of enhancing pool boiling heat transfer coefficient (HTC), the nucleate boiling performance of nanoporous surfaces obtained by an electrophoretic deposition (EPD) method is evaluated in this paper, with SES36 as the boiling fluid. A pool boiling experimental apparatus and procedure are described. Three kinds of experiment have been performed: (i) smooth stainless steel (SS) surface with pure SES36, providing the baseline; (ii) smooth SS surface with boiling nanofluid consisting of 0.5, 1 and 2
August 2018
Simulation of propane-air premixed combustion process in randomly packed beds
Publication date: August 2018
Source:Applied Thermal Engineering, Volume 141 Author(s): Linsong Jiang, Hongsheng Liu, Shaoyi Suo, Maozao Xie, Minli Bai Real geometric structures of randomly packed beds are modeled using the discrete element software LIGGGHTS. The wall-adapting local eddy-viscosity (WALE) model and the EBU-Arrhenius combustion model are used to simulate the propane-air premixed combustion process in the randomly packed beds, and the calculated results are compared with experimental data. The results reveal that the turbulence model and combustion model used in this paper are reasonable. Next, propagation velocity, area, mean vorticity and fractal dimension of a flame surface are calculated at various time points with different inlet velocities to investigate the changes in flame characteristics during the combustion process and the effect of increasing the inlet velocity. According to our results, the flame propagation velocity changes do not exhibit a clear trend over time. However, the variation trends of the two curves under the different inlet velocities are similar. In addition, the fractal dimension exhibits no obvious rule of increasing or decreasing during the combustion process. The area and mean vorticity of the flame surface increase with time. However, the rules of increase are not exactly the same. In addition, the flame regimes at various time points are identified. The results reveal that the turbulent premixed flames in a packed bed under two inlet velocities are concentrated in the thin reaction zone.
August 2018
Numerical investigation on non-Newtonian fluid flowing in heat exchanger with different elliptic aspect ratios and helical angles
Publication date: August 2018
Source:Applied Thermal Engineering, Volume 141 Author(s): Wenzhu Lin, Ziye Ling, Xiaoming Fang, Xuenong Gao, Zhengguo Zhang In this paper, the heat transfer and flow performance of the non-Newtonian fluid on the shell side of heat exchanger combined with elliptic tubes and helical baffles were numerically investigated, different helix angles and helical aspect ratios were studied to improve the heat exchanger’s overall performance. An aqueous solution with 3.0% weight fraction of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) was selected as the working fluid, which was a kind of non-Newtonian fluid with low viscosity and good stability. The results showed that the increasing aspect ratio improve the heat transfer, but also lead to higher pressure drop. The heat exchanger with aspect ratio between 2.5 and 3.0 has the best heat transfer and flow performance. For the helical angle, both the heat transfer rate and pressure drop increase with the smaller angle. Thermal performance factor (TPF) is taken to evaluate the comprehensive performance, the result showed that when helical angle is 40°, both the TPF and the heat transfer coefficient per pressure drop h o·
August 2018
Experimental investigation of thermal cycling effect on physical and mechanical properties of bedrocks in geothermal fields
Publication date: August 2018
Source:Applied Thermal Engineering, Volume 141 Author(s): Guan Rong, Jun Peng, Ming Cai, Mengdi Yao, Chuangbing Zhou, Song Sha High temperature associated with geothermal fields affects the performance of bedrocks. Evaluation of physical and mechanical behavior of rocks in the process of thermal cycling at high temperature is one of the main issue in this application, which is also the main topic of the present study. In this study, microscopic observation and uniaxial compression tests with acoustic emission (AE) monitoring were conducted on two bedrocks (i.e., marble and granite) after treatment with different thermal cycles at high temperature. It is found that the P-wave velocity decreases as the number of thermal cycle increases. The characteristic stress levels and Young’s modulus decrease with the increase of the number of thermal cycle in the treatment. The peak strain and the maximum volumetric strain show an increasing trend as the number of thermal cycle increases. After failure, more fragments are observed in specimens treated with more thermal cycles and the integrity is also found to be lower than specimens treated with less thermal cycles. The AE technique is able to capture the failure process and the associated micro-cracking behavior during loading. The degradation of macro-properties of the rocks is to a large extent attributed to the generation of grain boundary and intra-grain micro-cracks inside the rock specimens due to the applied thermal stress. Overall, the thermal cycling weakens the mechanical properties of rocks; however, the weakening effect will become not pronounced with the increase of the number of thermal cycle in the treatment if a high temperature is applied as in this study (i.e., 600
August 2018
Comparative performance assessment of plate heat exchangers with triangular corrugation
Publication date: August 2018
Source:Applied Thermal Engineering, Volume 141 Author(s): Asal Sharif, Bernd Ameel, Ilya T'Jollyn, Steven Lecompte, Michel De Paepe A three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics approach with the Reynolds stress model is considered to investigate the influence of the apex angle on the thermal and hydraulic features of triangular cross-corrugated heat exchangers for a range of Reynolds numbers 310–2064. The influence of the intensity and complexity of the recirculation zones along with the turbulence intensity on those characteristics and corresponding viscous and pressure forces are studied. The choice of the computational domain as a unitary cell with periodic boundary condition versus a long channel with several cells is discussed. One on one comparison between the Reynolds stress model and experimental results shows less than 5% deviation, which is within the uncertainty of the experiment. By increasing the apex angle both pressure drop and heat transfer coefficient increase, due to the increase of the pressure force and the vorticity magnitude along the flow direction. The pressure force is the dominant force, contrary to pipe flow, where the viscous force is dominant. The influence of the apex angle on the friction factor and the Colburn j factor follows two distinguished trends. The apex angles around of 90°–100° are the transitional angles for the flow regime. Peak of turbulence intensity, friction factor and Colburn j factor are observed around these angles. The ratio between pressure and viscous forces decays after angle 100°, resulting in a smaller recirculation zone and lower turbulence intensity. Finally, the thermo-hydraulic performance of the considered geometries is compared with respect to each other based on a performance evaluation criterion. It is found that the geometry with the largest apex angle has the highest thermo-hydraulic performance.
August 2018
Performance of two-region porous inert medium burners operating at low thermal powers
Publication date: August 2018
Source:Applied Thermal Engineering, Volume 141 Author(s): Ayman I. Bakry, Karim Rabea, Magda K. El-Fakharany, Faisal B. Baz Performance of two-region, square-shaped porous inert medium (PIM) burners operating at low thermal powers (densities) of 0.7–2.5
August 2018
Control strategy of compressor and sub-cooler in variable refrigerant flow air conditioning system for high EER and comfortable indoor environment
Publication date: August 2018
Source:Applied Thermal Engineering, Volume 141 Author(s): Qiu Tu, Lina Zhang, Wei Cai, Xiujuan Guo, Xiaojun Yuan, Chenmian Deng, Jie Zhang The contradiction between increasing demand of variable refrigerant flow (VRF) air conditioning system and high energy consumption has stimulated great interest in energy saving without sacrificing the environmental comfort and reliability. This work greatly aimed at achieving enhanced energy conservation, comfortable environment and reliable operation by the coordination control of the compressor and sub-cooler in VRF system. The dynamic control model of the compressor output capacity was developed on the base of the static model, in which the average gas pipe temperature in the indoor units was used to calibrate the dynamic reference pressure control target. The influence of the static and dynamic control model on the cooling performance of VRF system with sub-cooler was comparatively tested and analyzed. The experimental results show that when one and two indoor units were thermo-on, the EERs by the dynamic control model were respectively 1.1–9.4% and 7.9–32.6% higher than those by the static model, and the air outlet temperatures can be controlled at 13.5–15
August 2018
HFOs and their binary mixtures with HFC134a working as drop-in refrigerant in a household refrigerator: Energy analysis and environmental impact assessment
Publication date: August 2018
Source:Applied Thermal Engineering, Volume 141 Author(s): C. Aprea, A. Greco, A. Maiorino Global warming is a worldwide common theme. Due to the Regulation (EU) no. 517/2014, refrigerants with a GWP (Global Warming Potential) higher than 150 are not allowed from January 1st, 2015 in new domestic refrigerators. Thus, a replacement for HFC134a is needed. In this paper attention is devoted to the drop-in substitution of HFC134a with HFO refrigerant fluids in a domestic refrigerator. An experimental evaluation of the environmental impact in term of the greenhouse effect of the substitution of HFC134a with HFOs has been reported. The greenhouse effect is accounted for the experimental evaluation of the LCCP (Life Cycle Climate Performance) index. The refrigerant fluids that have been tested as a drop-in are: pure HFO1234yf, the mixture HFO1234yf/HFC134a (90/10% in weight), pure HFO1234ze (E) and the mixture HFO1234ze (E)/HFC134a (90/10% in weight). The plant working with pure HFOs or with both mixtures achieves the same temperature levels of HFC134a in the freezer and the refrigerator cabinet. The experimental results clearly show that the lower environmental impact in term of global warming can be achieved with both mixtures. The lower LCCP index can be obtained with HFC134a/HFO1234yf (with a 17% reduction respect to HFC134a).
August 2018
Prediction of annular pressure caused by thermal expansion by considering the variability of fluid properties
Publication date: August 2018
Source:Applied Thermal Engineering, Volume 141 Author(s): Lisong Wang, Baokui Gao, Liang Gao, Tianxiang Hu To accurately predict annular pressure build-up, which is caused by the thermal expansion of fluid in deepwater wells, a prediction model should consider that the thermal expansion coefficient and compressibility of the fluid vary with temperature and pressure. By means of 2-D Lagrangian interpolation, polynomial expressions are proposed to obtain the expansion coefficient and compressibility of water. A series of laboratory experiments is conducted to validate these polynomials. The numerical and experimental errors and error propagation are analyzed, indicating that the relative errors between the theoretical and experimental data are acceptable in engineering. To apply these polynomials to the estimation of annular pressure, the prediction model is improved. A case study and some crucial factors are analyzed. The results show that compared with published models that did not properly consider the fluid properties, the improved model, which is based on the proposed interpolation polynomials, advances the prediction accuracy. It is important to adopt the improved model and interpolation polynomials to predict the risk in engineering because, in most cases, previously published models may lead to unacceptable errors and an underestimation of the pressure. These findings help engineers predict annular pressure more accurately and contribute to the safety design of deepwater wells.
August 2018
Improving the partial-load fuel economy of 4-cylinder SI engines by combining variable valve timing and cylinder-deactivation through double intake manifolds
Publication date: August 2018
Source:Applied Thermal Engineering, Volume 141 Author(s): Jinxing Zhao, Qingyuan Xi, Shuwen Wang, Sen Wang The SI engines in passenger cars run in the partial-load conditions in the most time especially in the urban driving cycles; thus it is particularly important to improve the partial-load fuel economy. Cylinder deactivation (CDA) and variable valve timing (VVT) could be applied to improve the fuel economy in the middle to low load region. Current CDA technologies are realized by deactivating all intake and exhaust valves (CDAV) of the inactive cylinders with special mechanisms increasing system cost and complexity. An innovative CDA method is proposed for 4-cylinder SI engines through double intake manifolds (CDAM). A novel load control strategy combining the CDAM and VVT along with late intake valve closure (LIVC) has been investigated. The results show that the pumping loss decreases by 58.9–65.6% and 24.5–35.3%; and the fuel economy improves by 5.5–17.6% and 3.1–9.2% in the CDA mode at 2000
August 2018
Generic approach for estimating final feed water temperature and extraction pressures in pulverised coal power plants
Publication date: August 2018
Source:Applied Thermal Engineering, Volume 141 Author(s): P.U. Akpan, W.F. Fuls An important choice that Coal fired power plant (CFPPs) designer needs to make is the final feed water temperature (FFWT) as well as extraction pressures from the turbines which supplies heating steam to the heaters. Different methods have been reported in literature for determining the extraction pressures. The optimal cycle efficiency method (OCEM) appears to be the most common approach reported. It adopts an equal partitioning of feed water temperature (or enthalpy) rise across all the feed water heaters including the economizer which is situated in the boiler. However, it seems that most power plant designers deviate from this approach for economic and/or operational reasons. Different OEMs have developed thermo-economically optimized methods for determining the FWH extraction pressures. However, these methods are not disclosed in open literature. In this research, the normalized feed water temperature rise across the FWHs and economizers of various CFPPs were examined. A modification of the OCEM approach which better correlates to what is observed in current plants is proposed. The key modification is in incorporating a suitable FFWT. Furthermore, the feed water temperature rise between the condenser exit and the FFWT is equally partitioned across all the feed heaters (excluding the economizers). The method was tested on the case study plants, and a maximum error of 7% was found for the final feed water temperatures while the maximum error of the saturated vapour enthalpies that were calculated using the predicted extraction pressures was 2.2%.
August 2018
Energy and economic savings through a plant supervised management in large-scale commercial activities
Publication date: August 2018
Source:Applied Thermal Engineering, Volume 141 Author(s): Guido Francesco Frate, Lorenzo Ferrari, Umberto Desideri, Francesco Sorbi, Nicola Bosi, Martina Lazzari In a commercial activity, the energy consumption is due to several nearly independent subsystems, which are potential targets for specific energy saving actions. One of the most promising technique consists in a supervised management of some of these subsystems. This approach leads to improve the energy utilization efficiency without invasive or costly interventions. To assess the potential of such technique, a preliminary analysis of the consumption components is needed. Since the energy consumption is strongly affected by several specific and highly variable parameters, the impact of the management cannot be estimated in a traditional way. Rather than formulating detailed and specific models, whose development is not always possible, a more simplified, yet accurate, approach can be followed. In this study, the yearly consumption of seven Italian supermarkets was analysed and divided into its main components to evaluate the potentiality of a grey-box approach to model the consumption of these commercial activities. With little modifications due to significant different systems layouts, not only the approach, but also the model parameters can be used to characterize several supermarkets. The consumptions before and after the supervised management implementation has been compared by calculating the savings achieved in each consumption component, and thus assessing the economic and energy potential of such techniques.
August 2018
An experimental study on the hydrodynamic performance of the water-wall system of a 600
August 2018
Model-based analysis of thermal energy storage for multiple temperature level heat supply
Publication date: August 2018
Source:Applied Thermal Engineering, Volume 141 Author(s): Mirko Nicotra, Matteo Caldera, Pierluigi Leone, Fabio Zanghirella Thermal Energy Storages (TES) are widely used in many energy systems and improving their performance has become increasingly important. Various CFD models are currently available, both one-dimensional and multi-dimensional, with different level of accuracy, computational cost and capability to be generalised. This work is aimed at analising the relevant phases, i.e. charge, discharge and low inertial discharge, of a couple of hot water TES characterized by different inlet temperatures and flow rates, with three numerical approaches: 1D, 2D, and a reduced model. In particular, the latter approach provides a simple analytical function for the evaluation of the temperature profile inside the tanks. The numerical models are validated on experimental data obtained from a test bench with two hot water tanks, in which one tank is connected to a micro-CHP while the other is connected to a heat pump, and operated at different temperature levels. The results of the 2D and the reduced models are in good agreement with experiments showing a maximum error lower than 1.2
August 2018
Definition and comparison of mixed expansion efficiency for cooled turbine
Publication date: August 2018
Source:Applied Thermal Engineering, Volume 141 Author(s): Wei Ba, Xiao-chen Wang, Xue-song Li, Xiao-dong Ren, Chun-wei Gu Over the years, there has been continual increase in the temperature inside a turbine inlet through improvements in the gas turbine efficiency and specific power, and cooling technologies to deal with such temperature increases have been under development for decades. However, the definition of “efficiency” remains ambiguous for cooled turbines, with no consensus achieved on the ideal expansion process. This paper first reviews several proposed definitions, Hartsel, MP (mainstream-pressure), FR (fully reversible), and WP (weighted-pressure) of efficiency and then presents a new one to overcome the existing shortage. The increase in entropy related to mixing is first analysed to demonstrate that FR efficiency consistently provides a significantly lower value than the other definitions, assuming the unavoidable entropy generation to be zero. The flow mixing in a smooth adiabatic channel is then analysed to show that the WP ideal process is not sufficiently “ideal.” A fully mixed (FM) definition is then proposed based on a physical mixing process, followed by isentropic expansion, the value of which does not differ significantly from most of the proposed definitions, and is able to consider the influence of the inlet Mach number on the hypothetical ideal process. Finally, this paper compares several definitions in view of the thermodynamic cycle, and shows that the FM definition can determine the performance potential of an existing turbine better than the other definitions, which means that the FM efficiency can be used as a reliable tool for the performance evaluation and optimization of a cooled turbine.
August 2018
An overview on the developing trend of pulsating heat pipe and its performance
Publication date: August 2018
Source:Applied Thermal Engineering, Volume 141 Author(s): Durga Bastakoti, Hongna Zhang, Da Li, Weihua Cai, Fengchen Li The world is running against time to develop enough source of sustainable energy. Producing a viable and eco-friendly energy source is one part of the solving the energy crisis, and managing it efficiently is another. Since the development of Pulsating Heat Pipe (PHP) in early 1990s, it has gained a lot of attention as potential heat management system that is passive, efficient, compact yet simple, and could address the issues related to higher heat flux in micro-electronic devices. Researchers have been working on not only to develop the advanced form of the PHP, but also in understanding the working phenomenon of operational heat pipe. With the introduction of different kinds of working conditions for the operation of the device, including the geometric parameters, orientation, heat input, and other operational parameters, researches have revealed many functioning and non-functioning features which are very complex. Introduction of various kinds of fluids as the working material for the PHP have yielded different responses by the system at different fill ratio (FR). Though many scientists have worked day and night to fully understand the thermo-physical behavior through experimental investigation, numerical and computational approach and theoretical approach, full-fledge understanding of the operational mechanism is not yet achieved. This is due to the involvement of complex coupling effect of hydrodynamic and thermodynamic features, and the presence of liquid-slug and vapor-plug system. Nevertheless PHP has found many potential application fields in the area of thermal management. In recent years, researches on PHP have shifted from conventional investigation to newer dimensions that include use of non-conventional working fluids, visualization techniques, and rigorous computational works. This review paper is mainly focused on the results of experimental and numerical works done by researchers in the recent past. Authors believe that this paper will be very useful for future researchers to understand the recent trends in this arena better. This paper also exposes the latest works on PHP with potential and promising applications in novel field of thermal management.
August 2018
A lab-scale experiment on low-temperature coal oxidation in context of underground coal fires
Publication date: August 2018
Source:Applied Thermal Engineering, Volume 141 Author(s): Jun Li, Pengbin Fu, Qiren Zhu, Yandong Mao, Cheng Yang Underground coal fires (UCFs) cause remarkable loss of energy resources and significant environmental pollution. Understanding the fundamental characteristics of low-temperature oxidation of coal is related to the prevention and detection of UCFs. A lab-scale experimental setup is designed and built to study the coal spontaneous combustion under the natural convection of air into the coal layer. Alumina porous ceramic blocks with through-cuts are employed to simulate the overburden above the coal seam. Temporal variation of coal temperature, exhaust gases temperature and volumetric fractions of CO and CO2 are measured and analyzed. In addition, the thermal anomaly on the overburden surface is monitored, and its correlation with the underneath coal temperature is identified. It is found that air supply is the primary limiting factor that dictates the intensity of coal-oxygen reactions, and the ratio of CO2/CO in the exhaust gases exhibits a strong dependence on the regime of coal-oxygen reactions.
August 2018
Thermo-physical properties of Cu-Zn-Al LDH nanofluid and its application in spray cooling
Publication date: August 2018
Source:Applied Thermal Engineering, Volume 141 Author(s): Samarshi Chakraborty, Ishita Sarkar, Avinash Ashok, Iman Sengupta, Surjya K. Pal, Sudipto Chakraborty The current experimental investigation deals with the thermo-physical attributes of Cu-Zn-Al LDH nanofluid its use in high temperature steel cooling. Here, authors used three metals (Copper, Aluminium, and Zinc) having high thermal conductivity to synthesize a brand new nanofluid for heat transfer application. Authors have achieved moderate increment (13.9%) in thermal conductivity value compared to water. A section of this work also aims to maximize the cooling rate which aids in improving mechanical properties of quenched steel plate. The maximum cooling rate of 158.4
August 2018
Analysis of convection enhancing complex shaped adsorption vessels
Publication date: August 2018
Source:Applied Thermal Engineering, Volume 141 Author(s): D.S. Prado, R.C.R. Amigo, J.L. Paiva, E.C.N. Silva This work focuses on studying the adsorbent vessel external shape influences on the air surrounding the tank and, consequently, affecting the heat exchange by convection, hence passively increasing the system efficiency. Many studies in the literature focus on improving the adsorbent vessels interior and aspect ratio. However, a new approach is explored herein, the improvement on the external vessel geometry aiming to enhance the heat exchange by convection due the flow caused by its own generated heat. Then, by managing the heat generated by adsorption chemical reaction and converting it to air mass displacement, the vessel is improved without external energy sources. This study scientific contribution is to present an approach for an adsorbent tank model. The approach consists in coupling the dynamics of external air fluid and adsorption in the vessel interior, which is capable of generating a heat transfer coefficient that depends on geometry. The problem is divided into two domains and solved via the Finite Element Method. For the adsorbent domain, the equations are presented. Both domains are tied via the conduction heat transfer in the vessels wall. Several different designs are presented and exposed to an adsorption charging cycle. Methane is stored in an activated carbon bed. Results are presented, by comparing the temperature fields between the designs and the velocity fields as well as the amount of exchanged heat between the vessel wall and the external media. The value of the heat transfer coefficient is plotted on the designs walls for comparison. Additionally, the conventional approach (fixed h) and the variable h approach are compared. Results suggest an optimisation regarding the vessel external geometry is promising. This method allows measuring the improvement of adsorption systems by improving the natural convection due the external geometry, hence passively improving its efficiency (adsorption rate) and reducing its operational cost (when compared to active methods, such as heat exchangers) or its capacity (total amount of stored gas).
August 2018
Performance of molten sodium vs. molten salts in a packed bed thermal energy storage
Publication date: August 2018
Source:Applied Thermal Engineering, Volume 141 Author(s): Klarissa Niedermeier, Luca Marocco, Jonathan Flesch, Gowtham Mohan, Joe Coventry, Thomas Wetzel Concentrating solar power plants are currently working with Solar Salt and conventional Rankine steam power cycles with upper temperatures of 565
August 2018
Thermal model of the Gas Metal Arc Welding hardfacing process
Publication date: August 2018
Source:Applied Thermal Engineering, Volume 141 Author(s): Andrzej Sachajdak, Jacek S
August 2018
Modeling and optimization criteria of scroll expander integrated into organic Rankine cycle for comparison of R1233zd(E) as an alternative to R245fa
Publication date: August 2018
Source:Applied Thermal Engineering, Volume 141 Author(s): Jingye Yang, Ziyang Sun, Binbin Yu, Jiangping Chen HFCs are suggested to be banned in 2020 because of high GWP (Global Warming Potential). New type of HFO refrigerant R1233zd(E) is proposed as a drop-in replacement to R245fa for organic Rankine cycle application considering the similar thermo-physical properties. In this paper, a description of previous experimental comparison between two refrigerants is presented in the first section. In the second section, further investigation in expansion procedure is implemented with a semi-empirical expander model, which is validated with experimental data based on ‘Genetic Algorithm’. Internal leakage, mechanical friction and heat transfer are presented as main irreversible losses. Input parameters are assigned to mass flow rate, expander rotational speed, supply temperature and exhaust pressure. Supply pressure, exhaust temperature and net power are computed as output results. The maximum deviation between the measured and predicted results are 3.35%, 2.24
August 2018
Hydraulic resistance of in-tube cooling supercritical water accompanying out-tube pool boiling
Publication date: August 2018
Source:Applied Thermal Engineering, Volume 141 Author(s): Haicai Lv, Qincheng Bi, Zanjian Zhang, Ge Zhu, Kun Li, Hongyang Liu The experiment was conducted by immersing a smooth horizontal tube in a pool tank to simulate the flow condition of Passive Residual Heat Removal System (PRHRS) in a SuperCritical Water-cooled Reactor (SCWR). Hydraulic resistance and friction factor of in-tube cooling supercritical water accompanying out-tube pool boiling were investigated in this study with test pressure ranging from 23 to 28
August 2018
Efficient solar water vapor generation enabled by water-absorbing polypyrrole coated cotton fabric with enhanced heat localization
Publication date: August 2018
Source:Applied Thermal Engineering, Volume 141 Author(s): Dandan Hao, Yudi Yang, Bi Xu, Zaisheng Cai Solar-driven water evaporation is a simple and feasible technique in addressing the global challenge of freshwater scarcity. The conventional water vapor generation is a bulk heating process, resulting in a relatively low efficiency due to unnecessary thermal energy loss. In this work, we propose an efficient water evaporation system with enhanced localized heating which was designed by using the polypyrrole (PPy) coated cotton fabric in conjunction with a floating pore-closed polystyrene (PS) foam. The hydrophilic PPy/cotton with a broadband light absorption was obtained via a facile in-situ polymerization, and it could absorb and convert most of the incident light to heat for effective interfacial water evaporation. Meanwhile, the PS foam served as not only a supporting material but also an excellent heat barrier to restrain heat transmission from the photothermal material surface to the bulk water. The PPy/cotton-foam system can achieve a solar thermal conversion efficiency of 82.4% under 1
August 2018
Air cooling low concentrated photovoltaic/thermal (LCPV/T) solar collector to approach uniform temperature distribution on the PV plate
Publication date: August 2018
Source:Applied Thermal Engineering, Volume 141 Author(s): Yasaman Amanlou, Teymour Tavakoli Hashjin, Barat Ghobadian, G. Najafi In this study, to prevent local excessive temperature on a photovoltaic module, uniformity of air flow as cooling fluid in a low concentrated photovoltaic/thermal (LCPV/T) collector has considered. To obtain a uniform distribution of airflow taking into account the overall operating conditions, eight different geometries of diffuser were investigated theoretically by using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Simulations were conducted on the most appropriate sketch with acceptable uniform air flow distribution on the PV module. The experimental results showed that the new designed diffuser significantly developed an even distribution of air velocity throughout the collector. Comparing the results with the previously published results showed that the new diffuser concave side walls and three inner deflectors improved the electrical efficiency of the PV/T collector by 20%. Also the effects of air flow rates (three levels) and concentrated solar illumination on the performance of a PV/System was experimentally measured. Using a concentrator improves electrical, thermal and overall efficiency by 36%, 42.2% and 40.5% respectively. By increasing air flow rate from 0.008 to 0.016 (kg/s); the electrical, thermal and overall efficiency were improved by 13.5, 22.75 and 22.41% respectively.
August 2018
Enhanced nucleate boiling on 3D-printed micro-porous structured surface
Publication date: August 2018
Source:Applied Thermal Engineering, Volume 141 Author(s): Haozhi Bian, C. Kurwitz, Zhongning Sun, Kun Cheng, Kailun Chen With the fast growth of 3D printing technologies, it is promising to apply 3D printed structures to nuclear power plant (NPP) devices for heat transfer enhancement. Since Inconel and steel are commonly used materials for NPP devices (e.g. reactor core components and steam generators), investigations on 3D printed structures made of these materials are of necessary. In the present work, an Inconel smooth plate and three 3D-printed test samples (grooves, pin-fins and cubes) with micro-porous structured surfaces were tested. The smooth plate is made of Inconel and the 3D printed samples are made of steel-bronze mixture. In tests, heat flux, surface temperature, pressure, etc. were obtained by a data acquisition system. In addition, videos were recorded by a NAC high speed camera for visualization study. Comparisons were made among various testing samples to find the optimum structure. Results indicate that all the 3D printed samples show better boiling heat transfer at low heat flux conditions compared to that of the Inconel plate. With the increase of heat flux, the degree of heat transfer enhancement weakens. Among the three 3D printed samples, the cubes sample demonstrates the best heat transfer performance and the pin-fins one shows the worst.
August 2018
Effect of working parameters of the plate heat exchanger on the thermal performance of the anti-bact heat exchanger system to disinfect Legionella hot water systems
Publication date: August 2018
Source:Applied Thermal Engineering, Volume 141 Author(s): Lobna Altorkmany, Mohamad Kharseh, Anna-Lena Ljung, T. Staffan Lundstr
August 2018
Power production limitations due to the environmental effects on the thermal effectiveness of NDDCT in an operating powerplant
Publication date: August 2018
Source:Applied Thermal Engineering, Volume 141 Author(s): A. Jahangiri, F. Rahmani In this paper, the recorded operational data regarding one of the Heller towers in Shahid Montazeri powerplant has been analyzed by a 3-dimensional numerical study on its thermal effectiveness under different headwind and air temperature conditions. The detailed thermodynamic cycle of this powerplant unit was simulated which has corroborated that the net power generation in this unit has been affected considerably by wind speed and air temperature. The results indicate that in conditions of increasing wind speed and ambient temperature, the Heller tower effectiveness decreases and consequently power generation in this powerplant unit is diminished. The negative effects resulting from the increased temperature is more beyond than that of the wind speed. However, both temperature and wind speed increase simultaneously will result in significant effects on the cycle thermal efficiency. Therefore, as the ambient temperature reaches as much as 25
August 2018
Performance comparison of single- and multi-stage onboard thermoelectric generators and stage number optimization at a large temperature difference
Publication date: August 2018
Source:Applied Thermal Engineering, Volume 141 Author(s): Kunlin Cheng, Jiang Qin, Yuguang Jiang, Silong Zhang, Wen Bao Thermoelectric generator (TEG) is a possible technology of electricity generation for hypersonic vehicles. In this article, a TEG model with variable stage numbers considering the flow and heat transfer process of heat source and cold source, has been developed to compare the performances of single- and multi-stage TEGs at large temperature differences. The thermal resistances of the channel walls and ceramic plate have also been taken into account. The results indicate that the thermal resistance of ceramic plate has a weak influence on the thermoelectric performance. At a constant stage height, the thermoelectric performance with different stage number is strongly influenced by the geometry factor. When the inlet temperature of heat source is at normal (below 800
August 2018
Restoration performance and operation characteristics of a vertical U-tube ground source heat pump system with phase change grouts under different running modes
Publication date: August 2018
Source:Applied Thermal Engineering, Volume 141 Author(s): Fei Chen, Jinfeng Mao, Chaofeng Li, Pumin Hou, Yong Li, Zheli Xing, Shangyuan Chen This work investigates the effects of different operation modes on the restoration performance and operation characteristics of a ground source heat pump (GSHP) system backfilled with phase change materials (PCM). A numerical GSHP system model considering site conditions and dynamic loads was developed and validated. The effects of daily working schedules, load features and operation schedules of short time period operation modes, and phase-transition temperature of PCM grout were explored. The results show that PCM grout is more suitable for buildings with less-persistent thermal demand considering the importance of restorability. Operating the GSHP with cooling & heating alternate load is the most effective way to improve the overall performance of the system, but a suitable operation schedule should be used. Decreasing the cycle ratio is the best method to promote the system performance under the same hourly load intensity, while for the operation schedules with higher hourly load intensity, a shorter cycle period is recommended. The phase-transition temperature of PCM grout influences the system stability and sustainability greatly as it controls when the melting occurs. The grout with the phase-transition temperature of 20.4
August 2018
Air–water dual-source heat pump system with new composite evaporator
Publication date: August 2018
Source:Applied Thermal Engineering, Volume 141 Author(s): Junfang Xu, Yaohua Zhao, Zhenhua Quan, Gang Wang, Jieteng Wang Several renewable energy sources based on composite heat pump technology, which has been gaining increasing attention, are combined for application in building areas to obtain high operation efficiency and maximize energy saving. In this study, two kinds of air–water dual-source composite evaporators, namely, evA and evB (a new type), are proposed and air–water dual-source composite heat pump (AWSHP) systems with evA and evB are established. The AWSHP-evA and AWSHP-evB systems can be run in different modes, including air source heating mode (ASHM), water source heating mode (WSHM), and air–water source heating mode (AWSHM). The AWSHP-evB system has several advantages over the AWSHP-evA system, such as better coefficient of performance (COP), wider ambient temperature range for the efficient operation of AWSHM, and several different defrosting modes. A comparison of the experimental results obtained under different test conditions shows that COPWSHM of AWSHP-evB can be enhanced by 6.3% to 9.8%, whereas COPASHM of AWSHP-evA and AWSHP-evB are identical. Meanwhile, COPAWSHM of AWSHP-evB system can be enhanced by 8.8% to 13.3% in test conditions when hot water temperature is increased from 18
August 2018
Enhanced heat transfer and power dissipation in oscillatory-flow tubes with circular-orifice baffles: a numerical study
Publication date: August 2018
Source:Applied Thermal Engineering, Volume 141 Author(s): D. Gonz
August 2018
Air nozzle design criteria for protection against the backflow of solids in CFB boilers
Publication date: August 2018
Source:Applied Thermal Engineering, Volume 141 Author(s): Pawe
August 2018
4E analysis and multi-objective optimization of a CCHP cycle based on gas turbine and ejector refrigeration
Publication date: August 2018
Source:Applied Thermal Engineering, Volume 141 Author(s): Mahdi Moghimi, Mohammadali Emadi, Pouria Ahmadi, Hesam Moghadasi In this research paper, the performance of a new configuration of a Combined Cooling, Heating and Power (CCHP) cycle including a Brayton cycle, a Rankine cycle, an ejector refrigeration cycle, and a domestic water heater is studied by utilization of 4E (energy, exergy, economic and environmental) analysis. Firstly, performance evaluation of the cycle is carried out using exergy and energy as a potential tool. In addition, an environmental assessment is applied to address the environmental impacts of the new multi-generation cycle and compare with the simple Brayton cycle. Results demonstrate that the CCHP cycle has greater exergy and energy efficiencies compared to a simple Brayton cycle. Moreover, the effects of several major design variables on the performance of the cycle are studied and the findings are presented. The major design parameters are gas turbine inlet temperature, compressor pressure ratio, heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) pressures, HRSG pinch point temperatures and regenerator effectiveness. In order to optimize the cycle and find the optimal selection of these design variable, two objective functions namely levelized total annual cost and exergy efficiency are defined and a multi-objective optimization is implemented. Based on the optimization outcomes, optimal points are found and the respective Pareto front is plotted. Comparing CCHP cycle to corresponding Brayton cycle, it is revealed that the CCHP cycle has higher exergy efficiency (7%) and energy efficiency (12%) rather than Brayton cycle.
August 2018
Performance investigation of a novel closed Brayton cycle using supercritical CO2-based mixture as working fluid integrated with a LiBr absorption chiller
Publication date: August 2018
Source:Applied Thermal Engineering, Volume 141 Author(s): Yuegeng Ma, Ming Liu, Junjie Yan, Jiping Liu A novel closed Brayton cycle using supercritical CO2–Kr mixture as working fluid integrated with an absorption chiller (CBC/AC) is proposed. The waste heat of the CO2–Kr in the cold end of the top closed Brayton cycle (CBC) is utilized to drive the absorption chiller, which further chills the CO2–Kr fluid exiting the precooler before it enters the main compressor. Compared with the stand-alone supercritical CO2 (S-CO2) CBC, the CBC/AC exploits the performance improvement potentials under low ambient temperature (T 0) condition and alleviates the performance penalty under high T 0 condition. The energy and exergy analyses of the CBC/AC in three typical T 0 conditions (10

Predicting performance of adsorption thermal energy storage: From experiments to validated dynamic models
Publication date: August 2018
Source:Applied Thermal Engineering, Volume 141 Author(s): Heike Schreiber, Franz Lanzerath, Andr
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