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February 2018
Tunable intrinsic semiconducting properties of diketopyrrolopyrrole-based copolymers with electron donating thiophene and electron accepting thiazole moieties
Publication date: February 2018
Source:Synthetic Metals, Volume 236 Author(s): Han Na Hong, Hyung Jong Kim, Aesun Kim, Suna Choi, Young Un Kim, Min Ju Cho, Dong Hoon Choi The p- and n-type semiconducting characteristics of four conjugated polymers, P(DPPBT), P(DPPBTz), P(TzDPPBT), and P(TzDPPBTz) with molecular energy levels that were systematically varied in a cascade manner, was investigated. The four polymers were synthesized using 3,6-bis(5-bromothiophen-2-yl)-2,5-bis(2-octyldodecyl)pyrrolo[3,4-c]pyrrole-1,4(2H,5H)-dione or 3,6-bis(5-bromothiazol-2-yl)-2,5-bis(2-octyldodecyl)pyrrolo [3,4-c]pyrrole-1,4(2H,5H)-dione monomers coupled with bithiophene or bithiazole monomers. By replacing the electron-rich thiophene with electron-deficient thiazole, the energy levels of the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) were significantly lowered. Thin film transistors (TFTs) based on the four polymers were investigated to observe the effect of the polymer energy levels. The results demonstrate that DPP-based polymers have the potential to exhibit p-type or n-type semiconducting properties based on the number of thiazole units incorporated into the conjugated polymer structure.

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February 2018
Small biomolecule dopant retinals: Electron blocking layer in P3HT:PCBM type organic solar cells
Publication date: February 2018
Source:Synthetic Metals, Volume 236 Author(s): Eser K
February 2018
Unusual enhancement of fluorescence and Raman scattering of core-shell nanostructure of polydiacetylene and Ag nanoparticle
Publication date: February 2018
Source:Synthetic Metals, Volume 236 Author(s): Chunzhi Cui, Seokho Kim, Dong June Ahn, Jinsoo Joo, Gil Sun Lee, Dong Hyuk Park, Bo-Hyun Kim The colorimetric and fluorescent properties of polydiacetylene (PDA) have been assessed for chemosensors and ultrafast biosensor applications. The low quantum efficiency, however, has delayed the further development of PDA based practical devices. Here, we synthesized a hybrid nanostructure of PDA with Ag nanoparticles of core. A core-shell type Ag@PDA blue phase nanoparticles showed significantly enhanced Raman scattering, whereas it dramatically decreased after the thermal treatment inducing phase transition of PDA to red. On the other hand the Ag@PDA red phase nanoparticles showed an evidently increasing fluorescence accompanying with the shortened lifetime. These unusual reinforced optical properties is attributed to the core Ag nanoparticles providing the surface selection rule and the surface enhancement effects by the localized surface plasmon. Consequently, our result demonstrates the hybrid structure of PDA with metal nanoparticles to be an alternative to overcome the limit of PDA for high performance devices.

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January 2018
Exploring the experimental photoluminescence, Raman and infrared responses and density functional theory results for TFB polymer
Publication date: February 2018
Source:Synthetic Metals, Volume 236 Author(s): Wesley Renzi, Neusmar J.A. Cordeiro, Henrique de Santana, Marcello F. Costa, Marco A.T. da Silva, Edson Laureto, Jos
January 2018
PANI/DBSA/H2SO4: A promising and highly efficient electrode material for aqueous supercapacitors
Publication date: January 2018
Source:Synthetic Metals, Volume 235 Author(s): Salma Bilal, Bushra Begum, Salma Gul, Anwar-ul-Haq Ali Shah We report the utilization of polyaniline (PANI), co-doped with DBSA and sulfuric acid (PANI/DBSA/H2SO4), as a novel and promising electrode material for aqueous supercapacitors. The co-doped PANI/DBSA/H2SO4 salts were characterized by in situ conductance measurements, in situ UV–vis spectroelectrochemistry, cyclic voltammetry (CV) and UV–vis NIR spectroscopy. Elemental analysis of the synthesized PANI salt revealed its remarkable (50%) doping level while intrinsic viscosity indicated its highest molecular weight. Furthermore, PANI salt with best set of properties was tested for application in supercapacitors. For this purpose a systematic study was carried out in selected acidic electrolytes (HClO4, H2SO4, and H3PO4) by employing CV, Galvanostatic Charge-Discharge (GCD), and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS). Different parameters such as applied potential limits, current density as well as type and concentration of electrolytes were optimized. The kinetics of the electrochemical degradation as well as specific capacitance of the PANI film was determined in the above mentioned electrolytes, which helped in choosing the appropriate conditions and electrolyte for the maximum exploitation of this material for supercapacitor. All the results suggest 0.5M HClO4, along with other optimized parameters, as the most appropriate electrolyte solution. The PANI film showed electroactivity even after 6000 cycles applied through cyclic voltammetry. A capacitance retention of 57% after 1000 charge discharge cycles was observed in this electrolyte. Similarly, the film exhibited a specific capacitance value of 516Fg
January 2018
Study on interface engineering of layer-by-layer structure for applications in organic photodetector
Publication date: January 2018
Source:Synthetic Metals, Volume 235 Author(s): Shuanghong Wu, Junjie Yang, Wenbin Ye, Han Zhou, Xiangru Wang, Xiongbang Wei, Silu Tao, Zhenyu Chen, Chundong Wang, Qihui Wu, Zhi Chen The interfacial electronic structure of layer-by-layer 4-(dicyanomethylene)-2-t-butyl-6-(1,1,7,7-tetramethyljulolidyl-9-enyl)-4H-pyran (DCJTB)/fullerene C60 was investigated using ultra-violet photoemission spectroscopy (UPS). Photoemission data of period of DCJTB/C60/DCJTB films suggested the formation of surface dipole and interfacial band bending across the interfaces, which greatly facilitates the charge transfer from DCJTB to C60 and from C60 to DCJTB layer as well. When applied this layer-by-layer structure to a near-infrared photodetector, a maximum of photocurrent was achieved by the device with 3 periods of DCJTB/C60 thin films. Finally, the detailed work mechanism of this detector was discussed.
January 2018
Functionalized polypyrrole/sulfonated graphene nanocomposites: Improved biosensing platforms through aryl diazonium electrochemistry
Publication date: January 2018
Source:Synthetic Metals, Volume 235 Author(s): Cristina Ott, Matei D. Raicopol, Corina Andronescu, Eugenia Vasile, Anamaria Hanganu, Alina Pruna, Luisa Pilan A novel electrochemical approach aimed at developing biosensing platforms based on polypyrrole/sulfonated graphene nanocomposites is reported. Specifically, nanocomposite layers are deposited onto platinum electrodes through the electrochemical polymerization of pyrrole monomer in the presence of reduced graphene oxide bearing phenylsulfonyl groups. Thus, the functionalized graphene nanofiller acts as dopant and balances the positive charges on the polymer chains, leading to an enhancement of the polymer's electrical conductivity and concomitantly increasing the electrode surface area. The polypyrrole/graphene nanocomposite films are further modified with carboxyphenyl groups via electrochemical reduction of 4-carboxyphenyl diazonium tetrafluoroborate. Grafting carboxyphenyl functionalities serves a dual purpose: it permits the covalent immobilization of glucose oxidase via carbodiimide chemistry and also forms an electrode blocking layer which hinders the oxidation of interfering substances. The feasibility of this strategy is demonstrated by the preparation of a glucose biosensor which exhibited an improved performance: wide linear range (0.02–12mM), good sensitivity (0.56
January 2018
Extensive study of the electron donor 1,1,4,4-tetrathiabutadiene (TTB) and of its charge transfer crystal with TCNQ
Publication date: January 2018
Source:Synthetic Metals, Volume 235 Author(s): Nicola Castagnetti, Alberto Girlando, Matteo Masino, Corrado Rizzoli, M.R. Ajayakumar, Marta Mas-Torrent, Concepci
January 2018
Digital light processing for the fabrication of 3D intrinsically conductive polymer structures
Publication date: January 2018
Source:Synthetic Metals, Volume 235 Author(s): Andrew T. Cullen, Aaron D. Price Conventional methods to fabricate intrinsically conductive polymer actuators result in planar morphologies that limit fabricated devices to simplistic linear or bending actuation modes. In this study, we report a conductive polymer formulation and associated 3D printing fabrication method capable of realizing three-dimensional conductive polymer structures that are not subject to such geometric limitations. A light-based 3D printing technique known as digital light processing is employed due to its ability to fabricate complex microscale features in conjunction with a specially-formulated photosensitive polypyrrole resin. The performance of this fabrication system is characterized via feature resolution and depth of cure experiments, and the results are subsequently applied to the fabrication of 3D components. This technique enables the fabrication of novel electroactive polymer structures and provides a framework for advanced 3D electroactive polymer-enabled devices capable of complex modes of sensing and actuation.

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January 2018
Design and fabrication of low resistance palm-power generator based on flexible thermoelectric composite film
Publication date: January 2018
Source:Synthetic Metals, Volume 235 Author(s): Xiaodong Wang, Fanling Meng, Haitong Tang, Zhongmin Gao, Si Li, Shi Jin, Qinglin Jiang, Fengxing Jiang, Jingkun Xu Human thermal energy as permanent generation energy source have been widely utilized in thermoelectric (TE) application today, especially for wearable electronics. In this work, an intrinsically flexible palm-power TE generator based on the p-type PEDOT:PSS-based composite films has been designed and fabricated. The combination of inorganic nano-filler and chemical treatment have been proved to be an effective strategy for improving the TE performance of PEDOT:PSS. The maximum power factor of PEDOT:PSS composite with 5% content of (Ca0.85Ag0.15)3Co4O9 was evaluated to be 75.2
January 2018
High sensitivity of polypyrrole sensor for uric acid over urea, acetamide and sulfonamide: A density functional theory study
Publication date: January 2018
Source:Synthetic Metals, Volume 235 Author(s): Hasnain Sajid, Tariq Mahmood, Khurshid Ayub Polypyrrole is experimentally reported as an excellent sensor for biological molecules including urea and uric acid. DFT calculations at M05-2X/6–31++G(d,p) are performed to gain theoretical insight into the sensing mechanism of polypyrrole for urea, uric acid, acetamide and sulfonamide. Geometry optimization and electronic property calculations have been performed on a series of oligopyrrole (1, 3, 5, 7 and 9) complexes, and the properties are extrapolated to infinite polymer through 2nd degree polynomial fit. Energy decomposition analyses (SAPT0) have been performed to demonstrate the contribution of electrostatic, induction, exchange and dispersion. The trend of SAPT0 interaction energies is very much comparable to that of binding energies. The noncovalent components of SAPT0 regularly increase with oligomer chain length; however, these components become almost constant after trimer for urea, acetamide, and sulfonamide. The increase in interaction and SAPT0 energies illustrate an increase in sensitivity of polypyrrole. Charge transfer and electronic properties also illustrate the high sensitivity of polypyrrole for uric acid. Energy difference between HOMO and LUMO orbitals of polypyrrole decreases upon doping with analytes. The decrease in the HOMO-LUMO gap shows an increase in the conductivity of polypyrrole. Our results indicate that polypyrrole has the highest sensing ability for uric acid, consistent with the experimental observations.

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January 2018
Anti-corrosion properties of oligoaniline modified silica hybrid coatings for low-carbon steel
Publication date: January 2018
Source:Synthetic Metals, Volume 235 Author(s): Yuwei Ye, Dawei Zhang, Zhiyong Liu, Wei Liu, Haichao Zhao, Liping Wang, Xiaogang Li Novel electroactive silica-based hybrid coatings were synthesized on the surface of Q235 low carbon steel via one-step electrodeposition and were analyzed by FTIR, UV-vis, SEM, OCA20 contact angle (CA) analyzer and CHI-660E electrochemical workstation, respectively. The CA test indicated, in comparison with bare Q235 substrate, the silica hybrid material modified by N, N'-Bis(4
January 2018
Electrocatalytic performance of Pd/PANI/TiO2 nanocomposites for methanol electrooxidation in alkaline media
Publication date: January 2018
Source:Synthetic Metals, Volume 235 Author(s): Mohammad Soleimani-Lashkenari, Sajjad Rezaei, Jaber Fallah, Hussein Rostami An electrochemical method was successfully used for the Pd nanoparticles deposition on the Polyaniline/titanium dioxide (PANI/TiO2) modified glassy carbon (GC) electrode. The electrochemical activity of fabricated palladium/Polyaniline/titania (Pd/PANI/TiO2) electrocatalyst was investigated for methanol electrooxidation by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and chronoamperomtery (CA) in alkaline media. Also, the effect of different methanol concentrations and potential sweep rates were in two separate set of experiments. The prepared samples were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) techniques. Obtained results indicated that the synthesized Pd/PANI/TiO2 catalyst not only possessed much higher electrochemically active surface area (EASA) than that of the pure Pd catalyst, but also enhanced the forward anodic peak current density (Jf) for methanol electrooxidation reaction. These observations are extracted from the combination of high charge transfer of the PANI/TiO2 nanocompsites and excellent catalytic characteristic of the Pd catalyst.
January 2018
Conducting electrospun polycaprolactone/polypyrrole fibers
Publication date: January 2018
Source:Synthetic Metals, Volume 235 Author(s): Eli
January 2018
Preparation of conductive silk fibroin yarns coated with polyaniline using an improved method based on in situ polymerization
Publication date: January 2018
Source:Synthetic Metals, Volume 235 Author(s): Jianhan Hong, Xiao Han, Hanping Shi, Lihua Jin, Juming Yao In situ polymerization is a prominent current topic in the research of skin-core structure polyaniline (PANI) conductive fibers owing to its advantages such as the convenience of preparation and high conductivity of fiber, but it is difficult to realize the continuous fabrication of conductive fibers using this method. In our previous work, we presented a novel method based on in situ polymerization and achieved the continuous fabrication of conductive yarns. In order to reduce the consumption of raw materials such as aniline, doping acid, and oxidant in the preparation, a further improvement is proposed in this paper. Electrical conductive silk fibroin (SF) yarns covered with PANI were prepared by using an improved method based on in situ polymerization. The results show that the improved method has lower consumption than the previous method, and the reduction of raw materials can reach more than 90% compared to the previous method. The structure and properties of the treated SF yarns were studied in detail. The treated SF yarns characterized using scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy improved the surface of the SF fibers and the gaps between them were covered by conductive PANI; further, interactions such as van der Waals' force, electrostatic interaction, and hydrogen bonding existed between the SF macromolecules and PANI. Thermogravimetric analysis indicated that the thermal stability of the treated yarns was reduced owing to the existence of PANI. The treated yarns exhibited good conductive properties; with the increase in oxidant concentration, the conductivity of coated yarns increased first and thereafter decreased; the maximum conductivity of coated yarn could reach 60S/m, and the maximum conductivity of PANI was as high as 180S/m. Compared to the SF yarn, the breaking strength, breaking elongation, and initial modulus of coated yarns were reduced and the loss was increased with the increase in oxidant concentration.

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January 2018
Ni-Co-S/PPy core-shell nanohybrid on nickel foam as a non-enzymatic electrochemical glucose sensor
Publication date: January 2018
Source:Synthetic Metals, Volume 235 Author(s): Hongxiu Dai, Pengfei Cao, Duo Chen, Yuan Li, Nan Wang, Houyi Ma, Meng Lin A nickel-cobalt-sulfide nanosheet (Ni-Co-S NS)/polypyrrole nanowire (PPy NW) core/shell-structured composites on nickel foam (NF) was synthesized by facile electrodeposition processes for electrochemical non-enzymatic glucose sensor. PPy NWs grew on the NF substrate by a potentiostatic deposition method, and then the PPy NWs were further served as skeletons for electrodeposition Ni-Co-S nanosheets. The ternary Ni-Co-S NSs as the shell and PPy NWs as the core on the flexible NF constructed the 3D micro/nano structure. The as-prepared Ni-Co-S/PPy/NF electrode was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS). The electrochemical sensor was used for the detection of glucose by chronoamperometry. The introduction of the interconnected Ni-Co-S NSs can provide accessible pathways for electrolyte and have high sensitivity to glucose. Compared with the NF and PPy/NF electrodes, the Ni-Co-S/PPy/NF micro/nanohybrid electrode exhibited higher catalytic activity towards electro-oxidation of glucose. The developed Ni-Co-S/PPy/NF electrode showed two linear electrochemical responses to glucose in the range from 2
January 2018
MoS2/nitrogen-doped carbon hybrid nanorods with expanded interlayer spacing as an advanced anode material for lithium ion batteries
Publication date: January 2018
Source:Synthetic Metals, Volume 235 Author(s): Qingbin Zhu, Chaochao Zhao, Yanxin Bian, Changming Mao, Hongrui Peng, Guicun Li, Kezheng Chen MoS2/nitrogen-doped carbon hybrid nanorods have been successfully synthesized by a facile simultaneous vapor sulfidization and carbonization method using MoO x /aniline nanorods as the precursor. The obtained hybrid nanorods are composed of MoS2 with expanded interlayer spacing of 1.02nm and nitrogen-doped carbon, which exhibit outstanding electrochemical performances as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries including excellent high-rate capability of 667.3mAhg
January 2018
One-step electrochemically co-deposited Pt nanoparticles/polyaniline composites with raspberry structures for methanol electro-oxidation
Publication date: January 2018
Source:Synthetic Metals, Volume 235 Author(s): Ruiwen Yan, Baokang Jin, Dan Li, Jun Zheng, Yuying Li, Cheng Qian In this work, the raspberry-like Pt nanoparticles/polyaniline complexes (PNPC) has been fabricated for methanol electro-oxidation. The PNPC were electrochemically deposited by one-step from solutions simultaneously containing aniline and potassium tetrachloroplatinate. Morphological and structural characterizations demonstrated that the Pt particles with diameters between 2 and 5nm were like frambold of raspberry in polyaniline film. The electrochemical catalytic performance of PNPC was evaluated by cyclic voltammograms and chronoamperometric method. Electrochemical experiment results have amply confirmed that the PNPC have superior electro-catalytic oxidation performance and superior catalytic tolerance to carbonaceous species accumulation toward methanol oxidation. These results indicated that PNPC as catalysts carrier may have prosperous application for fuel cell technology.
January 2018
Enhanced electrochromic performance of WO3 hybrids using polymer plasma hybridization process
Publication date: January 2018
Source:Synthetic Metals, Volume 235 Author(s): Esin Eren, Ceyda Alver, Gozde Yurdabak Karaca, Emre Uygun, Aysegul Uygun Oksuz A series of electrochromic hybrid materials were synthesized with in-situ polymerization of aniline, 2-fluoroaniline and N-methylaniline onto tungsten trioxide (WO3) powders using a rotating capacitively coupled radio frequency (rf) plasma process. The materials were characterized by means of scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) and X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD). Thin films of tungsten trioxide/polyaniline (WO3/PANI), tungsten trioxide/poly(2-fluoroaniline) (WO3/PFANI) and tungsten trioxide/poly(n-methylaniline) (WO3/PMANI) hybrid powders were obtained by e-beam technique onto flexible conducting polyethylene terephthalate electrodes for electrochromic works. The optical and electrochromic properties of WO3 hybrids-based ECDs were investigated by optical and electrochemical measurements. It is observed that electrochromic performance of hybrid films has changed as depending on electron acceptor or donor properties of substituent group onto PANI chain. The results of flexible electrochromic devices (ECDs) indicated that WO3/PMANI hybrid-based ECD has a high optical contrast of 49% at 750nm, reversible coloration with efficiency of 361cm2/C and fast switching times (bleaching time: 1.41s, coloration time: 0.67s).

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January 2018
How accurate are energies of HOMO and LUMO levels in small-molecule organic semiconductors determined from cyclic voltammetry or optical spectroscopy?
Publication date: January 2018
Source:Synthetic Metals, Volume 235 Author(s): Juliusz Sworakowski Examined are relations between the energies of the transport gaps (i.e., the gaps determined by UPS/IPES measurements and taken for ‘true’ HOMO-LUMO gaps), and the electrochemical gaps (determined from CV experiments) and optical gaps (determined from UV-VIS optical spectroscopy). The statistics, based on literature data for several small (non-polymeric) molecules, shows that, on average, the electrochemical measurements underestimate the gap energies by ca. 16%, and the optical gap is smaller than the transport gap by ca. 37%. These differences seriously affect the accuracy of determination of energies of HOMO and LUMO levels by indirect methods. The concordance with the results obtained from the UPS/IPES measurements can be improved by using correction factors put forward in the present paper.
January 2018
Energy levels modulation of small molecule acceptors for polymer solar cells
Publication date: January 2018
Source:Synthetic Metals, Volume 235 Author(s): Ransheng Liu, Zurong Du, Shuguang Wen, Yao Wu, Dangqiang Zhu, Renqiang Yang Non-fullerene acceptor exhibits very promising prospect for the development of polymer solar cells (PSCs). It is necessary to carefully investigate the energy level matching between donor and acceptor to optimize the photovoltaic performance. In this paper, we have designed and synthesized two novel planar A-D-A type small molecular acceptors of IDT-RCN and IDT-CA with 2-(1,1-dicyanomethylene)rhodanine and cyanoacetate as the end groups, respectively. Compared to IDT-RCN with stronger electron-deficient end group, IDT-CA displayed 0.15
January 2018
A highly sensitive amperometric immunosensor probe based on gold nanoparticle functionalized poly (3, 4-ethylenedioxythiophene) doped with graphene oxide for efficient detection of aflatoxin B1
Publication date: January 2018
Source:Synthetic Metals, Volume 235 Author(s): Arati Sharma, A. Kumar, Raju Khan In the present work, a platform of Poly (3, 4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) and graphene oxide (GO) composite decorated with spherical gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) has been developed for rapid electrochemical detection of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1). Electrochemical deposition of EDOT onto glassy carbon electrode (GCE) keeping GO as dopant followed by introduction of AuNPs has been achieved resulting in nanohybrid AuNPs/PEDOT-GO electrode. The antibody anti-aflatoxin B1 (anti-AFB1) has been further covalently immobilized onto the surface of AuNPs/PEDOT-GO using EDC/NHS coupling. The morphological and surface characteristics have been studied using Field Emission Scanning Microscopy (FESEM) and contact angle measurements. Cyclic Voltammetry (CV) and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) studies have been carried out to investigate the electro-catalytic behavior of the modified electrodes. The heterogeneous rate constant (ks) and transfer coefficient (
January 2018
Fundamentals of the temperature-dependent electrical conductivity of a 3D carbon foam—Aerographite
Publication date: January 2018
Source:Synthetic Metals, Volume 235 Author(s): J. Marx, A. Brouschkin, S. Roth, D. Smazna, Y.K. Mishra, H. Wittich, K. Schulte, R. Adelung, B. Fiedler Aerographite is a 3D interconnected carbon foam with a hollow tetrapodal morphology. The properties of Aerographite, especially the electrical conductivity, are strongly dependent on the wall thickness, the degree of graphitization and the ambient temperature. The tailored-carbon-structures like wall thickness (number of layer) and state of graphitization determine the electrical properties of the carbon foam. The wall thickness of Aerographite can be controlled by a stepwise reduction of solid arms of sacrificial template with respect to synthesis time, in which wall thicknesses between 3 and 22
January 2018
2-Thiopene[1]benzothieno[3,2-b]benzothiophene derivatives as solution-processable organic semiconductors for organic thin-film transistors
Publication date: January 2018
Source:Synthetic Metals, Volume 235 Author(s): M. Rajeshkumar Reddy, Hyungsug Kim, Choongik Kim, SungYong Seo Novel [1]benzothieno[3,2-b]benzo-thiophene (BTBT) derivatives were synthesized and characterized as solution-processable organic semiconductors for top-contact/bottom-gate organic filed-effect transistors (OFETs). Physicochemical properties of the new compounds were characterized by UV–vis absorption spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), cyclic voltammetry (CV), and density functional theory (DFT) calculation. The electrical properties of the corresponding compounds were investigated through the fabrication and characterization of field-effect transistors via solution-shearing. Both compounds were FET active and exhibited decent p-channel activity with carrier mobilities up to 0.10
December 2017
Analysis of mechanisms responsible for the formation of dark spots in organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs): A review
Publication date: January 2018
Source:Synthetic Metals, Volume 235 Author(s): M.M. Azrain, M.R. Mansor, S.H.S.M. Fadzullah, G. Omar, D. Sivakumar, L.M. Lim, M.N.A. Nordin Organic Light Emitting Diode (OLED) is a new promising technology in lighting and display applications due to the advantages offered by the organic over inorganic materials. Nevertheless, the devices poor environmental stability and growth of dark spots has been a major concern for OLED devices. Based on the past literatures, several failure mechanisms have been proposed, suggesting that there is no particular model for the mechanisms of dark spots formation. In addition, the formation of dark spots is relatively obscure and unpredictable. On top of that, comprehensive reviews on the dark spots formation mechanism and the prevention methods are very limited at the current moment. Yet, both information are truly critical to be obtained and understood for OLED future development works. Thus, this paper reviewed particularly on the root cause formation of dark spots mechanisms in OLED devices. The dark spots are mainly formed due to the presence of foreign impurities and pinholes, as well as due to high current intensity. These root factor of elements will further enhance the degradation of OLED via bubble formations, electro-migrations, crystallizations and many other damaging processes. A few prevention steps have been discussed in order to reduce and prevent the dark spots from occurring such as the proper material selection and conducting the fabrication process in a controlled environment.
December 2017
Interaction of hydrogen with Pd- and co-decorated C24 fullerenes: Density functional theory study
Publication date: December 2017
Source:Synthetic Metals, Volume 234 Author(s): Alireza Soltani, M. Bezi Javan, Mir Saleh Hoseininezhad-Namin, N. Tajabor, E. Tazikeh Lemeski, Faiz Pourarian In this work, we have investigated the adsorption of a hydrogen atom and molecules on the Pd and Co-decorated C24 fullerenes by means of density functional theory. The hydrogen interaction mechanism with host cages by regarding the adsorption energy and charge density variations was studied. It is found that both Pd and Co atoms have a significant role to increase the adsorption energy as an exothermal process. This energy change is strongly dependent on the electrostatic potential variations around the Pd and Co atoms doped on the C24 fullerene. Also, the HOMO-LUMO gap (Eg) for C24 fullerene varies from 1.20 to 0.76 and 0.86eV, after decorations of Co and Pd atoms, respectively. More consideration such as thermodynamics parameter, electronic density of states, and charge density analysis are discussed in the context.

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December 2017
Nonlinear optical response of octupolar Zn(II) complexes incorporating highly aromatic polypyridinic ligands: Insights into the role of the metal center
Publication date: December 2017
Source:Synthetic Metals, Volume 234 Author(s): Luis Sanhueza, Diego Cort
December 2017
Electrochemical synthesis and surface protection of polypyrrole-CeO2 nanocomposite coatings on AA2024 alloy
Publication date: December 2017
Source:Synthetic Metals, Volume 234 Author(s): A. Madhan Kumar, R. Suresh Babu, Suresh Ramakrishna, Ana L.F. de Barros A facile approach based on electrochemical polymerization was used to synthesize polypyrrole/CeO2 (PPy/CeO2) nanocomposite on an AA2024 alloy surface. CeO2 nanoparticles (NPs) embedded in the PPy matrix were observed using FESEM micrographs with EDX analysis. IR and UV–vis spectroscopy were used to characterize the synthesized PPy/CeO2 nanocomposite. The Raman spectra reflected the interactions between the
December 2017
Patterned water dispersible conducting polymer electrode in organic thin film transistor through a parylene lift-off process
Publication date: December 2017
Source:Synthetic Metals, Volume 234 Author(s): Shiny Nair, M. Kathiresan, T. Mukundan Availability of non-destructive micro-patterning techniques is essential for the realization of organic electronic technologies that are compatible with chemically sensitive materials. Organic thin film transistors (OTFTs) with conductive polymer composite poyaniline:polystyrene sulphonic acid (PANi-PSS) electrodes that are fabricated by a simple modified Parylene lift-off process is reported. The functionality of the conducting and semiconducting material is not affected by this technique and it is fully amenable for patterning on a flexible substrate. This patterning technique for conducting polymer electrode, without exposure to harmful solvents, results in a resolution of 5
December 2017
Dissociation of O2 molecule on Fe/Nx clusters embedded in C60 fullerene, carbon nanotube and graphene
Publication date: December 2017
Source:Synthetic Metals, Volume 234 Author(s): Akbar Omidvar The O2 dissociation and yielding two separated O atoms is an essential step for the oxygen reduction reaction. Dissociation of the strong bond in the O2 often involves large activation barriers on metal particles used as catalysts. Here, the O2 dissociation on the Fe/Nx clusters embedded in the fullerene C60, carbon nanotube, and graphene nanomaterials have been studied theoretically using density functional theory. The following outcomes can be derived from our calculations: (1) The Fe/Nx clusters embedded in the C60, carbon nanotube, and graphene enhance the reactivity of these nanomaterials, however, it is more effective in the case of Fe/Nx clusters embedded in the graphene. (2) Consistent with the prediction of the reactivity descriptors, the maximum catalytic activity toward the O2 dissociation is related to the Fe/N4 cluster embedded in graphene. (3) The adsorption energies of the O2 adsorbed on the Fe/Nx clusters embedded in the C60, carbon nanotube and graphene increase with the increase Fe transition metal positive charges. (4) Our study demonstrates that the Fe/N4 cluster embedded in graphene can act as driving force for the O2 dissociation. (5) The energy barrier of the O2 dissociation process shows that the O2 dissociation on the Fe/N4 cluster embedded in the graphene will be kinetically preferable. These predictions open the route for the experimental studies of catalysts that offer high activity for oxygen reduction reaction processes.

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December 2017
Impact of benzothiadiazole position on the photovoltaic properties of solution-processable organic molecule materials
Publication date: December 2017
Source:Synthetic Metals, Volume 234 Author(s): Jing Zhang, Linjun Xu, Jiawei Chen, Mingfu Ye, Ping Shen, Ning-Yi Yuan, Jian-Ning Ding Organic molecule materials (BDT-HTH-BT and BDT-BT-HTH) applied for solution-processable organic solar cells (OSCs) have been synthesized to investigate the impact of the location of acceptor unit on the photovoltaic properties. Benzothiadiazole (BT) group was introduced as an acceptor unit, which was linked to bithienyl-substituted benzodithiophene (BDT) unit directly in BDT-BT-HTH or with hexyl-thiophene unit in BDT-HTH-BT, respectively. The molecular weight of BDT-BT-HTH and BDT-HTH-BT are the same. However, due to the different position of the BT unit, BDT-HTH-BT and BDT-BT-HTH exhibit apparently different optical and electrochemistry properties, corresponding to the photovoltaic properties. The OSCs device based on a blend of BDT-BT-HTH and PC71BM (1:0.8, w/w, 0.5% DIO) reached a PCE (power conversion efficiency) of 3.45%, with a short-circuit current density of 6.85mAcm
December 2017
Three-dimensional nanostructured graphene: Synthesis and energy, environmental and biomedical applications
Publication date: December 2017
Source:Synthetic Metals, Volume 234 Author(s): Karolina Olszowska, Jinbo Pang, Pawel S. Wrobel, Liang Zhao, Huy Q. Ta, Zhongfan Liu, Barbara Trzebicka, Alicja Bachmatiuk, Mark H. Rummeli Three-dimensional (3D) nanostructured graphene can be used as a replacement or enrichment material. This review presents the types of 3D graphene developed thus far, for example, nanoshells, encapsulates, graphene foams, aerogels and hydrogels, their properties and the methods by which to obtain them, such as chemical vapour deposition, the hydrothermal method or by sugar-blowing production. The review also covers areas in which 3D graphene foam has been exploited for application such as energy, electronic, biomedical and environmental protection as well as the latest developments.

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December 2017
Electrochemical synthesis of conductive, superhydrophobic and adhesive polypyrrole-polydopamine nanowires
Publication date: December 2017
Source:Synthetic Metals, Volume 234 Author(s): Jilin Tan, Zhong Zhang, Yuan He, Qihui Yue, Zhuo Xie, Huaran Ji, Yanan Sun, Wei Shi, Dongtao Ge Polypyrrole-polydopamine (PPy-PDA) films with nanowire morphologies were synthesized by a simple one-step electrochemical method using sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS) as dopant. Compared to the PPy films and PPy-PDA films synthesized with other dopants, the SDBS-doped PPy-PDA nanowire films exhibited greatly enhanced adhesion force to the electrodes. In addition, the conductivities of the resultant PPy-PDA nanowire films were also significantly improved by three times compared to that of the PPy film. More interestingly, the PPy-PDA nanowire films displayed sticky superhydrophobicity. Water drop could adhere to the films tightly even when the films were turned upside down. These attractive properties, plus the simple and rapid synthetic method, offer a possibility for the PPy-PDA nanowire films being used as universal electrode modified materials for various applications.
December 2017
Effects of acceptor on the performance of exciplex-based OLED
Publication date: December 2017
Source:Synthetic Metals, Volume 234 Author(s): Tong Lin, Qiaogang Song, Zheqin Liu, Bei Chu, Wenlian Li, Yongshi Luo, C.S. Lee, Zisheng Su, Yantao Li In this work, exciplex-based OLEDs (ExOLEDs) are fabricated with 1,1-bis((di-4-tolylamino)phenyl)cyclohexane (TAPC) as the donor and a series triazine derivatives, e.g., 2,4,6-tris(biphenyl-3-yl)-1,3,5-triazine (T2T), 2,4,6-tris(3-(1H-pyrazol-1-yl)phenyl)-1,3,5-triazine (3P-T2T), and 2,4,6-tris(m-(diphenylphosphinoyl)phenyl)-1,3,5-triazine (PO-T2T), as the acceptors. With different acceptors and mole ratios of donor:acceptor, the effects of the photoluminescence quantum yield (PLQY), charge carrier balance, and exciton lifetime on the EQE and efficiency roll-off are systematically investigated. It is found that the external quantum efficiency (EQE) of the ExOLEDs is primary determined by the PLQY of the mixed donor:acceptor film and tuned in a certain extent by the charge carrier balance. Furthermore, the efficiency roll-offs of different ExOLEDs are all less than 20%, which are simultaneously determined by the photoluminescence (PL) lifetime and the charge carrier balance.
December 2017
Improved performance of lead phthalocyanine phototransistor by template inducing effect based on optimized-thickness copper phthalocyanine layers
Publication date: December 2017
Source:Synthetic Metals, Volume 234 Author(s): Fobao Huang, Yao Li, Kun Xu, Wenli Lv, Sunan Xu, Yingquan Peng, Ying Wang, Guohan Liu Organic phototransistors (OPTs) have captured a growing attention over the years due to their advantages of lightweight, flexibility, low cost and large area fabrication. Especially, how to improve the single-layer device performance is an essential issue. Here, we report that the performance of lead phthalocyanine (PbPc) single-layer near-infrared OPT was improved by inserting different-thickness (1, 2.5, 5 and 8nm) copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) template inducing layers (TILs). We found that different-thickness CuPc TILs present different continuity and the corresponding PbPc films show different crystallinity, exhibiting different template inducing effects. The maximum mobility, photoresponsivity, specific detectivity and photosensitivity of 8.6
December 2017
An efficient tetrazine photoluminescent layer used for organic solar cells down shifting
Publication date: December 2017
Source:Synthetic Metals, Volume 234 Author(s): Ourida Ourahmoun, T. Trigaud, B. Ratier, M.S. Belkaid, L. Galmiche, P. Audebert This work reports a new material used as photo luminescent layer in inverted organic solar cells. We have studied the fluorescence and the optical properties of tetrazine molecules included in the layer. The molecules are used at a small to average concentration in a matrix of polymers such as PMMA or Polystyrene, and contain an UV-absorbing moiety acting as an antenna, attached to the yellow-emitting tetrazine. It is therefore able to achieve the down conversion of otherwise useless UV photons into useful yellow photons. The results show that the performances of the inverted organic photovoltaic cells are enhanced by use the luminescent down shifting layer, especially in the UV range.

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December 2017
High-efficient sky-blue and green emissive OLEDs based on FIrpic and FIrdfpic
Publication date: December 2017
Source:Synthetic Metals, Volume 234 Author(s): Jian Liu, Minhua Jiang, Xiaoying Zhou, Changjun Zhan, Jin Bai, Min Xiong, Fenfen Li, Yuhua Liu We synthesized FIrpic and FIrdfpic, and employed them as phosphorescent dopants to fabricate some organic light-emitting diodes. The structure of the devices is ITO/MoO3(8nm)/TAPC(80nm)/2,6DCZPPY:X(10nm,10%)/BmPyPB(40nm)/Li2CO3/Al, where X=FIrpic or FIrdfpic. High-efficient luminescent OLEDs are achieved, e.g. the peak current efficiency and power efficiency of FIrpic-based OLED are as high as 53.95cd/A and 51.87lm/W, respectively. We also investigated their UV–vis absorptions, photoluminescence, electrochemical behaviors, luminescent mechanism based on DFT calculation and crystal structure of FIrdfpic.

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December 2017
Molecular vibrations, activation energies of trapped carriers and additional structure in thermoluminescence of organic polymers
Publication date: December 2017
Source:Synthetic Metals, Volume 234 Author(s): V. Sugakov, N. Ostapenko, Yu. Ostapenko, O. Kerita, V. Strelchuk, O. Kolomys Manifestations of optical vibrations in thermoluminescence of organic polymers were observed. Thermoluminescence curves and Raman spectra of the polymers which have different degrees of ordering: poly(di-n-hexylsilane), poly(methylphenylsilane) and poly(di-n-penthylsilane) were measured and the features on thermoluminescence curves were observed. Activation energies of localized charge carriers were found by the fractional thermally stimulated luminescence in the 5–50K temperature range. The shape of the thermoluminescence curve was calculated in the model which assumed that the release of carriers from traps may be activated via the energy transfer from the vibrations to the carriers. The model explained the appearance of the features on thermoluminescence curves and the coincidence of the carriers’ activation energies with the vibration quanta. Thermoluminescence shows (and the calculations support this claim) that the decrease of the degree of the polymer ordering causes a decrease of the number the discrete values of activation energies and of the number of the features on thermoluminescence curves.

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December 2017
The effects of SQ additive on charge carrier transport and recombination in PCDTBT:PC71BM based ternary organic solar cells
Publication date: December 2017
Source:Synthetic Metals, Volume 234 Author(s): Youqin Zhu, Yao Chen, Suling Zhao, Yan Huang, Zheng Xu, Bo Qiao, Jiao Zhao, Yang Li, Jingli Liu, Xurong Xu The ternary solar cell has been proved as an elegant strategy to realize efficient bulk heterojunction (BHJ) organic solar cells (OSCs) by harvesting a larger range of photons than binary devices. In order to design such an efficient system, the charge carrier transport and recombination in ternary OPVs must be considered. We fabricated various ternary devices by adding squaraine derivatives (SQ-1, SQ-2, SQ-3, SQ-4 and SQ-5) with complementary absorption spectrum in near infrared region as the additional donor material into Poly [[9-(1-octylnonyl)-9H-carbazole-2, 7-diyl]-2, 5-thiophenediyl-2, 1, 3-benzothiadiazole-4, 7-diyl-2, 5-thiophenediyl] (PCDTBT): [6,6]-phenyl C71 butyric acid methyl ester (PC71BM) host binary blend film in this paper. Through the charge carrier mobility and transient photovoltage (TPV) measurements, it is found that the incorporation of 10% SQ-5 with shallower Highest Occupied Molecular Orbital (HOMO) level hinders holes in transferring from SQ to PCDTBT, which leads to unbalanced charge carrier transport, significant charge recombination, and decrease of performance. On the contrary, the performance of ternary devices incorporated with 10% SQ-3 with deeper HOMO energy level is improved by 21% compared with binary devices, which can be attributed to increased photon harvesting and changeless charge carrier characteristics.

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December 2017
Design and chiroptical properties of a water-soluble and violet-blue emissive alkyne template
Publication date: December 2017
Source:Synthetic Metals, Volume 234 Author(s): Tingchao He, Yi Zhang, Song Yao, Xingrong Li, Fenghuan Zhao, Xiaodong Lin, Jiuxu Xia, Wei Lu, Chuanxiang Ye, Rui Chen, Junmin Zhang Circular dichroism (CD) and circular polarized luminescence (CPL) are useful for various applications. However, it is difficult to achieve excellent CD and CPL in differently polar solvents simultaneously. This work provides a simple but efficient way to construct violet-blue fluorescent and water-soluble chromophore through the construction of rigid conformation of the alkyne architecture. By introducing proline pendants into alkyne architecture, the chromophore exhibits reasonable CD and CPL properties in the lowly and highly polar solvents. More importantly, even in water, the chromophore displays effective CD anisotropy factor (gabs
December 2017
Ternary composite electrodes based on poly(3,4–ethylenedioxythiophene)/carbon nanotubes–carboxyl graphene for improved electrochemical capacitive performances
Publication date: December 2017
Source:Synthetic Metals, Volume 234 Author(s): Haihan Zhou, Xiaomin Zhi Co–electrodeposited poly(3,4–ethylenedioxythiophene)/carbon nanotubes–carboxyl graphene (PEDOT/CNT–CG) ternary composite is reported herein. Thereinto, the CG is prepared from graphene oxide (GO) by carboxylation treatment, during which the hydroxyl and epoxide groups on the basal plane of GO nanosheets are converted into carboxyl groups. Compared to PEDOT/CNT–GO composite, PEDOT/CNT–CG composite shows markedly improved electrochemical capacitive performances, because the latter composite takes full advantage of carboxyl groups distributed on both edges and basal planes of CG sheets to combine with PEDOT coating, unlike only utilizing the edged carboxyl groups on GO sheets for the former composite. This study provides a new platform to construct CG based composite electrodes for high performance supercapacitor applications.
December 2017
Electrochemical study of polyaniline coating electropolymerized onto AA2024-T3 aluminium alloy: Physical properties and anticorrosion performance
Publication date: December 2017
Source:Synthetic Metals, Volume 234 Author(s): M. Mrad, Y. Ben Amor, L. Dhouibi, F. Montemor Chronoamperometry was used to deposit polyaniline (Pani) films onto AA2024-T3 aluminum alloy from a sulphuric acid electrolyte. Electropolymerization parameters of 1.00VSCE and 17min produced a Pani coating with the highest protection ability in 0.5M NaCl solution. Structure and morphology of the coating were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and infrared spectroscopy under reflectance mode (FTIR-ATR) analysis. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was applied to access the physical proprieties and the anticorrosion performance of Pani in 0.5M NaCl solution. Impedance spectra, collected at open circuit potential (OCP), exhibited, at high frequencies, a CPE contribution related to inhomogeneous water uptake in the coating which was analyzed by normal power-law distributions of the local resistivity and permittivity of coating. Finally, the Pani anticorrosion performance was discussed.
December 2017
Hierarchical sheet-like Ni–Co layered double hydroxide derived from a MOF template for high-performance supercapacitors
Publication date: December 2017
Source:Synthetic Metals, Volume 234 Author(s): Feifei Cao, Mengyu Gan, Li Ma, Xiurong Li, Fabing Yan, Menghan Ye, Yanfang Zhai, You Zhou Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are particularly attractive as a promising alternative in the field of energy storage and conversion. However, it exhibits limited electrochemical performance owing to their intrinsic instability and poor conductivity. In order to obtain more conductive electrode materials suitable for supercapacitor, a simple and effective precursor conversion method is explored to synthesize Ni–Co layered double hydroxides (LDH) composite using Co-Ni metal–organic framework (Co-Ni-MOF) as sacrificed template and precursor. The MOF-derived amorphous LDH composite is found to have a sheet-like structure, which can provide favorable paths for electrolyte penetration and also enhance the contact area of active material and electrolyte. The electrochemical data demonstrate that LDH composite delivers a specific capacitance of 1265Fg
December 2017
Mobility of holes and polarons in polyaniline films assessed by frequency-dependent impedance and charge extraction by linearly increasing voltage
Publication date: December 2017
Source:Synthetic Metals, Volume 234 Author(s): J. Tou
December 2017
Hydrophobic polystyrene/electro-spun polyaniline coatings for corrosion protection
Publication date: December 2017
Source:Synthetic Metals, Volume 234 Author(s): Yunyan Zhao, Zhiming Zhang, Liangmin Yu, Tao Jiang Herein, bi-layer coatings were prepared through a superposition combination method, which contains polystyrene (PS) topcoat and polyaniline (PANI)/polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) primer. PS topcoats prepared by different preparation methods show diverse microstructures, hydrophobicity, anti-medium permeability and corrosion resistance. In order to study the anti-corrosion mechanism of (PANI/PMMA primer
December 2017
Comment on “Muon spin relaxation study of spin dynamics in poly(triarylamine)”
Publication date: December 2017
Source:Synthetic Metals, Volume 234 Author(s): Iain McKenzie, Herbert Dilger, Emil Roduner, Robert Scheuermann He et al. studied the muoniated radicals formed by muonium (Mu) addition to the low-molecular-weight polymer poly(triarylamine) (PTAA) (He et al., 2015) [1], an organic semiconductor, using avoided level crossing muon spin resonance (ALC-
November 2017
Reply to “Comment on ‘Muon spin relaxation study of spin dynamics in poly(triarylamine)”’
Publication date: December 2017
Source:Synthetic Metals, Volume 234 Author(s): Maureen Willis, Jing He, Jinglei Du, Theo Kreouzis, Francis L. Pratt, James S. Lord, Mark T.F. Telling, Nicola A. Morley
November 2017
Effect of alkyl side chains on properties and organic transistor performance of 2,6-bis(2,2
November 2017
Comparative analysis of contact resistance and photoresponse in poly(3-hexylthiophene) and poly(3-octylthiophene) based organic field-effect transistors
Publication date: November 2017
Source:Synthetic Metals, Volume 233 Author(s): Kshitij Bhargava, Mayoorika Shukla, Vipul Singh This paper explicitly explores the possibility of tailoring the performance of organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) fabricated using Poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and Poly(3-octylthiophene) (P3OT) having different length of alkyl side chain. We observed that the performance of devices fabricated using P3HT were significantly better in comparison to that fabricated with P3OT. The estimated values of performance parameters of P3HT OFET were found to be significantly superior to those of P3OT OFET. Further, an order of magnitude lower contact resistance and higher photoresponse values were evident in P3HT OFETs. Moreover, the gate voltage tunability of photoresponse was also found to be significantly higher in P3HT OFETs highlighting its suitability over P3OT OFETs for photosensitive transistor applications. The results suggest that the alkyl side chain in Poly(3-alkylthiophene)s (P3ATs) is critical for achieving the optimized device performance and can be tailored in order to improve the performance of OFETs.

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A flexible and disposable poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate)/polyaniline coated glass microfiber paper for sensitive and selective detection of ammonia at room temperature
Publication date: November 2017
Source:Synthetic Metals, Volume 233 Author(s): Rafaela S. Andre, Jun Chen, Dongwook Kwak, Daniel S. Correa, Luiz H.C. Mattoso, Yu Lei Ammonia (NH3) gas monitoring is of outmost importance, once its emission above toxic levels in poultry farms can cause environmental pollution and also pose a threat on the quality of livestock, affecting the poultry production and health. Herein we report on the development of a low cost, flexible and disposable sensor device (GFP@PSS/PANI) for sensitive and selective ammonia detection at room temperature. Specifically, the sensing platform was composed by a glass microfiber paper (GFP) coated with poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate) (PSS) through drop-casting and polyaniline (PANI) through in situ polymerization. Various techniques including SEM and FTIR were employed to characterize the as-prepared sensing materials. Upon exposure to ammonia, the developed sensor device shows a rapid, sensitive and reversible response with a limit detection of 125ppb and good selectivity against other common interferents such as nitrogen dioxide and carbon monoxide, most commonly found in poultry farm environment. This study provides a simple method to prepare a unique room-temperature ammonia sensing platform of low-cost and high performance, which is suitable for monitoring and controlling ammonia level in poultry farms.

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