Journal Sciences News
Zeitschrift fur Evidenz, Fortbildung und Qualitat im Gesundheitswesen
February 2018
Measuring active volume using electrical resistance tomography in a gas-sparged model anaerobic digester
Publication date: February 2018
Source:Chemical Engineering Research and Design, Volume 130 Author(s): Siew Cheng Low, Douglas Allitt, Nicky Eshtiaghi, Rajarathinam Parthasarathy Inadequate mixing in anaerobic digesters fitted with gas sparging systems is caused by many factors, and leads to dead zones where sludge remains stagnant. The present study explores a range of gas sparging configurations that can be implemented to maximize active volume, and validates electrical resistance tomography (ERT) as an effective measurement tool for analysing mixing conditions without the need for visual access to the liquid volume. Air was used as the gas phase, and xanthan gum Keltrol-T (XGKT) solutions at concentrations of 0.15 and 0.4wt% were selected as transparent simulant fluids for their rheological similarity to digested sludge. Gas flow rate, sparger nozzle orientation (upward-facing vs. downward-facing), and nozzle height were varied, and mixing performance was assessed using flow visualisation experiments. Results were then replicated with ERT for comparison. It was found that the 0.15wt% XGKT solution achieved almost complete mixing for all configurations, while the 0.4wt% XGKT solution developed stable, unmixed regions. Gas flow rate made little difference to the final mixed volume suggesting lower power input does not sacrifice steady-state active volume in the reactor. Positioning the nozzle closer to the bottom of the vessel and sparging gas downward both reduced inactive volume. ERT measurements matched flow visualisation results closely, and were able to capture details that flow visualisation ignores. It has been shown that there is great potential for implementing ERT as a method for researching flow behaviours in complex opaque materials, especially the formation and progression of active volume.
February 2018
A multiscale CFD-PBM coupled model for the kinetics and liquid–liquid dispersion behavior in a suspension polymerization stirred tank
Publication date: February 2018
Source:Chemical Engineering Research and Design, Volume 130 Author(s): Le Xie, Qi Liu, Zheng-Hong Luo Suspension polymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA) has been considered as a liquid–liquid reactive polydispersity system, which involves the complex multiphase flow behavior at multiple time and length scales. The polymerization kinetic characteristics (i.e., gel effect and glass effect) and liquid–liquid dispersion phenomena (i.e., breakage and coalescence of liquid droplets) appearing in this process make the study of suspension polymerization complicate. In this work, a three dimensional (3D) multiscale model including Eulerian–Eulerian two-fluid model, polymerization kinetics model, population balance model (PBM) and some other constitutive models was developed to elaborate those multiscale phenomena in polymerization course. The current model was validated using the reported data in terms of conversion, molecular weight as well as droplet Sauter diameter. The developed model was then employed to investigate the influence of key operating conditions on polymerization kinetic characteristics and liquid–liquid dispersion phenomena. Furthermore, the effects of reactor structure on droplet breakage and coalescence were studied in detail. This simulation work may contribute to the preparation of polymer products and the scaling up of stirred tank polymerization reactors with multiphase flow and multiscale characteristics.

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February 2018
Optimization of the recycle structure of multiple stages molecular distillation
Publication date: February 2018
Source:Chemical Engineering Research and Design, Volume 130 Author(s): Daniela S. Laoretani, Oscar A. Iribarren In cases when the separation achieved by one molecular distillation stage is not sharp enough, it is resorted to multiple stage schemes. This brings the issue of how to recycle the intermediate streams to optimize the process. The present paper proposes to use the source-sink assignment methodology to decide the recycle structure. The counter current scheme is also taken into account because it is usually regarded as the design of choice to recycle streams. The approach was applied to optimize the recycle structure of a two stages process for the separation of free fatty acids from soybean oil deodorizer distillate, to get a concentrate of tocopherols in the residual stream, within specification of acidity. The counter current scheme was also implemented. For this case study the optimal recycle structure gets 10% more product with a profit 0.6% larger than the counter current scheme, even if it has larger operative and investment costs. So, in this particular case, the reward for using a rigorous methodology was not that significant. However, the approach proposed here is systematic and necessarily leads to a structure with a performance greater than or equal to any other, because the superstructure explored includes all of them.
February 2018
Adsorption kinetics and thermodynamics studies of gold(III) ions using thioctic acid functionalized silica coated magnetite nanoparticles
Publication date: February 2018
Source:Chemical Engineering Research and Design, Volume 130 Author(s): Nur Fadzilah Abd Razak, Mustaffa Shamsuddin, Siew Ling Lee Thioctic acid functionalized silica coated magnetite nanoparticles, RS-SR-NH-SiO2-Fe3O4, has been synthesized and its ability for the recovery of Au(III) in aqueous solutions was assessed. The results of the adsorption thermodynamics and kinetics showed that this magnetic adsorbent has good adsorption capacity for Au(III) and the best interpretation for the experimental data was given by the Langmuir isotherm model. The adsorption kinetics of RS-SR-NH-SiO2-Fe3O4 was well fitted with the pseudo-second-order rate equation. The thermodynamic parameters
February 2018
Local levels of dissipation rate of turbulent kinetic energy in a rotor–stator mixer with different stator slot widths—An experimental investigation
Publication date: February 2018
Source:Chemical Engineering Research and Design, Volume 130 Author(s): Hans Henrik Mortensen, Fredrik Innings, Andreas H
February 2018
Experimental and computational investigation of mixing with contra-rotating, baffle-free impellers
Publication date: February 2018
Source:Chemical Engineering Research and Design, Volume 130 Author(s): P. Satjaritanun, E. Bringley, J.R. Regalbuto, J.A. Regalbuto, J. Register, J.W. Weidner, Y. Khunatorn, S. Shimpalee This work experimentally and numerically investigates the intersection of two fields: (1) single axis, contra-rotating impellers and (2) buoyancy of solid suspensions. The main goals of this study are to (1) create a working model to quantitatively understand particle mixing, (2) characterize and compare contra-rotating single shaft impellers to single shaft co-rotating dual impellers, (3) improve quantification of particle mixing through image processing for both computational and experimental techniques, and (4) make design decisions with the computational analysis. Twelve cases were studied by changing the direction of impeller rotation, impeller pumping direction, and the presence of baffles. Particles with specific gravities (SG) of 0.866 and 1.050 were introduced into the experimental and computational systems in a finite and countable number. The numerical solution was obtained using the Lattice Boltzmann method and the Discrete Particle method. A commercial LBM solver, XFlow, was used for the simulation. The input torques and mixing efficiency with various flow configurations and specific gravities was used to find an optimal design. For the mixing of the lighter particles, the contra configuration with inward opposing flow gave optimal performance of highest mixing efficiency at lowest required torque. Co-rotating impellers with baffles gave the best performance of high mixing efficiency at lowest power input for the heavier particles.

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February 2018
Regeneration of caprolactam-based Br
February 2018
Iron ore sinter structure development under realistic thermal conditions
Publication date: February 2018
Source:Chemical Engineering Research and Design, Volume 130 Author(s): Dongmei Liu, Geoffrey Evans, Chin Eng Loo In iron ore sintering, the bed structure transformation is caused by coalescence process occurring at flame front which determines sinter micro-structure. This study aims at how this can be affected by realistic thermal conditions. Analogue iron ore sinter mixes were sintered in an Infrared furnace and the micro-structure was studied by measuring porosity, pore size and circle factor. Pore property analysis results showed that increasing maximum temperature, lengthening holding time and slowing heating rate have led to a reduced porosity and more round pore structure. The mechanism of coalescence and densification in iron ore sintering has been explored for the purpose of understanding and quantifying how sinter micro-structure develops and is affected by flame front speed in sintering. The theoretical calculations and experimental results indicated that thermal conditions does have a large impact on micro-structure development. Finally, proposed was a reasonable diagram for micro-structure development in sinter under realistic thermal conditions.
February 2018
Thermal degradation kinetics of waste printed circuit boards
Publication date: February 2018
Source:Chemical Engineering Research and Design, Volume 130 Author(s): Raslan A. Alenezi, Fahad M. Al-Fadhli A large quantity of electronic waste, (e-waste) is generated due to a short lifespan of communication and other devices and introduction of the newly smart gadgets making limited use and generating e-waste at an alarming rate. To resolve this emerging e-waste problem, one has to thermally depolymerise in an inert atmosphere. The thermal degradation of printed circuit boards PCBs was investigated using a simultaneous thermogravimetric analyzer in the temperature range of 350–1200K. Pyrolysis experiments were carried out on PCB samples at six different heating rates of 5, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50K/min. A unique model was developed in this study, it showed that the apparent activation energy for the upper range (Ea1, 130–97kJ/mol) was always higher than the apparent activation energy (Ea2, 97–75kJ/mol) of the lower range. The results of this study will be useful in the development of pyrolytic/incineration systems for plastic waste from any electronic component. The products from the pyrolysis of PCBs can be utilized as feedstocks in the petrochemical industry, as potential fuels—either gaseous or liquids and as non-combustible materials for filler in the cement and brick industries.
February 2018
Design and application of thiourea modified D301 resin for the effective removal of toxic heavy metal ions
Publication date: February 2018
Source:Chemical Engineering Research and Design, Volume 130 Author(s): Fu-Qiang An, Yong Wang, Xiao-Yan Xue, Tuo-Ping Hu, Jian-Feng Gao, Bao-Jiao Gao High adsorption capacity, short adsorption time, and easy regeneration are very important and urgently needed for qualified adsorbents used in removing toxic heavy metals from wastewater. Based on this, a thiourea modified D301 resin (TD301) was designed and prepared via simple grafting polymerization and modification procedure. The TD301 was characterized by the scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and elemental analysis. The adsorption performances of TD301 towards low concentration of toxic heavy metal ions from aqueous solution were investigated. By virtue of the abundant amine and CS groups, TD301 possesses strong adsorption ability for Hg(II), Pb(II) and Cd(II). The pH and temperature have a great influence on the adsorption capacity. The adsorption capacities of TD301 towards Hg(II), Pb(II) and Cd(II) could reach 454.1, 436.6 and 254.1mgg
February 2018
Experimental and theoretical investigation of air gap membrane distillation process for water desalination
Publication date: February 2018
Source:Chemical Engineering Research and Design, Volume 130 Author(s): Qusay F. Alsalhy, Salah S. Ibrahim, Fatima A. Hashim This study features an experimental and theoretical investigation of the performance of air gap membrane distillation (AGMD) system using flat-sheet poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluropropylene) (PVDF-HFP) membrane for water desalination. To provide better understanding of the factors affecting the AGMD process, the impacts of system operating parameters such as feed temperature, feed flow rate, and feed concentration on permeate flux were studied. The performance of the AGMD process was statistically optimized using the design of experiment (DOE) and Taguchi techniques. Furthermore, a theoretical model describing heat and mass transfer analysis in AGMD was used. The system performance was mostly dominated by the effect of feed temperature and feed flow rate, while feed concentration had a considerable effect on flux. It was found that the permeate flux increased by about 3.8 fold with the increase of feed temperature from 45 to 65°C for 35g/L NaCl solution. The permeate flux increased by about 30%, while the feed flow rate increased from 0.25 to 0.55L/min. The rejection factor was found to be greater than 99.9% and the permeate conductivity was less than 20
February 2018
Applying artificial neural networks for systematic estimation of degree of fouling in heat exchangers
Publication date: February 2018
Source:Chemical Engineering Research and Design, Volume 130 Author(s): Ehsan Davoudi, Behzad Vaferi Deposition of undesired materials on the heat transfer surface is one the most challenging problems for application of heat exchangers. Experimental measurements of degree of fouling are both difficult and time-consuming, and often do not provide accurate results. To overcome these problems, artificial neural networks (ANN) is employed for predicting the fouling factor from some easily measured variables of the system. Indeed, fouling factor is estimated as a function of density, velocity and temperature of the fluid, its oxygen content, hydraulic diameter of the fluid passage, surface temperature, and time. Correlation matrix analyses justified that the highest interrelation exists between these independent variables and fourth roots of fouling factor. The ANN model was developed and validated using a huge databank including 11,626 experimental datasets for fouling factor in portable fouling research unit (PFRU) and single tube heat exchangers collecting from six different literatures. The best training algorithm and the optimum numbers of hidden neuron were determined through minimizing the computational effort and maximizing some statistical accuracy indices, respectively. It was concluded that Bayesian regulation backpropagation approach has the best performance among the considered training algorithms. Moreover, the two-layer perceptron neural network with ten hidden neurons was found as the best ANN topology. This ANN model predicts the experimental values of fouling factor with overall AARD%=5.42, MSE=0.0013, RMSE=0.0355, and R2 =0.977819. The simplicity of the developed ANN model and its small levels of error for huge experimental databank are some of the key features of our model.
February 2018
Analysis of flux decline using sequential fouling mechanisms during concentration of Syzygium cumini (L.) leaf extract
Publication date: February 2018
Source:Chemical Engineering Research and Design, Volume 130 Author(s): Upasna Balyan, Biswajit Sarkar Experimental studies were performed in a stirred cell for concentration of MF-pretreated extracts from jamun (Syzygium cumini L.) leaves using nanofiltration over a wide range of operating conditions. Performance of nanofiltration process was evaluated in terms of permeate flux, flux decline and extract quality (total polyphenol content, total flavonoid content and antioxidant activity). A total of ten phenolic compounds including six phenolic acids and four flavonoids were identified and quantified in jamun leaf extract using HPLC. A combined sequential model consisting of Hermia’s complete pore blocking and cake layer formation based on resistance-in-series theory was considered to explain the flux decline behavior with time. The model calculations were shown to be in excellent agreement with experimental flux data (R2 >0.90; SD<2.5%). Experimental results showed that the operating conditions had significant effect on the onset of cake layer formation. The pore blocking resistance was found to be comparable with membrane resistance, while cake layer resistance was 20–40% of membrane resistance. In addition, the permeate flux for MF-pretreated extract was always higher than that for the untreated extract. The present study with the estimated model parameters provided important understandings into the underlying mechanisms of membrane fouling phenomena during concentration of jamun leaf extract.
February 2018
The analysis of liquid–liquid equilibria (LLE) of toluene+heptane+ionic liquid ternary mixture using intelligent models
Publication date: February 2018
Source:Chemical Engineering Research and Design, Volume 130 Author(s): Fariborz Shaahmadi, Mohammad Amin Anbaz, Bahamin Bazooyar This paper is to verify the applicability of three intelligence methods including artificial neural network (ANN), support vector machine (SVM) and least square support vector machine (LSSVM) in forecasting the thermodynamic phase behavior of LLE for toluene/heptane/ionic liquid ternary systems. The shuffled complex evolution (SCE), particle swarm optimization (PSO) and genetic algorithm (GA) are employed to acquire the optimal magnitudes of hyper parameters (
February 2018
Synthesis, kinetic analysis and modelling of galacto-oligosaccharides formation
Publication date: February 2018
Source:Chemical Engineering Research and Design, Volume 130 Author(s): I. Mueller, G. Kiedorf, E. Runne, A. Seidel-Morgenstern, C. Hamel To design and optimize chemical reactors and bio reactors a profound understanding of kinetics and in particular suitable mechanistic rate models is needed. In chemical reaction engineering the methodology from Christiansen considering elementary kinetics assuming rate-determining steps has been successfully applied. It is hardly considered for enzymatic reactions. In this work, kinetics of formation of the prebiotics galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) from lactose were investigated with
February 2018
Improving oxygen transfer efficiency by developing a novel energy-saving impeller
Publication date: February 2018
Source:Chemical Engineering Research and Design, Volume 130 Author(s): Zhiyong Zheng, Dongdong Sun, Jing Li, Xiaobei Zhan, Minjie Gao Radial flow impeller is the energy-intensive and fundamental component in reactors for the gas–liquid transfer process. A newly designed fan-shaped turbine (FT) assembly with annular-sector-shaped concave blades was characterized and compared with the Rushton turbine (RT) and Bakker turbine (BT). A new surface equation was established to design the blade of the FT impeller. Under turbulence conditions, the FT impeller showed a lower power number and higher relative power demand (RPD) compared with RT and BT impellers. The power number of the FT impeller was 1.7, lower by 26% than that of BT impeller. The RPD of the FT impeller was nearly 0.95 at a high impeller speed. The critical dispersion speed, gas holdup, and volumetric oxygen transfer coefficient of the FT impeller were close to those of BT impeller. Moreover, the oxygen transfer efficiency of the FT impeller was remarkably higher by 35%–66% and 23%–34% than that of RT and BT impellers, respectively. The FT impeller showed competence in a broad operation range, strong robustness, energy-saving feature, and efficient mass transfer characteristics.

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February 2018
On the effect of the Froude number on the interface area of gravity-driven liquid rivulets
Publication date: February 2018
Source:Chemical Engineering Research and Design, Volume 130 Author(s): D. Sebastia-Saez, S. Gu, L. K
February 2018
Impact of HSPBT blade angle on gas phase hydrodynamics in a gas–liquid stirred tank
Publication date: February 2018
Source:Chemical Engineering Research and Design, Volume 130 Author(s): Baranivignesh Prakash, Milinkumar T. Shah, Vishnu K. Pareek, Ranjeet P. Utikar For gas dispersion applications in stirred tanks, standard pitched blade turbine (PBT) with 45° blade angle is widely used. However, the standard PBT suffers from low pumping efficiency as well as high torque instability when a large volume of gas is to be dispersed. Thus, high solidity pitched blade turbine (HSPBT), which has a higher blade to impeller area has been developed. The performance of HSPBT relies on the impeller blade angle that governs impeller shear, break up of bubbles, and pumping efficiency. For HSPBT, detailed experimental data is not available, which hinders its design optimization. This study investigates the effect of blade angle (30°, 45°, and 60°) on gas holdup, power consumption, and bubble properties (size, frequency, and velocity) in a pilot-scale stirred tank using optical probe measurements. Increasing the blade angle from 30° to 60° resulted in increase in overall gas holdup and power consumption. For 30° blade angle, the bubble frequency was approximately three times higher at impeller trailing edge compared to the tank center and wall; whereas average bubble velocity was 15–20% lower at the trailing edge. Increasing the blade angle to 60° resulted in further increase in bubble frequency and drop in bubble velocity at the trailing edge. Wide chord length distribution (1–5cm) was observed at the tank center; whereas narrower distribution in chord length (0–1cm) was observed at the impeller trailing edge. Further analysis of bubble population shown that the contribution of small bubbles to overall gas holdup was highest using HSPBT45°. Higher gas holdup and finer bubbles were observed for HSPBT45° compared to HSPBT60° at reasonably lower power input.
February 2018
Review and comparison of techniques of analysis of valve stiction: From modeling to smart diagnosis
Publication date: February 2018
Source:Chemical Engineering Research and Design, Volume 130 Author(s): Riccardo Bacci di Capaci, Claudio Scali The importance of evaluating valve conditions and detecting the onset of possible malfunctions is recognized as a key issue in control performance monitoring, as they may affect heavily the loop operation and have a direct influence on product quality and then plant economy. In particular valve stiction, a phenomenon which shows itself with similar effects to other causes (as incorrect tuning, external disturbance), but requires specific interventions to eliminate it. This paper aims to be a review of the state of the art about valve stiction, by covering fundamental and applicative issues, classical and innovative approaches. Being a comprehensive review paper, the approach of presentation of the examined material necessarily follows the categorization of previous survey papers (which are carefully acknowledged). Techniques illustrated in each category are compared pointing out analogies and differences, showing more appealing features and possible points of weakness. In most cases, comparative application on industrial data is performed, and some guidelines for the choice of best methodologies are provided. These aspects have to be considered as added values of the work. The paper starts with an illustration of basic aspects of the phenomenon of valve stiction, with description of its origin and physical mechanisms, and details about the effects on control variables. Then, different models of valve stiction are examined, and traditional detection techniques and smart diagnosis approaches, based on additional measurements, are presented. Then, the paper illustrates identification and quantification methods, compensation techniques, and software packages proposed for control loop performance assessment.
February 2018
Development of a novel high-efficiency dynamic hydrocyclone for oil–water separation
Publication date: February 2018
Source:Chemical Engineering Research and Design, Volume 130 Author(s): Long Huang, Songsheng Deng, Jinfa Guan, Ming Chen, Weixing Hua A dynamic hydrocyclone (DH) is a high-efficiency separator, but the oil core dispersion phenomenon was observed when the split ratio was small in the experiment. The separated oil mixed with water again and the separation failed in that case. To overcome these deficiencies and improve the performance, a novel reverse-flow DH (RDH) was designed by the inspiration of conventional hydrocyclones. The performances of the DH and RDH were investigated both experimentally and numerically. The results showed that in RDH, air bubbles and oil droplets were discharged quickly from the oil outlet, and the influence of the interferences was diminished. Thus the oil core dispersion phenomenon was avoided, and separation performance was improved. The results of numerical simulations were largely consistent with the experimental results. Furthermore, the flow field analyses indicated that the residence times of the oil droplets in two DHs are similar, while the tangential velocity in the RDH was larger than that in the DH, which leads to a higher separation efficiency.
February 2018
Entrainer based economical design and plantwide control study for Tetrahydrofuran/Water separation process
Publication date: February 2018
Source:Chemical Engineering Research and Design, Volume 130 Author(s): Asma Iqbal, Syed Akhlaq Ahmad, Ojasvi In this work, the control structure design for a continuous extractive distillation scheme using entrainers for separating THF–water azeotropic mixture into high purity product (THF) has been studied. The selection of suitable entrainer for the undertaken process was purely based on economical design criteria where total annualised cost (TAC) for different entrainers were first calculated and further compared. Once the suitable entrainer was selected based on the design economics, later the plantwide control structure was evaluated for disturbance rejection capabilities and smooth process operations in the face of feed throughput and composition change. For economical design operations, the recycle rate of entrainers has to be kept around a minimum recycle rate. However, operating below minimum entrainer recycle rate leads the product purity to fall sharply in conventional control structure designs due to THF–Water azeotropic constraints. The presented control structure design in this works ensures that product purity is not lost even in case of sever disturbances in feed throughput (by ±10%) or a changed feed composition (by ±5%).

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February 2018
Neuro estimator-based inferential extended generic model control of a reactive distillation column
Publication date: February 2018
Source:Chemical Engineering Research and Design, Volume 130 Author(s): Amiya K. Jana, Sudip Banerjee This work aims at proposing a neuro estimator (NE)-based inferential extended generic model controller (IEGMC) for an ethylene glycol reactive distillation (RD) column. This nonlinear control system comprises of a model-based controller (i.e., EGMC), an artificial neural network (ANN)-based estimator (i.e., NE) and an ANN-based soft sensor for composition inferencing. At first, the NE is designed for the RD column to compute the state variables exclusively required for simulating the control action of the EGMC. We subsequently formulate the NE-based EGMC controller. As a further development, a soft sensor has been proposed to infer the bottom composition of the RD column and the resulting controller in conjunction with this soft sensor is called NE-based inferential EGMC controller. For the representative ethylene glycol system, the bottommost tray has been identified as the most sensitive stage and thus, used to infer the composition. Performing simulation tests, it is investigated that the proposed NE-based IEGMC is superior to the inferential proportional integral (IPI) controller.
February 2018
Analytical and numerical solutions of two-dimensional general rate models for liquid chromatographic columns packed with core–shell particles
Publication date: February 2018
Source:Chemical Engineering Research and Design, Volume 130 Author(s): Uche Ugochukwu David, Shamsul Qamar, Andreas Seidel-Morgenstern This work is concerned with the analytical and numerical solutions of linear and nonlinear two-dimensional general rate models (2D-GRMs) describing the transport of single-solute and multi-component mixtures through chromatographic columns of cylindrical geometry packed with core–shell particles. The finite Hankel and Laplace transformations are successively applied to derive analytical solutions for a single-solute model considering linear adsorption isotherms and two different sets of boundary conditions. Moreover, analytical temporal moments are derived from the Laplace domain solutions. The process is further analyzed by numerically approximating the nonlinear 2D-GRM for core–shell particles considering multi-component mixtures and nonlinear Langmuir isotherm. A high resolution finite volume scheme is extended to solve the considered 2D-model equations. Several case studies of single-solute and multi-component mixtures are considered. The derived analytical results are validated against the numerical solutions of a high resolution finite volume scheme. Typical performance criteria are utilized to analyze the performance of the chromatographic process. The results obtained are considered to be useful to support further development of liquid chromatography.
Available online 17 January 2018
Simultaneous absorption–oxidation of nitric oxide and sulfur dioxide using ammonium persulfate synergistically activated by UV-light and heat
Publication date: February 2018
Source:Chemical Engineering Research and Design, Volume 130 Author(s): Yangxian Liu, Yan Wang, Wen Xu, Wei Yang, Zhenhua Pan, Qian Wang Simultaneous absorption–oxidation process of nitric oxide (NO) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) from flue gas using aqueous ammonium persulfate synergistically activated by UV-light and heat in a novel UV-impinging stream reactor was developed. The main influencing factors, products and active species of NO and SO2 simultaneous removal were studied. The mass transfer and kinetics of NO absorption–oxidation were also investigated. The present studies show that SO2 is very easy to remove because of its very high solubility in water (SO2 removal efficiencies reach 100% under most of experimental conditions). Increasing S2O8 2
Available online 16 January 2018
Studies on Glycerol Conversion to Tricaproin over Sulfate promoted Iron Oxide as catalyst using Response Surface Methodology
Publication date: Available online 17 January 2018
Source:Chemical Engineering Research and Design Author(s): Kamalpreet Kaur, Amit Sobti, Ravinder K. Wanchoo, Amrit Pal Toor Novel and pioneering insight towards the synthesis of remarkable tricaproin was endeavored by aqueous phase esterification of caproic acid with glycerol over sulfate promoted iron oxide catalyst. Tricaproin has good solubility with paclitaxel, an anticancer compound for nanoemulsion formation. Catalyst has also displayed tunable selectivity towards tricaproin over variable reaction parameters. The catalyst was characterized using a range of physicochemical methods such as SEM, XRD and FT-IR. Resourceful appliance of Central Composite Design (CCD) from Response Surface Methodology (RSM) scrutinized the interactive effects between relevant process parameters in model system portraying three dimensional surface plots. In this demeanor, caproic acid and glycerol is esterified subsequently to tricaproin with foremost selectivity of 71.6%. Detailed kinetic study was established for scaling up purposes.

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Available online 13 January 2018
Solvent effects on design with operability considerations in post-combustion CO2 capture plants
Publication date: Available online 16 January 2018
Source:Chemical Engineering Research and Design Author(s): Theodoros Damartzis, Athanasios I. Papadopoulos, Panos Seferlis This work presents an evaluation of the operation of alternative solvents for post-combustion CO2 capture under varying process conditions. The proposed methodology is part of a generalized design and operability framework and relies on the determination of the processes’ steady-state controllability as an inherent system feature, independent of the control structure selection. Assessment of such characteristics can shed light on the effect different capture solvents, process configurations and control structures have on the achieved dynamic responses and further associate them to the physico-chemical properties of the solvents. Three amine based solvents, namely monoethanolamine (MEA), diethanolamine (DEA) and 3-amino-1-propanol (MPA) are introduced to an advanced CO2 capture flowsheet previously designed for optimal steady-state operation. The dynamic characteristics of the investigated solvent-process systems under the influence of disturbances emulating real-time industrial conditions are then assessed and rank-ordered using an index that measures the departure of the process variables from the region of desired operation. As such, for a given disturbance, the drift from the acceptable steady-state operating point and the response of dynamic closed-loop simulations determine the suitability and applicability of each solvent in the employed CO2 capture process configuration. Results reveal the superiority of the dynamic behavior of MPA in terms of economic performance as well as expected process operability for variations in the inlet flue gas flowrate, greatly surpassing the performance of the benchmark solvent, MEA.
Available online 13 January 2018
Design and preliminary operation of a hybrid syngas/solar PV/battery power system for off-grid applications: A case study in Thailand
Publication date: Available online 13 January 2018
Source:Chemical Engineering Research and Design Author(s): Sompol Kohsri, Apichart Meechai, Chaiwat Prapainainar, Phavanee Narataraksa, Piyapong Hunpinyo, G
Available online 13 January 2018
CFD-DEM modelling of circulation frequencies and residence times in a prismatic spouted bed
Publication date: Available online 13 January 2018
Source:Chemical Engineering Research and Design Author(s): Swantje Pietsch, Paul Kieckhefen, Stefan Heinrich, Michael M
Available online 13 January 2018
Review on the Design and Optimization of Natural Gas Liquefaction Processes for Onshore and Offshore Applications
Publication date: Available online 13 January 2018
Source:Chemical Engineering Research and Design Author(s): Tianbiao He, Iftekhar A. Karimi, Yonglin Ju Liquefied natural gas (LNG) has been the fastest increasing fossil fuel in the world energy market due to its low carbon dioxide emission, high energy density, and ease of transport. However, the liquefaction of natural gas is one of the most energy-intensive industrial processes. Thus, it is very important to design new liquefaction processes and optimize the existing ones in order to reduce the energy consumption. In this paper, we present a state-of-the-art review of the recent progress on the design and optimization of NG liquefaction processes for onshore and offshore applications. The current onshore processes include the cascade, mixed refrigerant, and expander-based processes, of which the mixed refrigerant process has received the most attention. The common objective function of the onshore LNG process optimization is the minimization of the energy consumption. However, for the offshore applications, the single mixed refrigerant and nitrogen expansion processes have been considered to be the promising options. For these, deck space and sensitivity to platform waving need be considered apart from energy consumption. Finally, we propose several potential developments for NG liquefaction process design and optimization.

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Available online 12 January 2018
Computational study of flow and heat transfer in fixed beds with cylindrical particles for low tube to particle diameter ratios
Publication date: Available online 13 January 2018
Source:Chemical Engineering Research and Design Author(s): Zhang Minhua, Dong He, Geng Zhongfeng A three dimensional CFD model was developed for studying flow and heat transfer in fixed beds with cylindrical particles for low tube to particle diameter ratios. The packing structures were generated by means of the discrete element method (DEM), in which the rigorous cylindrical particle was adopted. The detailed packing structure features were obtained, including the particle position, orientation, porosity distribution and the effect on the flow and heat transfer process was analyzed. The wall effect was found to be obvious for fixed beds with low tube to particle diameter ratios. The cylindrical particles tend to be organized in circles, which is even more visible in the vicinity of walls. The radial porosity distribution showed that the obvious oscillation existed in near wall region. The detailed velocity and temperature distribution were investigated. The average axial velocity showed similar tendency with radial porosity distribution. Large porosity caused large velocity and temperature gradients in the wall region. The radial temperature distribution was also calculated by the improved two dimensional quasi-homogeneous model, in which the local porosity and axial average velocity distributions from CFD simulations were adopted and good consistencies for temperature distribution were achieved for different tube to particle diameter ratios.
Available online 12 January 2018
NaCl cleaning of 0.1
Available online 12 January 2018
Spatial Planning of Biogas Processing Facilities in Greece: The Sunflower's Capabilities and the Waste-to-Bioproducts Approach
Publication date: Available online 12 January 2018
Source:Chemical Engineering Research and Design Author(s): Epameinondas Nikas, Aggelos Sotiropoulos, George A. Xydis This study examines the potential contribution to biogas national production, by cultivating sunflower, using modern techniques, in the plains of the prefecture of Karditsa, Greece. The main purpose of this study is to determine the potential quantity of biogas that could be eventually produced in the plains, by applying the latest methods to the cultivation, growth and harvesting of the sunflower. Using regional and national data, this study ranked the agricultural areas of the prefecture of Karditsa and created a suitability map on the needs of the sunflower. The illustrated results provide some support for the future investors or the present farmers in the area. The developed GIS maps may become a useful tool for the prediction of the income from the calculated quantity and quality of sunflower crops’ seeds or biogas production. Spatial planning analysis for the determination of the installation of a biogas’ facility centre, where sunflower's derivatives will be processed for ethanol production was also implemented. On the basis of the results of this research, it can be concluded that Karditsa's plains have a great potential for producing 3,818 ktoe of biogas and succeed Greece's 2020's goal on biofuel production (10% of total fuel consumption) by utilizing the maps and the techniques presented on this study. A supplementary study of converting waste (household bio-waste) to bioethanol and the future potentials of the process were illustrated and presented, based on the fact that bio-waste production is and will continue to increase.
Available online 12 January 2018
Thermodynamic evaluation of chemical looping based nitric oxide and hydrogen production
Publication date: Available online 12 January 2018
Source:Chemical Engineering Research and Design Author(s): Sonal K. Thengane, Andrew Hoadley, Sankar Bhattacharya, Sagar Mitra, Santanu Bandyopadhyay A new chemical looping based process for the production of nitric oxide and hydrogen has been recently proposed and demonstrated for metal oxides such as CuO, Co3O4 and Fe2O3 (Thengane et al., 2016a). The present study extends the work and compares the conventional Ostwald process for nitric oxide production with this chemical looping based process. Two flowsheets are considered for the new process; the reduced metal oxide is re-oxidised using air (CLAO) and the reduced metal oxide is re-oxidised with water (CLHYD). Both processes are simulated in Aspen Plus and compared with the conventional steam methane reforming (SMR) flowsheet, which is also simulated. Both the energy and exergy efficiencies are calculated. The energy efficiency of the three processes; SMR, CLHYD and CLAO including the steam generation potential are 69.2%, 81.2% and 93.7%, respectively. The exergy efficiency of the three processes; SMR, CLHYD and CLAO are 39.9%, 63.3% and 63.7%, respectively. A hybrid case (CLHYD-AO) is also simulated to obtain the energy efficiency of 91.7% and the highest exergy efficiency of 76.5%. The exergy efficiency is particularly sensitive to NO conversion for the chemical looping processes, where the assumed conversion was 80% based on the experimental results. The chemical looping based processes therefore offer significant advantages such as operation at lower pressures, avoidance of expensive catalysts, and the potential for being independent of fossil fuels as the feed material.
Available online 12 January 2018
Numerical study on the flow of high viscous fluids out of conical vessels under low-frequency vibration
Publication date: Available online 12 January 2018
Source:Chemical Engineering Research and Design Author(s): Xiaobin Zhan, Baojun Shen, Zhibin Sun, Yu He, Tielin Shi, Xiwen Li The flow processes of high viscous fluids out of a conical vessel under low-frequency vibration are studied numerically by computational fluid dynamics (CFD), and the effects of various rheological parameters as well as vibration parameters on the flow processes are investigated in detail. The results show that the flowrates of Newtonian fluids are dependent on the flow coefficients for outflow and inflow, while the flowrates of non-Newtonian fluids are affected by the change of viscosity induced by vibration in addition to the flow coefficient difference. An outflow enhancement occurs in the high viscous shear thinning fluids. However, for low viscous shear thinning fluids, the outflow reduction induced by the flow coefficient difference is large enough to offset the outflow enhancement induced by the decrease of viscosity. Likewise, for shear thickening fluids, the outflow retardation is observed due to the increase of viscosity induced by the vibration. What's more, the flow processes of fluids in a vertically-vibrated conical vessel are also dependent on vibration frequency and amplitude, and different settings of vibration parameters may lead to outflow enhancement, outflow retardation or even backflow, which is helpful to achieve the control of flowrate through adjusting vibration parameters only.
Available online 12 January 2018
Treatment of multi–ionic solutions by a hybrid membrane system. Separation, concentration and recovery of Zn2+ cations
Publication date: Available online 12 January 2018
Source:Chemical Engineering Research and Design Author(s): Piotr Szczepa
Available online 10 January 2018
Modelling of the spray drying process for particle design
Publication date: Available online 12 January 2018
Source:Chemical Engineering Research and Design Author(s): Ivana M. Cotabarren, Diego Bert
Available online 8 January 2018
Efficient extraction and enrichment of rare earth from diluent aqueous solution by organic hollow sphere
Publication date: Available online 10 January 2018
Source:Chemical Engineering Research and Design Author(s): Chuanxu Xiao, Kun Huang, Wenjuan Cao, Tingting Dong, Min Li, Huizhou Liu Extraction of rare earths from leach aqueous solution by conventional chemical precipitation brings severe amino-nitrogen pollution. In this work, a novel method was developed by organic hollow sphere to extract and enrich Er (III), a model middle-heavy rare earth ion, from diluent aqueous solution. The organic hollow sphere is a core-shell structure, in which the core is composed of gas phase and the shell is a thin layer of organic extractant. The effects of flow rates of gas phase and/or organic extractant on Er (III) extraction rate were investigated. The results demonstrated that the flow rate of gas phase played more important role than that of organic extractant in the extraction rate of Er (III). Accompanied by the achievement of a large volume ratio (1000:1) of aqueous solution to organic extractant, the enrichment ratio (100) of the rare-earth ions could reach a significant level, which is much higher than that by conventional methods The lower flow rate of organic extractant is more beneficial to Er (III) enrichment. It demonstrates that the newly developed extraction technique in this work is promising, and as a result the development of organic hollow sphere extraction process for the recovery of REs is straightforwardly envisaged.

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Available online 5 January 2018
Relationship between scouring efficiency and overall concentration of fluidized granular activated carbon (GAC) in microfiltration
Publication date: Available online 8 January 2018
Source:Chemical Engineering Research and Design Author(s): Jingwei Wang, Anthony G. Fane, Jia Wei Chew The use of liquid-solid fluidization as a means of membrane fouling mitigation has aroused increasing attention especially in membrane bioreactors. Past studies have affirmed a relationship between the fluidized GAC media and fouling trends, and also shed light on the effects of superficial liquid velocity, power requirement, GAC particle diameter and foulant type on the effectiveness of fouling mitigation during microfiltration. In particular, the ratios of the local critical flux to the overall critical flux (J c,local /J c,overall ) were shown to deviate from unity, owing to different expanded bed heights of the fluidized GAC and causes non-uniform fouling across the membrane. Accordingly, this study was aimed at understanding the impact of different overall GAC concentrations, which give different expanded bed heights, on the extent of fouling mitigation. Monodisperse millimeter-sized GAC were used as the fluidized media and the particulate foulants were micrometer-sized polystyrene and bentonite particles. The results indicate that the highest overall concentration was advantageous in terms of enabling (i) higher membrane fouling mitigation at a lower power required per unit permeate (P p ) for the polystyrene foulant but not bentonite foulant; and (ii) more similar J c,local values over the three heights investigated, which implies more uniform fouling mitigation across the membrane. The relative benefits of adjusting overall GAC concentration versus the particle diameter of the GAC media were also critically assessed.
Available online 5 January 2018
THE RATE OF BIOCIDE LEACHING FROM POROUS RENDERS
Publication date: Available online 5 January 2018
Source:Chemical Engineering Research and Design Author(s): Katarzyna Styszko, Krzysztof Kupiec The leaching of biocides contained in renders occurs through the contact of the surfaces of the renders with water. In the majority of cases such contact occurs during rainfall, and therefore it is intermittent in nature. The work presents a mathematical model of the process of the transfer of mass (biocides) in a porous material (a render). The process consists of two stages which follow each other in a cyclical manner: the leaching stage, in which the surface of the render is wet, and the stage in which the surface of the render is dry. In the latter stage homogenization of the concentrations of the biocides in the render occurs. The coefficients of the diffusion of biocides in renders, which were determined in a previous work, were utilized in the simulation-related calculations, in which the dependencies of the average concentrations of biocides in the render since the time during the leachings performed in the subsequent cycles were determined. The consistence of the results of simulation-based calculations with the results of experimental research that was obtained confirms the correctness of the model that is presented. The biocides which were applied in the research: diuron, cybutryn and isoproturon are applied in practice as supplements to building materials. The purpose of these biocides is to ensure protection against the growth of microorganisms. The biocides which were mentioned constituted a supplement to the acrylic render and to the silicone render.

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Available online 5 January 2018
Determination of the gas hydrate limits to isenthalpic Joule-Thomson expansions
Publication date: Available online 5 January 2018
Source:Chemical Engineering Research and Design Author(s): Hamidreza Yarveicy, Mohammad M. Ghiasi, Amir H. Mohammadi Due to the perennial problems associated with the gas hydrate phenomenon in natural gas and petroleum industries, it is crucial to avoid hydrate formation. If a natural gas goes through a throttling process, hydrate formation may occur. In this study, novel methodologies are developed to determine the hydrate limits to isenthalpic Joule-Thomson expansions for the first time. First, a new empirical correlation is introduced for predicting the required minimum initial temperature of a natural gas going through a JT expansion without the risk of hydrate formation. Next, state-of-the-art algorithms including adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS), least squares support vector machine (LSSVM), and radial basis function artificial neural network (RBF-ANN) are utilized for presenting the models capable of predicting the gas initial temperature. According to the results of the performed error analysis, it was found that the proposed methods provide excellent estimations. The proposed models showed R2 to be more than 0.99 and AARD% to be less than 0.5. However, the most accurate estimations are obtained from the presented RBF_ANN model.

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Available online 4 January 2018
Resolving the rapid water absorption of porous functionalised calcium carbonate powder compacts by terahertz pulsed imaging
Publication date: Available online 5 January 2018
Source:Chemical Engineering Research and Design Author(s): Daniel Markl, Parry Wang, Cathy Ridgway, Anssi-Pekka Karttunen, Prince Bawuah, Jarkko Ketolainen, Patrick Gane, Kai-Erik Peiponen, J. Axel Zeitler Cost effectiveness, ease of use and patient compliance make pharmaceutical tablets the most popular and widespread form to administer a drug to a patient. Tablets typically consist of an active pharmaceutical ingredient and a selection from various excipients. A novel highly porous excipient, functionalised calcium carbonate (FCC), was designed to facilitate rapid liquid uptake leading to disintegration times of FCC based tablets in the matter of seconds. Five sets of FCC tablets with a target porosity of 45–65% in 5% steps were prepared and characterised using terahertz pulsed imaging (TPI). The high acquisition rate (15Hz) of TPI enabled the analysis of the rapid liquid imbibition of water into these powder compacts. The penetration depth determined from the TPI measurements as a function of time was analysed by the power law and modelled for both the inertial (initial phase) and Lucas-Washburn (LW, longer time Laplace-
Available online 2 January 2018
GROWTH KINETICS OF NUCLEI FORMED FROM DIFFERENT BINDERS AND POWDERS IN VERTICAL CYLINDRICAL MIXING DEVICES
Publication date: Available online 4 January 2018
Source:Chemical Engineering Research and Design Author(s): Yasmine N. Baghdadi, Ahmad B. Albadarin, Chirangano Mangwandi Granulation is the process of forming large aggregates from fine particles using a high shear mixer. This method is used in several industries from pharmaceuticals to chemical and fertilizer production. This research will study the effect of four process variables: speed of mixer rotation in the range 100 to 200
January 2018
Determination and Modelling for Solubility of o-Aminobenzamide and Its Mixture in Subcritical 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane
Publication date: Available online 2 January 2018
Source:Chemical Engineering Research and Design Author(s): Jing Zhu, Yubo Wang, Junsu Jin, Liren Qin The solubility of o-aminobenzamide (o-AB) and its mixture with o-nitrobenzoic acid (o-NBA) in subcritical 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (R134a) was measured at temperatures of 308, 318, 328K and pressure range from 5.0 to 15.0MPa with static method. Then the solubility of o-AB and o-NBA in subcritical R134a binary and ternary system were compared and investigated from the view of solvent density, solvent polarity, and interaction between solvent and solute. In order to evaluate the effect of co-solute on solubility of solute, enhancement factor (EF), separation factor (SF), separation efficiency (SE), and the solubility enhancement coefficient (
January 2018
Inside Front Cover
Publication date: January 2018
Source:Chemical Engineering Research and Design, Volume 129

January 2018
Contents
Publication date: January 2018
Source:Chemical Engineering Research and Design, Volume 129

January 2018
Barcelona Declaration – 10th World Congress of Chemical Engineering, 1–5 October 2017
Publication date: January 2018
Source:Chemical Engineering Research and Design, Volume 129

January 2018
Conceptual design for the extractive distillation of cyclopentane and neohexane using a mixture of N,N-dimethyl formamide and ionic liquid as the solvent
Publication date: January 2018
Source:Chemical Engineering Research and Design, Volume 129 Author(s): Lehuan Wu, Luo Wu, Yansheng Liu, Xuqiang Guo, Yufeng Hu, Rui Cao, Xinyun Pu, Xue Wang A conceptual design of extractive distillation for the separation of cyclopentane and neohexane mixtures using a mixture of N,N-dimethyl formamide (DMF) and ionic liquid (IL) as entrainer is developed. [PCNMIM][ClO4] was found to be the most promising solvent through the COSMO-RS calculations. Quantum chemistry calculations were then carried out to further understand the separation ability of the solvent. The vapor–liquid equilibrium (VLE) experimental results showed that the relative volatility of neohexane to cyclopentane is enhanced using the N,N-dimethyl formamide (DMF)+[PCNMIM][ClO4] mixed solvents when compared to the benchmark solvent DMF. The interaction parameters of non-random two-liquid (NRTL) model were correlated using the measured experimental VLE data. For comparison, two extractive distillation processes, using mixed solvents and pure DMF, were simulated in Aspen Plus. The results showed that the mixed solvents exhibit a better separation performance than DMF. The process using mixed solvents can reduce the total annual cost by 21.49% compared with that using DMF.

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January 2018
Hydrodynamic modeling of ionic liquids and conventional amine solvents in bubble column
Publication date: January 2018
Source:Chemical Engineering Research and Design, Volume 129 Author(s): Muhammad Furqan Ali, Jieqing Gan, Xiaochun Chen, Guangren Yu, Yuan Zhang, Mujtaba Ellahi, Ahmed A. Abdeltawab The green solvent ionic liquids (ILs) are getting attention in variety of industries, because of their unique properties. Few studies explain the hydrodynamics of ILs, but the comparison with conventional amine solvents in CO2 capture process has not so far been reported. The primary target of this research is to develop a state of the art computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model that would be useful to understate hydrodynamic parameters of both ILs and conventional amine solvents in a glance. In present study, three ILs are investigated inside a 3D flat bubble column and their higher viscosities are examined vigilantly by comparison with three amine solvents. The flow pattern, liquid velocity magnitude, CO2 holdup and bubble size distribution are explained. It is reported that current CFD model may be used for higher viscous ILs and amine solvents. Compared with amine solvents, CO2 plume meandering behavior was not observed and very low gas holdup was obtain in ILs. The velocity magnitude of ILs increased with the height in bubble column, but a decreasing trend with column height was followed in the case of amine solvents. CO2 exhibited non-coalescence behavior in ILs, but coalescence and breakup phenomena were seen in amine solvents. Finally, baffled type industrial tray column is also investigated and some useful hydrodynamic aspects in the comparison of pure ionic liquid, 90%-solution of ionic liquid and 30%-solution of MEA are drawn. The experimentally validated CFD model would be useful for switching to ILs from corrosive amine solvents and further investigation of new economical ILs.

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January 2018
Breakup and coalescence regularity of non-dilute oil drops in a vane-type swirling flow field
Publication date: January 2018
Source:Chemical Engineering Research and Design, Volume 129 Author(s): Shuo Liu, Dong Zhang, Le-le Yang, Jing-yu Xu In this work, in order to investigate the behavior of non-dilute drops, including breakup, coalescence and trajectory, in a 100-mm inner-diameter horizontal swirling flow field with low inlet mixture velocity, both an experimental study and numerical simulation were conducted. Inlet oil phase concentration was under 3.0% volume fraction, with an inlet flow rate ranging from 12m3/h to 18m3/h. Malvern RTsizer and Electrical Resistance Tomography were applied for measuring the drop size distribution and oil phase concentration, respectively. Correspondingly, numerical simulations applying a Renormalization-group k-

CFD simulation of sieve-fixed valve tray hydrodynamics
Publication date: January 2018
Source:Chemical Engineering Research and Design, Volume 129 Author(s): Hongkang Zhao, Lun Li, Junsu Jin, Qunsheng Li In this work, the sieve-fixed valve (SFV) tray was designed by adding flow-guiding and sieve holes on the valve caps of the original trapezoid valve (OTV). A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model of three-dimensional two-phase flow was developed to describe the flow structure of SFV tray. Based on the experimental clear liquid height, the modified correlation of Bennett was adopted for liquid–gas interaction and the ga–liquid momentum transfer term MGL was also obtained. To demonstrate the function of flow-guiding hole and sieve hole, the hydrodynamics of the OTV and SFV trays including pressure drop, weeping, entrainment and clear liquid height were experimented and compared. What’s more, local information such as velocity profile and flow field around the valves were simulated. CFD results showed that the new valve tray with flow-guiding holes was capable of promoting liquid flow and homogenizing liquid flow. This study proved that CFD research can test modification of devices, and provide information which could not be obtained by experiment. The CFD method tends to be a necessary part for designing and modifying new distillation internals.

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