Journal Sciences News
Zeitschrift fur Evidenz, Fortbildung und Qualitat im Gesundheitswesen
June 2018
CFD analyses of liquid flow characteristics in a rotor-stator reactor
Publication date: June 2018
Source:Chemical Engineering Research and Design, Volume 134 Author(s): Yi Ouyang, Siwen Wang, Yang Xiang, Zemeng Zhao, Jiexin Wang, Lei Shao Rotor-stator reactor (RSR) is a novel device for the intensification of multiphase processes and can greatly boost mass transfer and mixing efficiency. However, due to the unique structure, the flow characteristics in the RSR is unknown and difficult to acquire by experiments. Therefore, this work employed computational fluid dynamics (CFD) technique to reveal liquid flow behaviors in an RSR for the first time. The volume of fluid (VOF) multiphase model, sliding model (SM) and standard k–
June 2018
Demulsifier assisted film thinning and coalescence in crude oil emulsions under DC electric fields
Publication date: June 2018
Source:Chemical Engineering Research and Design, Volume 134 Author(s): Sameer Mhatre, S
June 2018
Modelling the selective removal of sodium ions from greenhouse irrigation water using membrane technology
Publication date: June 2018
Source:Chemical Engineering Research and Design, Volume 134 Author(s): Z. Qian, H. Miedema, L.C.P.M. de Smet, E.J.R. Sudh
June 2018
Robust state estimation of feeding–blending systems in continuous pharmaceutical manufacturing
Publication date: June 2018
Source:Chemical Engineering Research and Design, Volume 134 Author(s): Jianfeng Liu, Qinglin Su, Mariana Moreno, Carl Laird, Zoltan Nagy, Gintaras Reklaitis State estimation is a fundamental part of monitoring, control, and real-time optimization in continuous pharmaceutical manufacturing. For nonlinear dynamic systems with hard constraints, moving horizon estimation (MHE) can estimate the current state by solving a well-defined optimization problem where process complexities are explicitly considered as constraints. Traditional MHE techniques assume random measurement noise governed by some normal distributions. However, state estimates can be unreliable if noise is not normally distributed or measurements are contaminated with gross or systematic errors. To improve the accuracy and robustness of state estimation, we incorporate robust estimators within the standard MHE skeleton, leading to an extended MHE framework. The proposed MHE approach is implemented on two pharmaceutical continuous feeding–blending system (FBS) configurations which include loss-in-weight (LIW) feeders and continuous blenders. Numerical results show that our MHE approach is robust to gross errors and can provide reliable state estimates when measurements are contaminated with outliers and drifts. Moreover, the efficient solution of the MHE realized in this work, suggests feasible application of on-line state estimation on more complex continuous pharmaceutical processes.
June 2018
Optimization-based design of crude oil distillation units using surrogate column models and a support vector machine
Publication date: June 2018
Source:Chemical Engineering Research and Design, Volume 134 Author(s): Dauda Ibrahim, Megan Jobson, Jie Li, Gonzalo Guill
June 2018
Process design and techno-economical analysis of hydrogen production by aqueous phase reforming of sorbitol
Publication date: June 2018
Source:Chemical Engineering Research and Design, Volume 134 Author(s): Dmitry A. Sladkovskiy, Lidia I. Godina, Kirill V. Semikin, Elena V. Sladkovskaya, Daria A. Smirnova, Dmitry Yu. Murzin The present study was focused on detailed sorbitol aqueous phase reforming (APR) process design. Aspen HYSYS software was used to design a 500kg/h hydrogen production plant operation with sorbitol syrup as a feedstock. For reactor modelling a complex reaction network was taken into account along with phase equilibrium simulations which determined to have a significant impact on the total process heat due to possibility of water evaporation. The model was adjusted and verified using the experimental data with 1%Pt/Al2O3. The process optimization has included several conceptual improvements such as middle pressure steam co-generation and hot water recycle which can significantly decrease the operation costs. The total costs of hydrogen were estimated as 12.97\$/kg, where feedstock costs take the major contribution of 91.8%. The most feasible way of making APR economical attractive is production of polyols from the lignocellulosic biomass.

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June 2018
An outlook towards hydrogen supply chain networks in 2050 — Design of novel fuel infrastructures in Germany
Publication date: June 2018
Source:Chemical Engineering Research and Design, Volume 134 Author(s): Anton Ochoa Bique, Edwin Zondervan This work provides a comprehensive investigation of the feasibility of hydrogen as transportation fuel from a supply chain point of view. It introduces an approach for the identification the best hydrogen infrastructure pathways making decision of primary energy source, production, storage and distribution networks to aid the target of greenhouse gas emissions reduction in Germany. The minimization of the total hydrogen supply chain (HSC) network cost for Germany in 2030 and 2050 years is the objective of this study. The model presented in this paper is expanded to take into account water electrolysis technology driven by solar and wind energy. Two scenarios are evaluated, including a full range of technologies and “green” technologies using only renewable resources. The resulting model is a mixed integer linear program (MILP) that is solved with the Advanced Integrated Multidimensional Modeling System (AIMMS). The results show that renewable energy as a power source has the potential to replace common used fossil fuel in the near future even though currently coal gasification technology is the still the dominant technology.
June 2018
Optimization of steady-state and dynamic performances of water–gas shift reaction in membrane reactor
Publication date: June 2018
Source:Chemical Engineering Research and Design, Volume 134 Author(s): Shuey Z. Saw, Jobrun Nandong, Ujjal K. Ghosh Membrane rector technology has been increasingly recognized as a promising solution to produce high-purity hydrogen and to support future realization of hydrogen economy. Although some of the economic evaluations have shown that the inclusion of membrane reactor into an existing IGCC plant may be a viable option, it remains to be answered whether the added system can be easily controlled or not. This paper presents a feasibility study of four pre-defined membrane reactor flowsheets (including auxiliary units) based on nominal throughput 23,200t/day. The net present value (NPV) and v-gap metric are used as the economic and controllability performance criteria respectively. Considering uncertainties in future prices of hydrogen and electricity, the optimal NPV and v-gap metric are US\$ 0.471 billion and 0.253 respectively. This suggests that the optimized membrane reactor flowsheet is feasible on the economic and controllability grounds.
June 2018
Dynamic parameter estimation and identifiability analysis for heterogeneously-catalyzed reactions: Catalytic synthesis of nopol
Publication date: June 2018
Source:Chemical Engineering Research and Design, Volume 134 Author(s): Daniel Casas-Orozco, A
June 2018
Coupled model based on radiation transfer and reaction kinetics of gas–liquid–solid photocatalytic mini-fluidized bed
Publication date: June 2018
Source:Chemical Engineering Research and Design, Volume 134 Author(s): Xiaoyun Wang, Mingyan Liu, Zhongguo Yang Gas–liquid–solid mini-fluidized bed could be a potential high-efficient photocatalytic reactor in wastewater treatment. Such a photocatalytic reactor with bed diameter of 6mm was developed and photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue (MB) was investigated. Mass transfer coefficient of the three-phase mini-fluidized bed was 1.9 and 4.8 times greater than that of liquid–solid mini-fluidized bed and mini-bubble column, respectively. A coupled model based on radiation transfer and reaction kinetics was built. Polychromatic Xe lamp was discretized to obtain the absorbed photons during photocatalytic reaction. The non-uniform radiation field responsible for MB local volumetric degradation rate affected by the scattering and absorption of catalyst particles and micro-bubbles in mini-reactor was solved. Based on mechanism of photocatalytic degradation MB, the reaction kinetics obtained by steady-state hypothesis was coupled into the radiation transfer model. Dispersed mini-bubble flow was obtained by proper operation conditions corresponding to higher apparent quantum efficiency of 0.19%–0.44% also discussed.

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June 2018
An innovative bioprocess for methane conversion to methanol using an efficient methane transfer chamber coupled with an airlift bioreactor
Publication date: June 2018
Source:Chemical Engineering Research and Design, Volume 134 Author(s): Mohammad Ali Ghaz-Jahanian, Ali Baradar Khoshfetrat, Maliheh Hosseinian Rostami, Mohammad Haghighi Parapari Biosynthesis of methanol from methane as a direct method takes place at ambient temperature and pressure which causes a considerable reduction in process costs. In this study an efficient methane transfer chamber along with an external-loop airlift bioreactor were developed to dissolve methane and oxygen in the culture separately. Mass transfer coefficients for oxygen in the bioreactor and methane in the transfer chamber were obtained 97.2h
June 2018
Multilayer petal-like enzymatic-inorganic hybrid micro-spheres [CPO-(Cu/Co/Cd)3(PO4)2] with high bio-catalytic activity
Publication date: June 2018
Source:Chemical Engineering Research and Design, Volume 134 Author(s): Shengjie Wang, Yu Ding, Rui Chen, Mancheng Hu, Shuni Li, Quanguo Zhai, Yucheng Jiang CPO, a versatile enzyme, has limitations in industrial applications due to its poor stability and the difficulty of reuse. The preparation of stable immobilized enzymes with high catalytic activity is therefore desirable, but remains a challenge. A facile preparation of a series of enzyme-inorganic hybrid micro-spheres [chloroperoxidase (CPO)-(Cu/Co/Cd)3(PO4)2] and its application in the decolorization of crystal violet is reported in this work. All the hybrid micro-spheres show a multilayer petal-like structure. The formation of hybrid micro-spheres were proposed via four stages: crystallization, in-situ coordination, self-assembly and size growth. The process was entropy-driven, and there was a competition between precipitation of phosphate and coordination of M2+ with amide groups of CPO. The introduction of excess of chloride ions retarded the phosphate from precipitating by forming [MCl4]2
June 2018
Fast and green separation of malachite green in water samples by micro-dispersion scanometry method without heating, cooling and organic solvents at room temperature
Publication date: June 2018
Source:Chemical Engineering Research and Design, Volume 134 Author(s): Shahram Nekouei, Farzin Nekouei, Mohammad Ali Ferdosi Zadeh In the present work, novel, easy, rapid, green, and, economical technique, micro-dispersion scanometry (MDS) is presented for the first time and employed using suspended Ni(OH)2 nanopowder in the micellar medium for the determination of slight amounts of malachite green chloride. In the meanwhile, we introduced a new simple method for the synthesis of Ni(OH)2 nanopowder followed by characterization via various methods such as scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and, Brunauer, Emmett and Teller (BET). The process of scanning (detecting) was done on the cells including the sample solution via a usual flatbed-scanner. Then, for analyzing the color of the cells, a software system designed in Visual Basic (VB 6), to R (red), G (green), and B (blue) values was applied. To build the cells, some holes were created in the plexiglas sheet. The impact of experimental variables namely pH, weight of sorbent, volume of 4% Triton X-114, eluting solution, and sample volume have been investigated and optimized in multivariate method using design Expert 7.0 software for statistical data analysis. A contrast done between the proposed and traditional UV–vis spectrophotometry methods revealed the comparable tendency in both methods Calibration curves were linear in the range of 0.37–110 and 0.45–110
June 2018
Structure of shear-enhanced flow on membrane surface with horizontal vibration and its effect on filtration performance
Publication date: June 2018
Source:Chemical Engineering Research and Design, Volume 134 Author(s): Kazutaka Takata, Katsuyoshi Tanida Back-and-forth horizontal vibration of a membrane can produce a high shear rate in fluid near a membrane surface. The present study investigated the relationship between the flow structure near the membrane surface and the characteristics of separation performance. A numerical calculation was performed to analyze the flow field near the membrane surface. Results revealed that the velocity of fluid near the membrane surface lags that of the membrane. The delay depends on the magnitudes of the inertia and viscosity of the fluid. Additionally, the thickness of the velocity boundary layer on the membrane surface obtained from numerical calculation was found to be identical to that provided by the boundary layer theory of horizontal vibration. Furthermore, the permeate flux measured using emulsion solution was well correlated with the shear rate as a function of amplitude and frequency.
June 2018
Synergism between ionic liquid and ultrasound for greener extraction of geraniol: Optimization using different statistical tools, comparison and prediction
Publication date: June 2018
Source:Chemical Engineering Research and Design, Volume 134 Author(s): Miral R. Thakker, Jigisha K. Parikh, Meghal A. Desai A new-fangled concept of combining synthesized ionic liquid with ultrasound was executed for the isolation of geraniol, a generally recognized as safe (GRAS) terpene. Shortening the extraction time and lowering the solvent requirement along with maintaining the quality of the product were the frugal aspects of this technique. Solubilization study was performed using four different water soluble synthesized ionic liquids. N,N,N,N
June 2018
Effect of mixing conditions on the wet preparation of ceramic foams
Publication date: June 2018
Source:Chemical Engineering Research and Design, Volume 134 Author(s): A. Celani, S. Blackburn, M.J.H. Simmons, E.H. Stitt Ceramic foams are a promising alternative to conventional catalyst supports due to their macro-porosity, which should enhance mass transport properties during reactions. Whilst direct foaming is a straightforward production method, the use of kitchen mixers commonly reported in the literature to initially froth the ceramic slurry limits understanding of scale-up. This study reports a systematic experimental investigation of the impact of mixing parameters on the properties of the foams produced in an agitated baffled vessel of diameter, T=175mm, equipped with an up-pumping pitch blade turbine with diameter of either D=0.23T or 0.51T and a bottom round sparger with a diameter of 45mm. The flow conditions in the present study were in the low to mid transitional regime (50<Re<1000). Design of Experiments (DoE) was employed to generate a series of screening experiments by variation of sparging time, air flow rate, impeller speed and impeller diameter. The mixing behaviour was described as a function of relevant dimensionless groups (Re, Fr, Flg, etc.) whilst the gas–liquid flow regime was estimated by examination of a ceramic particles free system. The properties of the foams obtained were correlated with key dimensionless numbers, though the exponents obtained deviated from values in the published literature. In addition, the rheology of the foam was correlated to the bubble size distribution showing that rheology measurements have potential for at-line measurement to control the structure of the produced material.
June 2018
An analysis of the mini-tablet fluidized bed coating process
Publication date: June 2018
Source:Chemical Engineering Research and Design, Volume 134 Author(s): Rok
May 2018
Multi-stage granulation: An approach to enhance final granule attributes
Publication date: June 2018
Source:Chemical Engineering Research and Design, Volume 134 Author(s): Ali Z. Al hassn, Sonja Je
May 2018
Gas–liquid mixing in dual agitated vessels in the heterogeneous regime
Publication date: May 2018
Source:Chemical Engineering Research and Design, Volume 133 Author(s): Amna Jamshed, Michael Cooke, Zhen Ren, Thomas L. Rodgers Gas–liquid multi-phase processes are widely used for reactions such as oxidation and hydrogenation. There is a trend for such processes to increase the productivity of the reactions, one method of which is to increase the gas flow rate into the vessel. This means that it is important to understand how these reactors perform as high gas flow rates occurs well into the heterogeneous regime. This paper investigates the mixing performance for the dual axial radial agitated vessel of 0.61m in diameter. 6 blade disk turbine (Rushton turbine) below a 6 Mixed flow Up-pumping and down-pumping have been studied at very high superficial gas velocities to understand the flow regimes operating at industrial conditions. Electrical resistance tomography have been used to produce the 3D images using Matlab, along with analysing the mixing parameters such as Power characteristics, gas hold-up and dynamic gas disengagement. Minimal difference between the two configurations have been reported in terms of gas hold-up, however with the choice of upward and downward pumping impeller power characteristics show significant difference at very high gas flow rates. Also at these high superficial gas velocities, this report introduces a 3rd bubble class, as seen in dynamic gas disengagement experiments, which corresponds to very large slugs of gas.
May 2018
A support assisted by photocatalytic Fe3O4/ZnO nanocomposite for thin-film forward osmosis membrane
Publication date: May 2018
Source:Chemical Engineering Research and Design, Volume 133 Author(s): Rezvaneh Ramezani Darabi, Mohsen Jahanshahi, Majid Peyravi Novel thin-film nanocomposite (TFN) membranes were fabricated by incorporation of Magnetite/Zinc oxide (Fe3O4/ZnO) nanocomposite for the forward osmosis (FO) processes. Different concentrations of Fe3O4/ZnO nanocomposite (0.1, 0.2 and 0.3wt%) were added to the sublayer and also 0.02wt% of Fe3O4/ZnO nanocomposite was added to the active layer. The prepared TFN membranes were characterized with aspects to membranes surface and structure properties, separation properties and also FO membrane performance and subsequently compared with thin-film composite (TFC) membrane. The hydrophilicity of TFN membranes surface was improved with increasing Fe3O4/ZnO in the casting and aqueous solution due to the activation of Fe3O4/ZnO nanocomposite under UV light irradiation. Compared to the TFC membrane, the TFN FO membrane water flux was reported to increase remarkably from 16.5 to 29.3L/m2 h (10mM NaCl as feed water (FW)) and 14.5 to 27.2L/m2 h (Acarbose solution as FW) when 2M NaCl salt was utilized as draw solution (DS). The improvement in FO water flux was ascribed to the lower S parameter of modified PES sublayer and the decline of internal concentration polarization (ICP). Long-term experiments demonstrated that the modified FO membranes had lower flux reduction compared to control TFC FO membrane.

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May 2018
Performance of agitated-vessel U tube heat exchanger using spiky twisted tapes and water based metallic nanofluids
Publication date: May 2018
Source:Chemical Engineering Research and Design, Volume 133 Author(s): M. Khoshvaght-Aliabadi, S. Davoudi, M.H. Dibaei An experimental study is performed to investigate hydrothermal characteristics of agitated-vessel U tube heat exchanger. In order to augment the rate of heat transfer in the tube side, two passive enhancement techniques, namely spiky twisted tapes and water based metallic nanofluids, are used. Three twist ratios (
May 2018
Role of cerium in improving NO reduction with NH3 over Mn–Ce/ASC catalyst in low-temperature flue gas
Publication date: May 2018
Source:Chemical Engineering Research and Design, Volume 133 Author(s): Shan Ren, Jie Yang, Tianshi Zhang, Lijun Jiang, Hongming Long, Fuqiang Guo, Ming Kong Mn–Ce mixed oxide was loaded onto activated semi-coke (ASC) via impregnation method and the low temperature selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NO with NH3 was investigated. The NO conversion and NO oxidation rates were both influenced by the ratios of Ce/(Mn+Ce), and Mn–Ce(0.3)/ASC with loading 5% (mass ratio) Mn–Ce oxides performed the highest catalytic conversion rate of 96.6% and NO oxidation rate of 18.4% at 250°C and GHSV=6000h
May 2018
Footprint of droplets after impact onto paper surfaces with a hydrophobic barrier
Publication date: May 2018
Source:Chemical Engineering Research and Design, Volume 133 Author(s): J.O. Marston, M. Moradiafrapoli, C. Li, T. Lam, M.E. Razu, J. Kim This paper presents findings from a study of the impact of liquid droplets onto papers which have been treated to incorporate a hydrophobic barrier. Such papers are currently being explored as new paper-based microfluidic technology for chemical, biological and medical applications, where discrete volumes of liquid (i.e. droplets) are deposited on the paper. We experimentally capture the impingement stage with the aid of high-speed videography and analyze the spreading, retraction and final footprint of the droplets. Understanding the maximum spread and final footprint is important for paper-based devices because it can determine whether or not a droplet that impinges upon them will reach the hydrophilic wicking matrix. We conclude that the final contact area (footprint) could be tuned simply by varying the impact energy of the droplet and vapor deposition time. In contrast to untreated papers, droplets impinging on treated papers impregnate the porous structure but there is no subsequent wicking, i.e. the contact line always pins, which is explained by the interaction of the droplet with fibers of the paper.
May 2018
Simulated exergy and energy performance comparison of physical–chemical and chemical solvents in a sour gas treatment plant
Publication date: May 2018
Source:Chemical Engineering Research and Design, Volume 133 Author(s): Tahereh Nejat, Azam Movasati, David A. Wood, Hassan Ghanbarabadi A feasibility simulation study evaluates the utilization of the physical–chemical solvent Sulfolane plus Methyl di-ethanol amine (MDEA) plus H2O (Sulfinol-M), to replace the aqueous amine solvent (MDEA) currently used in the sour-gas treatment unit of the large-scale Khangiran gas processing plant (Iran). Physical–chemical solvents, such as Sulfinol-M, have the advantages over chemical solvents in that: (1) their absorption of pollutants is not limited by their stoichiometry; (2) they can be easily regenerated by reduction of pressure alone; and, (3) they demonstrate a strong capability to remove sulphur compounds. The simulation and exergy analysis of this gas treatment plant compare the performance of the currently used MDEA solvent with the Sulfinol-M solvent in various concentrations. The influences of different parameters, including inlet solvent temperature, composition and flow rate of solvents on the removal of H2S and CO2, together with associated exergy and energy losses are evaluated for the MDEA solvent and a range of concentrations of the Sulfinol-M solvent. The simulated exergy analysis demonstrates suitable absorption of acid gases by the Sulfinol-M solvent for less energy and cost than the MDEA solvent.
May 2018
Experimental and numerical investigation on the blade angle of axial-flow swirling generator and drainage structure for supersonic separators with diversion cone
Publication date: May 2018
Source:Chemical Engineering Research and Design, Volume 133 Author(s): Yingguang Wang, Dapeng Hu The effect of axial-flow swirling generator and drainage structure with diversion cone on separation performance is very important to supersonic separators. But there is in the absence of experimental studies on separation characteristics of above-mentioned structure. In this paper, both experimental and numerical methods are utilized to investigate the influences of swirling generator and drainage structure. Good agreements are achieved between experimental data and high-order numerical simulation. The results demonstrate that the rotation strength decreases as the outlet angle of the swirler increases. The rotational flow causes the inconsistency of the radial distribution of the fluid in the nozzle and the inconsistency is more noticeable with the increase of rotation intensity. So the blade angle of swirling generator should be determined to find the balance between the expansion characteristic and swirling flow. Comparing two types of drainage structures, the internal extension structure has seriously damaged the supersonic flow in the nozzle, while the flush type drainage port has less influence on fluid. And the smaller outlet angle of drainage port can reduce the effect of drainage port on supersonic flow. When the pressure ratio is 1.4 for the flush type drainage structure, the optimal structural parameter is that the outlet angle of swirler is 55° and the inclination of the drainage structure is 22°. Under the optimum conditions, the ethanol removal rate is 57.06%.

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May 2018
Preparation and characterization of MWCNT-TEPA/polyurethane nanocomposite membranes for CO2/CH4 separation: Experimental and modeling
Publication date: May 2018
Source:Chemical Engineering Research and Design, Volume 133 Author(s): Keivan Mohammad Gheimasi, Omid Bakhtiari, Mojtaba Ahmadi In the current study, multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were functionalized with Tetraethylene Pentamine (TEPA) and added into polyurethane (PU) polymer matrix to prepare PU-MWCNT-TEPA nanocomposite membranes. The prepared membranes were characterized using FT-IR, XRD and SEM analysis. The analysis results showed that MWCNTs were properly functionalized with TEPA and also uniformly dispersed in polymer matrix. The CO2 permeability increased by 99.8% at 10wt.% loading of MWCNTs-TEPA. The nanocomposite membrane’s CO2/CH4 selectivity was also increased by 9.6%. Impacts of operating pressure and temperature on the membranes’ CO2 permeability and CO2/CH4 ideal selectivity were also investigated. Finally, the gaseous penetrants permeabilities through the nanocomposite membranes were predicted using the Maxwell, the KJN, and the modified KJN models by AAREs of 31.4–35.2, 27.8–31.6, and 4.4–5.7%, respectively.

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May 2018
Simultaneous synthesis of a multiple-effect evaporation system with background process
Publication date: May 2018
Source:Chemical Engineering Research and Design, Volume 133 Author(s): Yinghua Jiang, Lixia Kang, Yongzhong Liu Multiple-effect evaporation (MEE) is one of the energy-intensive processes. To reduce the energy consumption of this process, it is effective to integrate the MEE with its background process as a whole system. In this paper, a stage-wise superstructure model is proposed, which takes all possibilities in integration of the MEE coupled with its background process into consideration. The corresponding mathematical programming model, featuring a mixed-integer nonlinear programming formulation is then presented to minimize the total energy consumption (TEC) and the total annual cost (TAC) of the system. The optimal topology and operating parameters of the whole system are determined simultaneously by solving the proposed model. The application and effectiveness of the proposed model are illustrated through a case study of a concentrating sugar juice production process. The results obtained by the proposed method agree well with those obtained by the analytical methodology in literature when the energy demand is targeted. To further clarify the advantages of the proposed method, the coupled system with the lowest TAC is also analyzed and discussed, in which the stream matches and operating parameters are determined accordingly.

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May 2018
Optimisation of stirred vessel geometry for the drawdown and incorporation of floating solids to prepare concentrated slurries
Publication date: May 2018
Source:Chemical Engineering Research and Design, Volume 133 Author(s): Thomas Wood, Mark J.H. Simmons, E. Hugh Stitt This paper reports on a Design of Experiments (DoE) approach to optimise the geometric configuration for effective drawdown and incorporation of floating solids to prepare high solid content slurries. The impeller speed and power draw required to ensure all dry powder is incorporated within four seconds of addition to the vessel free surface, NJI and PJI, were used as metrics to determine incorporation performance. Mixed flow pitched blade turbines at D/T=0.5 were used. The main parameters considered were the impeller pumping direction (up versus down), impeller submergence, eccentricity, and angle of tilt. DoE was used to examine both the independent effects of the main parameters and their interactions. Pumping mode was found to be the most significant parameter, with down-pumping impellers generally providing the best drawdown and incorporation performance. This is related to the strong interaction between pumping mode and all other parameters, where adding tilt or eccentricity reduced drawdown performance for up-pumping impellers, yet caused improvement in the case of down-pumping impellers. The optimal geometry from the DoE was found using a down-pumping PBT, 10° tilt, 10% of the vessel diameter eccentricity and placed at an initial submergence of half the liquid height. This geometry is shown to reduce the time required to prepare a 50wt% slurry by two thirds compared to a generic Rushton turbine design, emphasising the benefits of rational impeller and vessel design.
May 2018
Modelling of transport mechanisms and drying shrinkage for multilayer ceramic membrane structure
Publication date: May 2018
Source:Chemical Engineering Research and Design, Volume 133 Author(s): Zawati Harun, Tze Ching Ong, Takeshi Matsuura, Siti Khadijah Hubadillah, Mohd Hafiz Dzarfan Othman, Ahmad Fauzi Ismail In ceramic membrane preparation, the understanding of drying phenomena is very important to ensure no defects and failures that may present in the membrane layers. The combination of hygroscopic and non-hygroscopic multilayer systems that possess different properties is always associated with the failure of the consolidated structure of ceramics during the drying and sintering process. Hence, a two-dimensional mathematical model that coupled mass, heat, and gas transfer was employed to describe the drying process as a whole multilayer ceramic membranes structure. The finite element method was used to solve the model and computation was carried out using a Skyline solver to capture the highly nonlinear and transient process. This study emphasises on the evolution of transport variables during the drying that can be correlated to shrinkage mechanism. The side surface heating boundary was performed with a conclusion that hygroscopic materials have low drying rate due to the material characteristic which inherent higher water retention in a solid matrix. This characteristic also causes higher pore water pressure and gas pressure. The drying of hygroscopic layer has resulted in higher moisture gap which in turn increased the possibilities of cracking. The results obtained from this study enable the optimisation with respect to drying time and material selection thus significantly contributes to the energy saving as well as reducing the environmental effect via less waste energy loss.

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May 2018
CO2 gas–liquid mass transfer and kLa estimation: Numerical investigation in the context of airlift photobioreactor scale-up
Publication date: May 2018
Source:Chemical Engineering Research and Design, Volume 133 Author(s): Mbalo Ndiaye, Emilie Gadoin, Caroline Gentric This paper deals with gas–liquid mass transfer in an airlift via CFD simulations in the context of photobioreactor (PBR) scale-up. Two aspects are emphasized. Firstly, since carbon uptake by microalgae is of crucial importance as part of PBRs, CO2 transfer is in focus, and numerical simulations are developed to take into account CO2 gas–liquid transfer and dissociation in the aqueous phase. Secondly, since estimating k L a is of crucial importance when scaling-up PBRs, different ways to evaluate k L a are discussed using numerical experiments. Firstly, k L a may be estimated as the volume average value of the local mass transfer coefficients calculated from steady-state hydrodynamics and Higbie penetration model. Secondly, k L a can be deduced from classical dynamic gassing-out/gassing-in experiments. This second method is simulated for O2, as commonly performed experimentally, and also with CO2 since it is the transferred species in PBRs. Results show that k L a field is strongly heterogeneous, as expected in airlifts where gas is mainly present in the riser. Performed with O2, the gassing-in method leads to quite accurate estimation of the spatial average value of local k L a. But, gassing-in methods performed with O2 and CO2 lead to discordant results. In fact, CFD shows that the CO2 depletion in the gas phase has to be accounted for to predict k L a from CO2 gassing-in method, especially at large scale. This study also puts into evidence the potentialities of CFD which allows to get detailed image of local gas–liquid mass transfer, depending on two-phase hydrodynamics, gas phase distribution and transferred species solubility.
May 2018
Modified approach of total site integration for energy conservation: A case study of sponge iron cluster
Publication date: May 2018
Source:Chemical Engineering Research and Design, Volume 133 Author(s): Venkata Ramanaiah, Shabina Khanam In the present work, a modified approach to conserve energy in total site of plants of similar type is developed where conventional methods are not applicable. The approach includes iterative method, if utility and process streams are same, as well as non-iterative method, if these are different. Further, if coal is treated as utility and process streams, a revised model to compute its consumption is also proposed. To illustrate the new approach a cluster of three sponge iron plants are considered where two different strategies are proposed. Results show that reduction in coal consumption, predicted for Strategy-1, is higher than that of Strategy-2. Strategy-1 recovers 99.8% of waste heat available in the modified total site. Thus, through Strategy-1 total amount of energy wasted in the cluster is reduced from 43% to 7.6%. Along with this, Strategy-1 reduces waste gas emissions significantly while making sponge iron cluster more environment friendly. Moreover, 97.9% reduction of water in total site is also observed using Strategy-1, which is an added advantage. Results are compared well with that of the published literature. Further, this approach can be applicable effectively in the site of similar plants irrespective of the operating condition.

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May 2018
Laminar convection heat transfer and flow performance of Al2O3–water nanofluids in a multichannel-flat aluminum tube
Publication date: May 2018
Source:Chemical Engineering Research and Design, Volume 133 Author(s): Wenwen Guo, Guoneng Li, Youqu Zheng, Cong Dong The heat transfer experiments of Al2O3–water nanofluids were carried out at fixed Reynold number and velocity in a multichannel-flat aluminum tube. The studies we have performed revealed that the convection heat transfer coefficient increased about 5.9% at 0.5vol.% Al2O3 concentration at Re=1732. While at a constant velocity, higher addition of nanoparticles had no evident influence on the heat transfer performance. Compared with theoretical correlations, the data obtained were accorded with Shah equation (deviation <10%) except for those in the entrance. Then a comparative study of Al2O3–water nanofluids and the base fluid was made on the local heat transfer coefficient. The results indicated a higher heat transfer augmentation (11.1%) in the entrance region for 0.5vol.% Al2O3-DW nanofluid, which seems to have a bearing on the thermal conductivity enhancement and the thermal boundary layer thickness reduction. The friction factor and the pressure drop were also studied and the results revealed that the pressure drop slightly increased with the volume concentration of nanoparticles. For 0.5vol.% Al2O3-DW, the average pressure drop increased about 4.4%.

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May 2018
Integrating crystallization with experimental model parameter determination and modeling into conceptual process design for the purification of complex feed mixtures
Publication date: May 2018
Source:Chemical Engineering Research and Design, Volume 133 Author(s): Martin Lucke, Iraj Koudous, Maximilian Sixt, Maximilian J. Huter, Jochen Strube In this study, crystallization process simulation combined with experimental model parameter determination at lab-scale is investigated in order to allow the integration of crystallization unit operation into conceptual process design for the purification of complex mixtures and possibly assist in formulation. A one-dimensional population balance model is combined with experiments, which are selected and carried out as a typical example for an industrial fermentation broth (e.g. vanillin), focusing on determination of solubility and growth kinetics as well as kinetics of agglomeration and breakage. Model parameter determination and model validation show that the named effects are adequately described by the model. Hence, model-based process design of purification by crystallization and particle formation enabling integration into formulation considering relevant effects regarding a complex feed mixture becomes possible within a conceptual process design. Further applications are under consideration.
May 2018
Life cycle assessment of a biomass CHP plant in UK: The Heathrow energy centre case
Publication date: May 2018
Source:Chemical Engineering Research and Design, Volume 133 Author(s): C. Tagliaferri, S. Evangelisti, R. Clift, P. Lettieri Bioenergy has an important role to play in helping the UK meet its carbon target in 2050 and the European Renewable Energy Directive objectives for 2030. There are however uncertainties associated with the use of bioenergy, and whether or how much it contributes to green-house gas emission reductions. In order to help identifying environmental benefits and burdens associated with biomass use for energy production, an attributional life cycle assessment has been carried out of a biomass-fired CHP plant: the Heathrow Airport energy centre. This facility burns woodchips sourced from nearby forests providing 2 MWe of electricity and 8 MWth of thermal energy which delivers heat and cooling to Heathrow Terminal 2 and low temperature hot water to Terminal 5. A hot spot analysis is conducted to identify the process steps with the largest environmental impact, starting from the harvesting of the forest residue to the disposal of the boiler ash. A scenario analysis is performed to compare the impacts of the biomass plant against fossil alternatives and to identify which renewable energy sources, between biomass and MSW, should be prioritised for development and investment. The results show a reduction in GHG emissions from using biomass, with further benefits if the bottom ash is collected and re-used as a soil conditioner for land-farming or forestry. The paper also discusses the treatment of biogenic carbon in the assessment.
May 2018
Optimization of extraction conditions using central composite design for the removal of Co(II) from chloride solution by supported liquid membrane
Publication date: May 2018
Source:Chemical Engineering Research and Design, Volume 133 Author(s): Faegheh Vafaei, Rezvan Torkaman, Mohammad Ali Moosavian, Parisa Zaheri The extraction conditions for the removal of cobalt(II) from chloride aqueous solution were studied by using supported liquid membrane. The effects of four factors such as the acidity of feed solution (pH), Cyanex301 concentration, cobalt ion concentration in the feed phase as well as sulfuric acid concentration in the stripping phase were investigated by using central composite design which is a subcategory of response surface methodology. The optimum conditions obtained for pH, Cyanex301 concentration, initial cobalt concentration in feed solution, and sulfuric acid concentration were 6, 1mol/L, 98.86mg/L and 1.26mol/L, respectively. The percentage of cobalt extraction equal to 48.21% obtained from the predicted model was in agreement with the experimental data (45.84%), after 3.5h in the experimental conditions. In addition, the other factors such as the types of solvent as a diluent, stripping solution, and the types of extractants and mixtures were studied at the optimum point. The results showed that the percentage of cobalt extraction achieved was 46.85% within 3.5h, in the extraction conditions (Cyanex301 as an extractant, kerosene or chloroform as a diluent and the mixture of sulfuric acid and nitric acid as the stripping phase).

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May 2018
Simulation and optimisation of spiral-wound reverse osmosis process for the removal of N-nitrosamine from wastewater
Publication date: May 2018
Source:Chemical Engineering Research and Design, Volume 133 Author(s): M.A. Al-Obaidi, C. Kara-Za
May 2018
A comprehensive study on equilibrium and kinetics of morpholine extraction from aqueous stream with CA in toluene: Experimental evaluation, extraction model and parametric optimization employing desirability function
Publication date: May 2018
Source:Chemical Engineering Research and Design, Volume 133 Author(s): Alka Kumari, B. Karuna, B. Satyavathi The present study explores the equilibrium and kinetics for the reactive extraction of morpholine, an important industrial reagent from its aqueous stream using capric acid, CA (extractant) in toluene (diluent). An equilibrium model that employs the mass action law was also developed to evaluate the optimum apparent equilibrium constants (K E ), stoichiometric ratio (m) and physical constant (S). Equilibrium model was valid in representing the mechanism of morpholine extraction. Moreover, for the first time the study availed the simultaneous optimization of two significant response characteristics; extraction efficiency $( % E )$ and loading ratio $( Z )$ using Box–Behnken design (33) employing multivariate desirability function. The statistical models predicted %E of 80.2 and Z of 0.64 for the optimum combination of process parameters as follows: CMO =5%, CCAO =5% and T=303.15K with the desirability of 0.947. Further, the intrinsic kinetics of the extraction model demonstrated that the reactions between morpholine and CA fall in regime 3 (fast chemical reaction in diffusion film), follows first order kinetics with respect to morpholine and displays exothermicity of the process as revealed from thermodynamic studies. The equilibrium and kinetic data is useful for the development, design and reliable scale-up of the extraction process.

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May 2018
Fate and distribution of phosphorus in laboratory-scale membrane bioreactors
Publication date: May 2018
Source:Chemical Engineering Research and Design, Volume 133 Author(s): Yanpeng Mao, Chao Xue, Qinyan Yue, Wenlong Wang, Zhanlong Song, Xiqiang Zhao, Chunyuan Ma In this study, the removal efficiencies of phosphorus from synthetic wastewater using laboratory-scale membrane bioreactors (MBRs) with the addition of different iron salts were investigated. The distributions of phosphorus in the effluent, suspension, and sludge of the MBR systems after the addition of iron salts were analyzed. The removal efficiency of phosphorus in actual domestic sewage via the combination of MBR and Fe(II) was also investigated. The results indicated that after the MBR system effluent stabilized, the added Fe(II) was more efficient than Fe(III) was in removing phosphorus. Among the suspensions present in different zones of the MBR systems, the phosphorus concentrations varied significantly. Namely, the concentration of phosphorus in the first anoxic zone was the highest, for which the concentration of phosphorus in the MBR with added Fe(II) was higher than that in the MBR with added Fe(III). In addition, the percentage of the dissociable phosphorus in the sludge was relatively low. For the treatment of actual domestic sewage using the combination of MBR and Fe(II), a specific concentration of Fe(II) resulted in greater than 99% phosphorus removal efficiency as well as a stable effluent concentration. Furthermore, microbes present in the sludge exhibited better tolerance to Fe(II).

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May 2018
Impregnation of multiwall carbon nanotubes in alginate beads dramatically enhances their adsorptive ability to aqueous methylene blue
Publication date: May 2018
Source:Chemical Engineering Research and Design, Volume 133 Author(s): Bing Wang, Bin Gao, Andrew R. Zimmerman, Xinqing Lee In this work, novel environmentally benign nanocomposites, carboxyl functionalized multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT-COOH) impregnated into calcium-alginate (CA) beads (CA-MWCNT-COOH), were tested for their abilities to remove a common dye contaminant, methylene blue (MB), from aqueous solution. Kinetic studies showed that the adsorption process of CA-MWCNT-COOH had similar speed to that of CA beads but was slower than that of undispersed MWCNT-COOH. With a Langmuir maximum MB adsorption capacity of 1189mgg
May 2018
Rigorous thermodynamic evaluation of the extractive distillation process
Publication date: May 2018
Source:Chemical Engineering Research and Design, Volume 133 Author(s): Rivana Mabel Lucena Oliveira Souto, Gilvan Wanderley Farias Neto, Fabricia Sales de Ara
May 2018
Synthesis, characterization, and application of trihexyl(tetradecyl)phosphonium chloride as promising solvent for extractive desulfurization of liquid fuel
Publication date: May 2018
Source:Chemical Engineering Research and Design, Volume 133 Author(s): Swapnil Dharaskar, Mika Sillanpaa Nowadays there are serious regulations to eliminate sulfur from fuels because the SOx created through the combustion of fuel containing sulfur compounds which causes air pollution and have hazardous environmental influence. In present paper experimental data on extractive desulfurization (EDS) of dibenzothiophene (DBT), thiophene, benzothiophene, and other sulfur derivatives from liquid fuel using trihexyl(tetradecyl)phosphonium chloride [THTDP]Cl has been presented. The FTIR, NMR and TG/DSC spectra have been discussed for the molecular confirmation and thermal stability of [THTDP]Cl. Further, conductivity, solubility, and viscosity analysis were carried out. The effects of reaction time, temperature, sulfur compounds, ultra-sonication, recycling and regeneration on DBT removal from fuel were also investigated. In EDS, the DBT removal in n-dodecane was 81.5% for mass ratio of 1:1 in 30min at 30°C under the mild reaction conditions. Also, real fuels desulfurization and multistage extraction was examined. The results of the present work positively offer valuable information on synthesis, and application of phosphonium ionic liquids as promising solvents for EDS.

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May 2018
Modelling of auto-agglomeration of cohesive powders
Publication date: May 2018
Source:Chemical Engineering Research and Design, Volume 133 Author(s): Vincenzino Vivacqua, Mojtaba Ghadiri Fine particles in the micron size range or smaller are usually so cohesive that they cannot exist as individual entities and are in cluster form, the size of which depends on the stress history. During handling, transportation or storage, the powder is subjected to mechanical vibration and/or agitation and, as a result of which clumping of particles or “snowballing” can occur even without the presence of any binder. This is an undesirable feature, as it is responsible for poor flow behaviour, cohesive arching, segregation of lumps and inducing flaws in products. Nevertheless, the mechanism of auto-agglomeration of cohesive powder has not received due attention and the conditions under which such clusters/lumps form, their size, structure and strength has not been analysed extensively. In this work we present a preliminary model to predict the equilibrium cluster size based on two separate energy balances to predict the granule solid fraction and equilibrium size, respectively. Despite some broad approximations, this approach can capture the trend of variation of the agglomerate size with the vibration intensity for some data reported in the literature. The proposed model also identifies the mechanism controlling the growth of the agglomerates as the balance between the cohesive energy of the particles and the disruptive energy of vibration.
May 2018
Series versus parallel reboilers in distillation columns
Publication date: May 2018
Source:Chemical Engineering Research and Design, Volume 133 Author(s): William L. Luyben Multiple reboilers are used in distillation columns for several reasons such as implementing heat integration, intermediate reboilers, auxiliary reboilers and vapor recompression. If there is a single source of hot vapor to be used in multiple heat exchangers, the flowsheet can use either a series or a parallel arrangement, depending on the temperature levels of the heat sinks. The purpose of this paper is to point out that the series arrangement can present difficult control problems because of interaction between the units. In the parallel configuration, the heat transferred to each sink can be easily divorced from the others. In the series configuration, more complex methods must be used such as bypassing and flooding to adjust heat transfer in individual units. The controllability of the parallel configuration is demonstrated for a lower-partitioned divided-wall reactive distillation column with vapor recompression.
May 2018
Improved design and optimization for separating tetrahydrofuran–water azeotrope through extractive distillation with and without heat integration by varying pressure
Publication date: May 2018
Source:Chemical Engineering Research and Design, Volume 133 Author(s): Jinglian Gu, Xinqiang You, Changyuan Tao, Jun Li, Weifeng Shen, Jie Li From the view of thermodynamic insight, a new concept (ROE: FE,Pope/FE,Pref), the ratio of the entrainer flow rate (FE) needed for reaching given relative volatility at operating pressure (Pope) to reference pressure (Pref), is firstly proposed to quantitatively determine the search space of operating pressure of the extractive column in a homogeneous extractive distillation (ED) process for the separation of binary minimum azeotrope with heavy entrainer. This novel concept is illustrated by the extractive distillation of tetrahydrofuran–water minimum boiling point mixture with an entrainer dimethyl sulfoxide. Six process designs under different pressures are obtained by a two-step optimization procedure and compared from the economic view based on total annual cost (TAC). Furthermore, three double-effect heat integration (DEHI) processes, are employed under atmospheric and a reduced pressure for the first time to further improve the energy efficiency and investigate the effect of pressures on the studied ED process. The final results of case study demonstrate the optimal heat integration approach with a suitable low pressure is the most economic one among the three DEHI processes. The TAC of the best proposed design exhibits a 20.3% reduction than that at atmosphere pressure. The proposed pressure selection rule and optimization process are helpful for reducing the TAC of the ED process.

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May 2018
The Maxwell–Stefan description of mixture permeation across nanoporous graphene membranes
Publication date: May 2018
Source:Chemical Engineering Research and Design, Volume 133 Author(s): Rajamani Krishna There is increasing research interest on the use of two-dimensional (2D) nanoporous materials, such as graphenes and graphene oxides, in a variety of membrane separation applications. The membrane permeation selectivitites are governed by a variety of factors that include surface diffusion as an important constituent. The primary objective of this article is to present a Maxwell–Stefan (M–S) formulation for surface diffusion of binary (1, 2) mixtures on 2D nanoporous graphene surfaces. In the developed formulation, adsorbate–adsorbate interactions, either attractive or repulsive, are described by the quasi-chemical (QC) mean field approximation of Guggenheim. Such interactions have a direct influence on the occupancy dependencies of the M–S diffusivities,
May 2018
Experimental study on the solid suspension characteristics of coaxial mixers
Publication date: May 2018
Source:Chemical Engineering Research and Design, Volume 133 Author(s): Baoqing Liu, Zilong Xu, Fangyi Fan, Bolin Huang Coaxial mixers as novel mixers have the characteristics of high flexibility and wide adjustability. Three kinds of coaxial mixers consisting of an outer anchor and different inner impellers (six 45° pitched-blade turbine, propeller and Rushton turbine) and single-impeller mixers were investigated and compared in viscous systems. Effects of rotation and pumping modes, outer impeller speed, inner impeller diameter, liquid viscosity, solid volume fraction and particle diameter on the just-suspension impeller speed and power consumption were also studied. Results showed that the coaxial mixers were more energy efficient than the single-impeller mixers, and had greater advantage in systems of higher viscosity and solid volume fraction. Different from single-impeller mixers, adopting up-pumping mode was more energy efficient for coaxial mixers when the anchor speed was relatively high. In addition, the coaxial mixers with the inner up-pumping propeller and six 45° pitched-blade turbine had obvious superiority compared with the combination of anchor and Rushton turbine in terms of power consumption. Based on the experimental data, a new correlation for predicting just-suspension impeller speed of coaxial mixers was proposed.

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May 2018
Gas–solid fluidization of cohesive powders
Publication date: May 2018
Source:Chemical Engineering Research and Design, Volume 133 Author(s): Federica Raganati, Riccardo Chirone, Paola Ammendola Fine and ultrafine powders (down to nanoparticles) have recently received growing interest in both industrial and academic sectors due to their very distinctive features, mainly coming from their very small primary particle size and very large surface-to-volume ratio. Indeed, due to these characteristics, they can provide better contact efficiency and higher reaction rates per unit volume of reactor than traditional materials in the case of gas/solid and solid/solid reactions. They have been used to produce a large variety of materials, such as catalysts, sorbents, cosmetics, etc. Therefore, the interest in using this type of granular materials in a variety of industrial processes raises many questions about how they can be handled. Therefore, the interest in using this type of granular materials in a variety of industrial processes raises many questions on how they can be handled and processed (e.g. mixing, transporting and modifying the surface properties) in large-scale applications. With reference to this point, among all the available techniques for continuously handling and dispersing granular solids, gas fluidization is one of the most efficient, mainly due to the large gas–solid contact area. The aim of this work is to provide a critical review of experimental/theoretical research and latest progress in the science and technology of gas fluidization of fine/ultrafine particles, thus deeply covering the current international state-of-the-art. In particular, the challenges linked to the extensive use of these powders have been discussed, highlighting and explaining the fundamental aspects needed to comprehend the complexity of the process and provide possible answers/solutions.

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Twin screw granulation: An evaluation of using micronized lactose as a solid binder
Publication date: May 2018
Source:Chemical Engineering Research and Design, Volume 133 Author(s): Qing Ai, Michael J. Hounslow, Agba D. Salman In twin screw wet granulation process, the binding excipients could be added in two ways: premixed with powder materials before granulation or dissolved in water as a solution. In this paper, the feasibility of using micronized lactose as a solid binder excipient in twin screw granulation process was examined. Different proportions of micronized lactose were mixed with lactose and microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) powder before granulation, respectively. As a comparison, hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC) was prepared in solid and liquid phase (i.e. premixed with powder and dissolved as solution respectively). Granulation was carried out to investigate the binding potential by studying the effect of micronized lactose and HPC on the granules properties such as size, shape and surface structure. Due to its small size, micronized lactose was proven to be an ideal alternative as a solid binding excipient to provide strong bonds and produce granules with improved granule size distributions. Furthermore, the binding capacity of micronized lactose was also examined on the compact powder bed where the contact angle, nucleus hardness and surface structure were studied.
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